Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
|Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center|
|Location||1275 York Avenue, |
Manhattan, New York, United States
|Affiliated university||Cornell University, Weill Cornell Graduate School of Medical Sciences|
|Emergency department||Urgent care center|
|Beds||498 (as of 2018)|
|Former name(s)||New York Cancer Hospital|
|Opened||1884 (as New York Cancer Hospital)|
|Lists||Hospitals in New York|
|Other links||Hospitals in Manhattan|
Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSK or MSKCC) is a cancer treatment and research institution in New York City, founded in 1884 as the New York Cancer Hospital. MSKCC is the largest and oldest private cancer center in the world, and is one of 70 National Cancer Institute–designated Comprehensive Cancer Centers. Its main campus is located at 1275 York Avenue, between 67th and 68th streets, in Manhattan.
New York Cancer Hospital (1884–1934)
Memorial Hospital was founded on the Upper West Side of Manhattan in 1884 as the New York Cancer Hospital by a group that included John Jacob Astor III and his wife Charlotte. The hospital appointed as an attending surgeon William B. Coley, who pioneered an early form of immunotherapy to eradicate tumors. Rose Hawthorne, daughter of author Nathaniel Hawthorne, trained there in the summer of 1896 before founding her own order, Dominican Sisters of Hawthorne. In 1899, the hospital was renamed General Memorial Hospital for the Treatment of Cancer and Allied Diseases. In 1902, Arabella Huntington made a $100,000 (approximately $3 million in 2018) bequest in memory of her late husband Collis Potter Huntington to establish the first cancer research fund in the country, the Huntington Fund for Cancer Research.
Around 1910 James Ewing, a professor at Cornell University's medical college, established a collaboration with Memorial Hospital with the help and funding of industrialist and philanthropist James Douglas, who gave $100,000 to endow twenty beds for clinical research, equipment for working with radium, and a clinical laboratory for that purpose. Douglas' enthusiasm and funding for development of radiation therapy for cancer inspired Ewing to become one of the pioneers in developing this treatment. Ewing soon took over effective leadership of clinical and laboratory research at Memorial. In 1916 the hospital was renamed again, dropping "General" to become known simply as Memorial Hospital. The first fellowship training program in the US was created at Memorial in 1927, funded by the Rockefellers. In 1931 the then-most-powerful 900k-volt X-ray tube was put into use in radiation-based cancer treatment at Memorial; the tube had been built by General Electric over several years. In 1931 Ewing was formally appointed president of the hospital, a role he had effectively played until then, and was featured on the cover of Time magazine as "Cancer Man Ewing"; the accompanying article described his role as one of the most important cancer doctors of his era. He worked at the Memorial until his retirement, in 1939. Under his leadership, Memorial became a model for other cancer centers in the United States, combining patient care with clinical and laboratory research, and it was said of him that "the relationship of Ewing to the Memorial Hospital can best be expressed in the words of Emerson, 'Every institution is but the lengthening shadow of some man.' Dr. Ewing is the Memorial Hospital".
Memorial Hospital and the Sloan Kettering Institute (1934–1980)
In 1934, John D. Rockefeller Jr. donated land on York Avenue for a new location. Two years later, he granted Memorial Hospital $3,000,000 and the hospital began their move across town. Memorial Hospital officially reopened at the new location in 1939. In 1945, the chairman of General Motors, Alfred P. Sloan, donated $4,000,000 to create the Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research through his Sloan Foundation, and Charles F. Kettering, GM's vice president and director of research, personally agreed to oversee the organization of a cancer research program based on industrial techniques. The originally independent research institute was built adjacent to Memorial Hospital.
In 1948 Cornelius P. Rhoads became the director of Memorial. Rhoads had run chemical weapons programs for the US army in World War II, and had been involved in the work that led to the discovery that nitrogen mustards could potentially be used as cancer drugs.:91–92 He fostered a collaboration between Joseph H. Burchenal, a clinician at Memorial and Gertrude B. Elion and George H. Hitchings at Burroughs Wellcome, who had discovered 6 MP; the collaboration led to the development and eventual wide use of this cancer drug.:91–92
From the mid-1950s to the mid-1960s Chester M. Southam conducted pioneering clinical research on virotherapy and cancer immunotherapy at MSK; however he conducted his research on people without their informed consent. He did this to patients under his care or others' care, and to prisoners. In 1963 some doctors objected to the lack of consent in his experiments and reported him to the Regents of the University of the State of New York which found him guilty of fraud, deceit, and unprofessional conduct, and in the end he was placed on probation for a year. Southam's research experiments and the case at the Regents were followed in The New York Times.
