Memon people

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Memon People
Total population
2,800,000[1]
Regions with significant populations
India1400,000 (including 200,000 in Mumbai and suburbs)[1]
Pakistan1100,000[1]
Elsewhere300,000[1]
Languages
Memoni language [2]

Memon caste was originated in North Western part of ancient India, currently located in Sindh region of modern day Pakistan. The majority of Memon people around the world follow the Hanafi School of thought (Sunni Hanifa sect). [3] Memon people have cultural similarities with Khoja, Khatri (Vohra), and Gujarati people. Memon people speak the Memoni language as their first language. Sometimes Memon language is also known as a different dialect of the Sindhi language.[2] Memon language share similar or same vocabulary from the Sindhi language, Kutchi language and Gujarati language. Memon people are united and connected through the Jamaat khana; which is responsible for social and monetary benefits of the Memon people in specific country or town. In modern times, Memon people are connected through globally recognized organisations known as the World Memon Organisation (WMO)[4] and International Memon orgnisation (IMO)[5]

History[edit]

Sindhi, Gujarati origins[edit]

Memon lineage traces back to Lohanas of Multan and Sindh. The origin of the name comes from Mu'min (مؤمن, “believer” in Arabic) and later evolved to present name Memon.[3] The Memon community was founded in the 15th century by 700 families comprising 6,178 persons total.[4] According to Anthovan, those Lohanas of Thatta who converted to Islam became Memons and were invited by Rao Khengarji Jadeja, ruler of Bhuj in the 16th century, to settle in Bhuj. It is from there that Kutchi Memons migrated to Kathiawar and mainland Gujarat. Surat in Gujarat was an important trading centre from 1580 to 1680 and Memons made their bounty there.[5] Memons became significantly affluent as a result of trading in Surat.[6]

Merchant tradesman[edit]

Memon men, from Photographs of Western India Series 1855-1862

Due to the mercantile nature of the community, Memons began a significant migration beyond the borders of India in the 18th and 19th centuries. This led to communities developing in the Middle East, South Africa, Sri Lanka and East Asia.[6][7] Memon traders set up a network of joint stock companies acting in coordination with other members in an area ranging from Central Africa to China.[3][8][9] Memon donors made significant financial contributions to construct mosques during this time, including Juma Masjid Mosque[6] and Jamia Mosque.[10] By late 19th century several thousand Memons had settled in Mumbai due to trading. Memon representative leaders traded with British capitalists to develop their Indian monopolies.[3] The area of Mumbai in which the Memon traders congregated later became known as the Memonwada.[11]

20th century[edit]

The early 20th century saw a consolidation of the Memon community in South Asia as well as South Africa. They began to organise important societies including Memon Education and Welfare Society and Memon Chamber of Commerce.[3] Memon community made significant financial contributions to preserve the Ottoman Empire but were unable to prevent its decline.[12][13] The partition of Pakistan and India led to significant migration in both directions for the community. During middle of the twentieth century a handful of Memon financial dynasties were born. However, the dynastic wealth of the Memon families stagnated during the late twentieth century due to the partition of Pakistan as well as political turmoil of the country.[14]

Branches[edit]

Subgroups of Memons from Kathiawar[edit]

Languages[edit]

Social structure[edit]

Cultural traditions[edit]

Memon women, from Photographs of Western India Series 1855–1862

While Memons are generally Sunni Muslims, many continue to follow Modern Hindu law in matters regarding property inheritance, community leadership structure and mutual support for members. Memon see themselves to be from the Buddhist Kshatriya lineage. Even within Memons, there are caste hierarchies that some follow regarding marriage practices.[3][15][need quotation to verify]

According to folklore, the blessings of the Islamic saint Sayad Kadiri upon the Memons are responsible for their success in business and trade.[6] A more pragmatic explanation for their success is that Memon have been historically considered honest brokers. Following commercial caste model, Memons also offer support community members in financial matters by giving loans and offering business assistance.[3] The community annually celebrates 11 April as "Memons Day" through acts of humanitarian service.[16]

Memons worldwide[edit]

