A Memory Buffer Register (MBR) is the register in a computer's processor, or central processing unit, CPU, that stores the data being transferred to and from the immediate access store. It contains the copy of designated memory locations specified by the memory address register. It acts as a buffer allowing the processor and memory units to act independently without being affected by minor differences in operation. A data item will be copied to the MBR ready for use at the next clock cycle, when it can be either used by the processor for reading or writing or stored in main memory after being written.
This register holds the contents of the memory which are to be transferred from memory to other components or vice versa. A word to be stored must be transferred to the MBR, from where it goes to the specific memory location, and the arithmetic data to be processed in the ALU first goes to MBR and then to accumulated register, and then it is processed in the ALU.
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