In 1960, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center was formed as a new corporation to coordinate the two institutions; John Heller, the former director of the National Cancer Institute was named its president. At the end of the 1960s, as the field of pediatric oncology began seeing success in treating children with cancer, Memorial opened an outpatient pediatric day hospital, partly to deal with the growing number of cancer survivors. In the early 1970s, Burchenal and Benno Schmidt, a professional investor and trustee of MSK, were appointed to the presidential panel that initiated the U.S. federal government's War on Cancer in the early 1970s.:184 When Congress passed the National Cancer Act of 1971 as part of that effort, Memorial Sloan Kettering was designated as one of only three Comprehensive Cancer Centers nationwide. In 1977, Jimmie C. Holland established a full-time psychiatric service at MSK dedicated to helping people with cancer cope with their disease and its treatment; it was one of the first such programs and was part of the creation of the field of psycho-oncology.
Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (1980–present)
In 1980 Memorial Hospital and the Sloan-Kettering Institute formally merged into a singular entity under the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center name.
In 2000, former NIH director Harold Varmus became the director of MSK. During his tenure, he helped build new facilities, strengthened the bond between MSK's clinical and research arms, and fostered collaborations with other institutions, including Weill-Cornell Medical College and Rockefeller University.
Craig B. Thompson, oncologist and researcher, was appointed MSK's president and CEO in 2010. The following year, MSK was rated the third most successful nonprofit in terms of FDA-approved drugs and vaccines, behind the National Institutes of Health and the University of California system. In 2012, Thompson appointed José Baselga as physician-in-chief, who directed the clinical side of MSK. That same year, a collaboration with IBM's Watson was announced with the goal of developing new tools and resources to better tailor diagnostic and treatment recommendations for patients. The director of SKI, the research arm of MSK, Joan Massagué was appointed in 2013. Baselga resigned in September 2018 after information came out regarding millions of dollars he received from pharmaceutical companies without disclosing a financial conflict of interest.
In 2017, the Food and Drug Administration approved an MSK-developed immunotherapy, CAR-T, for certain applications in leukemia and lymphoma. The FDA approved the first academic or commercial tumor identification test MSK-IMPACT in November 2018.
MSK has expanded into regional sites including Westchester (NY), Commack (Long Island), Hauppauge (Long Island), Rockville Centre (Long Island), Nassau (Long Island), Bergen (NJ), Monmouth (NJ), and Basking Ridge (NJ).
MSK currently employs over 1,200 physicians and treats patients with approximately 400 types of cancer annually.
Associated facilities and programs
The Memorial Sloan Kettering Bendheim Integrative Medicine Center occupies 1429 First Avenue on the corner of East 74th Street in Manhattan. The former bank was built in the 1930s by Perkins and Will as architects. It was remodeled for use by Memorial Sloan Kettering in 1997.
The Center for Image-Guided Intervention was opened in June 2010 in the Memorial Hospital building to oversee image guiding activities across MSK. In October 2012, the Sillerman Center for Rehabilitation was opened, moving rehabilitation out of Memorial Hospital and closer to the Rockefeller Outpatient Pavilion.
Approximately 1,700 medical residents and Fellows are in training at MSK. There are 575 postdoctoral researchers training at MSK labs and a combined 288 PhD and MD-PhD candidates.
In 2004, the Louis V. Gerstner, Jr. Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences was opened at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. The first students graduated in 2012. As of January 2019, the dean of the graduate school is cell biologist Michael Overholtzer. The founding dean, serving for over a decade, was molecular biologist Ken Marians.
The Tri-Institutional MD–PhD Program is a partnership of MSKCC, Weill Cornell Medicine, and The Rockefeller University. The dual degree program takes advantage of the close proximity of these three institutions for collaboration on biomedical research and medical training. MSKCC also has an academic partnership with Weill Cornell Medicine known as the Weill Cornell Graduate School of Medical Sciences.
The original logo was designed by Irv Koons Associates in 1960, when the organization first became Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. It consisted of the arrow with 3 cross bars which were labeled (from top to bottom) “research,” “treatment,” “teaching.” The words “Toward the Conquest of Cancer” formed a half circle surrounding the lower half of the arrow.
In a letter written in 1976 by Irv Koons, he explained the origin of the symbol: “The symbol was used in the past to indicate a very poisonous or deadly element. We simply lengthened the vertical line at the top and added the directional arrow in order to symbolize an upward thrust through the poisonous/deadly element into clear space. We meant to indicate, in abstract terms, the strong movement to overcome cancer that is the reason for the existence of Sloan-Kettering.”