Kutchi Memon Masjid

Today, Memon communities are scattered throughout the world including South Africa, Kenya, Sri Lanka,[17] the United Kingdom, the United States and Canada.[18] However, major concentrations of Memon people remain located in Karachi, Pakistan and Gujarat, India. In Karachi there is a community of Memon people from Bantva and their descendants known as Bantva Memons and are united under the banner of Halari Memon General Jama'at, the Halari Memon are another category and followers of the Hanafi school.[19] Further, Memon people in Sri Lanka are largely from the village named "Kutiyana" in Gujarat, India. Few thousand Memon people are resided in Sri Lanka since early 1930s; they are represented by the Memon association of Sri Lanka.[20] Memons were also one of three classes living in South Africa when Mahatma Gandhi went there in 1893, Memons were basically traders serving the Indian diaspora in South Africa. Memons are known for their involvement in business and philanthropy, with Memons having played a major part in the building of Pakistani industry.[3][21]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Memon association to congregate today". Times of India.
  2. ^ a b Fazal, Tanweer (2013-10-18). Minority Nationalisms in South Asia. Routledge. ISBN 9781317966463.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Levin, Sergey (1974). "The Upper Bourgeoisie from the Muslim Commercial Community of Memons in Pakistan, 1947 to 1971". Asian Survey. 14 (3): 231–243. doi:10.1525/as.1974.14.3.01p04292. ISSN 0004-4687. JSTOR 2643012.
  4. ^ "World Memon Organisation | Serving Mankind". wmoworld.com. Retrieved 2019-10-09.
  5. ^ "IMO - International Memon Organization". www.internationalmemon.org. Retrieved 2019-10-09.
  6. ^ a b c Goolam, Vahed (2006). "'Unhappily Torn by Dissensions and Litigations': Durban's 'Memon' Mosque, 1880-1930". Journal of Religion in Africa. 36: 23–49.
  7. ^ Moore, Mick (1997). "The Identity of Capitalists and the Legitimacy of Capitalism: Sri Lanka since Independence". Development and Change. 28 (2): 331–366. doi:10.1111/1467-7660.00045. ISSN 0012-155X.
  8. ^ Papanek, Hanna (1972). "Pakistan's Big Businessmen: Muslim Separatism, Entrepreneurship, and Partial Modernization". Economic Development and Cultural Change. 21 (1): 11.
  9. ^ Eisenlohr, Patrick (1972). "The Politics of Diaspora and the Morality of Secularism: Muslim Identities and Islamic Authority in Mauritius". Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute. 12 (2): 400.
  10. ^ WAI-YIP, Ho (2001). "Historical Analysis of Islamic Community Development in Hong Kong: Struggle for Recognition in the Post-colonial Era". Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs. Taylor & Francis. 21: 65.
  11. ^ Chopra, Preeti (2007). "Refiguring the Colonial City: Recovering the Role of Local Inhabitants in the Construction of Colonial Bombay, 1854-1918". Buildings & Landscapes. 14: 109–125. doi:10.1353/bdl.2007.0007.
  12. ^ Moosa, Ismail (2014). "Role of Memon Community during the Caliphate Movement". British Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 11 (1).
  13. ^ Oishi, Takashi (1999). "Muslim Merchant Capital and the Relief Movement for the Ottoman Empire in India, 1876-1924". Minamiajiakenkyu. 11: 71–103.
  14. ^ "Caste capitalism in Pakistan". The News on Sunday.
  15. ^ MALLAMPALLI, CHANDRA (2010). "Escaping the Grip of Personal Law in Colonial India: Proving Custom, Negotiating Hindu-ness". Law and History Review. American Society for Legal History. 28 (4): 1060.
  16. ^ "Humanitarian work marks Memons' Day". Times of India.
  17. ^ "Home Page". Memon Association of Sri Lanka. Retrieved 2020-01-08.
  18. ^ DH (April 17, 2007). "KARACHI: 300-bed teaching hospital planned - Newspaper - DAWN.COM". DAWN. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
  19. ^ "City Nazim praises services of Memon community". Pakistan Press International. Asia Africa Intelligence Wire. October 13, 2003. Retrieved 20 January 2010.
  20. ^ "Committee". Memon Association of Sri Lanka. Retrieved 2020-01-08.
  21. ^ DH (October 15, 2014). "CM wants constitutional path to resolve OGDC issue - Newspaper - DAWN.COM". DAWN. Retrieved 5 August 2015.

External links[edit]

Media related to Memon people at Wikimedia Commons