The logo was redesigned by Vignelli Associates in 1980, when the hospital and institute were reorganized into the current structure, with a single president and CEO. The arrow and crossbars remain, but the labels were taken off the crossbars, and the words “Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center -- Established 1884” were added.
- James P. Allison
- Murray Brennan
- Samuel Danishefsky
- Nori Dattatreyudu
- Jeffrey Drebin
- Roger Granet
- Jimmie C. Holland
- Iris Long
- Scott W. Lowe
- Joan Massagué
- Paul Marks
- Kenneth Offit
- Nikola P. Pavletich
- Mark S. Ptashne
- James Rothman
- Alexander Rudensky
- Charles Sawyers
- Lorenz Studer
- Craig B. Thompson
In 2015 Charity Watch rated Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center an "A". Heads of the charity received $2,107,939 to $2,639,669 salary/compensation from the charity. CEO Craig B. Thompson received $2,554,085 salary/compensation from the charity.
- "Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center". Forbes.
- Barbanel, Josh. "Would an Aardvark Live Here?" The New York Times, September 17, 2006. Retrieved December 31, 2009.
- "The New York Cancer Hospital: laying the corner-stone of a much-needed institution". The New York Times. May 18, 1884. Retrieved February 4, 2016.
- "NCI-Designated Cancer Centers". National Cancer Institute. April 5, 2012. Retrieved June 11, 2019.
- Abel, Emily K. (2013). The inevitable hour: a history of caring for dying patients in America. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 66–67. ISBN 978-1421409191. OCLC 808769549.
- Coley to Cure:The Story of the Cancer Research Institute. Cancer Research Institute. 2014. pp. 12–13. Retrieved February 4, 2016.
- Smith, Fran; Himmel, Shiela (2013). Changing the Way We Die: Compassionate End of Life Care and The Hospice Movement. Berkeley, California: Cleis Press. p. 23. ISBN 9781936740604. OCLC 839388370.
- "SESSION OF THE SENATE.; Bills Passed and Introduced and Routine Business Transacted". The New York Times. February 16, 1899. Retrieved February 27, 2016.
- Murphy, James B. (1951). "James Ewing—1866–1943" (PDF). Biographical Memoirs. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences.
- Memorial Hospital for the Treatment of Cancer and Allied Diseases Thirty First Annual Report for the Year 1915 (Report). p. 19.
- Wilkins, Sam A. Jr. (February 25, 1970). "James Ewing Society, 1940-1969: Presidential Address" (PDF). Cancer. 25 (2): 321–323. doi:10.1002/1097-0142(197002)25:2<321::AID-CNCR2820250207>3.0.CO;2-R. PMID 4905156.
- "900,000-VOLT TUBE TO COMBAT CANCER: Largest X-Ray Device of Kind Being Built by General Electric for Hospital Here". The New York Times. March 1, 1931. Retrieved February 4, 2016.
- Time Magazine Cover, January 12, 1931
- "Cancer Crusade". January 12, 1931. Time 17(2):26
- Brand, RA (March 2012). "Biographical sketch: James Stephen Ewing, MD (1844-1943)". Clin Orthop Relat Res. 470 (3): 639–41. doi:10.1007/s11999-011-2234-y. PMC 3270161. PMID 22207564.
- "Rockefeller Gives Block to Institute". The New York Times. December 28, 1934. Retrieved February 4, 2016.
- "Rockefeller Provides $3,000,000 to Build Cancer Hospital Here". The New York Times. April 28, 1936. Retrieved February 4, 2016.
- "THE MEMORIAL HOSPITAL". The New York Times. June 16, 1939. Retrieved February 27, 2016.
- Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, History & Milestones. Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center website..
- "Sloan, Kettering to Combat Cancer; Studying Sketch of Proposed Cancer Research Institute". The New York Times. August 8, 1945. p. 1 (cont'd p. 40).
- Mukherjee, Siddhartha (2010). The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer. New York. ISBN 978-1439170915.
- Bouton, Katherine (January 29, 1989). "The Nobel Pair". The New York Times.
- Skloot, Rebecca (2010). The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. New York: Crown/Archetype. pp. 127–135. ISBN 9780307589385.
- Mulford, R.D. (1967). "Experimentation on Human Beings". Stanford Law Review. 20 (1): 99–117. doi:10.2307/1227417. JSTOR 1227417.
- "14 Convicts Injected With Live Cancer Cells". The New York Times. June 15, 1956.
- Johnston, Richard J.H. (April 15, 1957). "Cancer Defenses Found to Differ; Tests Indicate Victims Lack Some Mechanisms That Well Human Being Has Cancer Recurred Deficiency Is Noted Warning by Southam". The New York Times.
- Osmundsen, John A. (January 26, 1964). "Many Scientific Experts Condemn Ethics of Cancer Injection". The New York Times.
- Plumb, Robert K. (March 22, 1964). "Scientists Split on Cancer Tests". The New York Times.
- "Ruling is Upset on Cancer Test". The New York Times. July 8, 1964.
- "U.S. Aide to Head Cancer Center: Dr. John R. Heller, Cured of Disease, to Assume New Sloan-Kettering Post". The New York Times. April 19, 1960. Retrieved February 4, 2016.
- Johnson, Rudy (December 3, 1972). "Parents Are on Team at Memorial's Day Hospital for Children With Cancer". The New York Times.
- Marks, Paul; Sterngold, James (2014). On the Cancer Frontier: One Man, One Disease, and a Medical Revolution. PublicAffairs. p. 91. ISBN 978-1610392525.
- Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Annual Report, 1977 (Report). p. 22.
- Rosenthal, Elizabeth (July 20, 1997). "Scientist at Work: Jimmie Holland; Listening to the Emotional Needs of Cancer Patients". The New York Times. Retrieved March 22, 2016.
- "The Harold Varmus Papers: Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 2000-2010, and National Cancer Institute, 2010-2015". profiles.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved April 22, 2016.
- "Sloan Kettering Institute: About SKI". Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. Retrieved December 4, 2017.
- "Craig Thompson Named President of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center". Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. August 10, 2010. Retrieved January 10, 2013.
- Stevens, AJ; Jensen, JJ; Wyller, K; Kilgore, PC; Chatterjee, S; Rohrbaugh, ML (February 10, 2011). "The role of public-sector research in the discovery of drugs and vaccines". The New England Journal of Medicine. 364 (6): 535–41. doi:10.1056/NEJMsa1008268. PMID 21306239.
- "Center names physician-in-chief". HemOnc Today. November 10, 2012.
- Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Annual Report, 2013. p. 5.
- Barajas, Carlos (November 26, 2013). "El español Joan Massagué, al frente del Sloan-Kettering de Nueva York". El Mundo.
- "Why do medical journals keep taking authors at their word? - STAT". STAT. September 14, 2018. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
- "MSK Cancer Center Orders Staff to 'Do a Better Job' of Disclosing Industry Ties". Retrieved September 14, 2018.
- Commissioner, Office of the (September 10, 2019). "FDA approves CAR-T cell therapy to treat adults with certain types of large B-cell lymphoma". FDA. Retrieved October 15, 2019.
- Wednesday, Matthew Tontonoz; August 30; 2017. "FDA Approves First CAR T Cell Therapy for Leukemia". Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. Retrieved October 15, 2019.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
- "How Scientists Built a 'Living Drug' to Beat Cancer". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved October 29, 2019.
- "Cell Therapy Manufacturing Tries "Building the Plane While Flying It"". GEN - Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology News. October 1, 2019. Retrieved October 29, 2019.
- Thursday, Matthew Tontonoz; October 19; 2017. "FDA Approves CAR T Cell Therapy for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma". Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. Retrieved October 15, 2019.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
- "MSK-IMPACT: A Targeted Test for Mutations in Both Rare and Common Cancers". Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. Retrieved October 15, 2019.
- "Tisagenlecleucel (Kymriah) Approved to Treat Some Lymphomas". National Cancer Institute. May 22, 2018. Retrieved October 15, 2019.
- "Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Regional Sites". Retrieved October 27, 2019.
- "History & Milestones". Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. Retrieved November 14, 2019.
- Norval White; Elliot Willensky; Fran Leadon (June 14, 2010). AIA Guide to New York City. ISBN 9780199758647. Retrieved January 10, 2013.
- Thursday; July 1; 2010. "New Facility Eases Patient Experience and Promotes Collaborative Treatment and Research". Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. Retrieved October 15, 2019.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
- Friday; October 1; 2010. "Memorial Sloan Kettering Opens Outpatient Rehabilitation Center". Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. Retrieved October 15, 2019.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
- Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Annual Report, 2005. p. 3.
- "First Four Students Receive Doctoral Degrees from Louis V. Gerstner, Jr. Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences". Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. Retrieved December 4, 2017.
- "MSK's Graduate School Welcomes New Dean, Bids Farewell to Its First". Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
- "Graduate School of Medical Sciences | Weill Cornell Medicine". gradschool.weill.cornell.edu. Retrieved July 12, 2019.
- "Charity Ratings". charitywatch.org. Retrieved April 5, 2016.
- Official website
- Gerstner Sloan–Kettering Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
- Weill Cornell Graduate School of Medical Sciences