Men who have sex with men
Men who have sex with men (MSM), also known as males who have sex with males, are male persons who engage in sexual activity with members of the same sex, regardless of how they identify themselves; many such men do not (or cannot for various reasons) sexually identify as gay, homosexual or bisexual. The term was created in the 1990s by epidemiologists in order to study the spread of disease among men who have sex with men, regardless of identity.
The term MSM is often used in medical literature and social research to describe such men as a group for research studies without considering issues of self-identification.
- 1 As a constructed behavioral category
- 2 Prevalence
- 3 Sexual practices
- 4 Health issues
- 5 MSM blood donor controversy
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
As a constructed behavioral category
The term MSM had been in use in public health discussions, especially in the context of HIV/AIDS, since 1990 or earlier, but the coining of the initialism by Glick et al. in 1994 "signaled the crystallization of a new concept." This behavioural concept comes from two distinct academic perspectives. First, it was pursued by epidemiologists seeking behavioral categories that would offer better analytical concepts for the study of disease-risk than identity-based categories (such as "gay", "bisexual", or "straight"), because a man who self-identifies as gay or bisexual is not necessarily sexually active with men, and someone who identifies as straight might be sexually active with men. Second, its usage is tied to criticism of sexual identity terms prevalent in social construction literature which typically rejected the use of identity-based concepts across cultural and historical contexts.
MSM are not limited to small, self-identified, and visible sub-populations. MSM and gay refer to different things: behaviors and social identities. MSM refers to sexual activities between men, regardless of how they identify, whereas gay can include those activities but is more broadly seen as a cultural identity. Homosexuality refers to sexual/romantic attraction between members of the same sex and may or may not include romantic relationships. Gay is a social identity and is generally the preferred social term, whereas homosexual is used in formal contexts, though the terms are not entirely interchangeable. Men who are non-heterosexual or questioning may identify with all, none, a combination of these, or one of the newer terms indicating a similar sexual, romantic, and cultural identity like bi-curious.
In their assessment of the knowledge about the sexual networks and behaviors of MSM in Asia, Dowsett, Grierson and McNally concluded that the category of MSM does not correspond to a single social identity in any of the countries they studied. There were no similar traits in all of the MSM population studied, other than them being males and engaging in sex with other men.
As applied to transgender individuals
The term's precise use and definition has varied with regard to transwomen, people born either biologically male or with ambiguous genitalia who self-identify as female. Some sources consider transwomen who have sex with men to be MSM, others consider transwomen "alongside" MSM, and others are internally inconsistent (defining transgender women to be MSM in one place but referring to "MSM and transgender" in another).
Determining the number of men who have ever had sex with another man is difficult. Worldwide, at least 3% of men, and perhaps as high as 16% of men, have had sex at least once with a man. These figures include victims of sexual abuse in addition to men who regularly or voluntarily have sex with men.
In the U.S., among men aged 15 to 44, an estimated 6% have engaged in oral or anal sex with another man at some point in their lives, and about 2.9% have had at least one male sexual partner in the previous 12 months.
Historically, anal sex has been popularly associated with male homosexuality and MSM. However, many MSM do not engage in anal sex, and may engage in oral sex, frotting or mutual masturbation instead. Among men who have anal sex with other men, the insertive partner may be referred to as the top, the one being penetrated may be referred to as the bottom, and those who enjoy either role may be referred to as versatile. Men who participate in receptive sexual activities may have greater risk of HIV infection.
Since LGBT people began to organize for their social and legal rights, access to equal health care has remained an important but often not primary issue. LGBT-specific health organizations have been formed, including charities educating on specific issues, health clinics, and even professional organizations for LGBT people and their allies. Many of them have advocated for specific changes to various governmental practices, and the ongoing effort to legalize same-sex marriage often includes examples of LGBT people unable to secure health coverage equivalent to that of their heterosexual counterparts. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) in the United States includes new protections for LGBT people. Under the ACA insurers can no longer turn someone away just because she or he is lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender. In addition, ACA is funding preventive efforts for communities, including millions of dollars to use evidence-based interventions to address HIV-related health disparities. The Department of Health and Human Services is working with community centers serving the LGBT community to employ proven prevention strategies.
Since medical literature began to describe homosexuality, it has often been approached from a view that assumed or sought to find an inherent psychopathology as the root cause. Much literature on mental health and homosexuals centered on examples of their depression, substance abuse, and suicide. Although these issues exist among non-heterosexuals, discussion about their causes shifted after homosexuality was removed from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) in 1973. Instead, social ostracism, legal discrimination, internalization of negative stereotypes, and limited support structures are all indications of the issues faced by homosexuals in Western societies, which often adversely affect their mental health.
Sexually transmitted infections
A 2007 study reported that two large population surveys found "the majority of gay men had similar numbers of unprotected sexual partners annually as straight men and women." Among men who have anal sex with other men, anal sex without use of a condom is considered to be very risky behavior. A person who inserts their penis into an infected partner is at risk because sexually transmitted diseases (STDS/STIs) can enter through the urethra or through small cuts, abrasions, or open sores on the penis. Also, condoms are more likely to break during anal sex than during vaginal sex. Thus, even with a condom, anal sex can be risky.
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease of the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV can infect anybody, regardless of sex, ethnicity, or sexual orientation. Worldwide, an estimated 5–10% of HIV infections are the result of men having sex with men. However in many developed countries, more HIV infections are transmitted by men having sex with men than by any other transmission route. In the United States, "men who have had sex with men since 1977 have an HIV prevalence (the total number of cases of a disease that are present in a population at a specific point in time) 60 times higher than the general population".
In 2007, the largest estimated proportion of HIV/AIDS diagnoses among adults and adolescents in the U.S. were men who have sex with men (MSM). While this category is only 2% of the U.S. population they accounted for 53% of the overall diagnoses and 71% among men. According to a 2010 federal study, one in five men who have sex with men are HIV positive and nearly half don't realize it.
According to a CDC study, HIV prevalence in the MSM population of the U.S. varies widely by ethnicity. "As many as 46% of black MSM have HIV" while "the HIV rate is estimated at 21% for white MSM and 17% for Hispanic MSM." In the United States from 2001–2005, the highest transmission risk behaviors were sex between men (40–49% of new cases) and high risk heterosexual sex (32–35% of new cases). HIV infection is increasing at a rate of 12% annually among 13–24-year-old American men who have sex with men. Experts attribute this to "AIDS fatigue" among younger people who have no memory of the worst phase of the epidemic in the 1980s and early 1990s, as well as "condom fatigue" among those who have grown tired of and disillusioned with the unrelenting safer sex message. The increase may also be because of new treatments. In developing countries, HIV infection rates have been characterized as skyrocketing among MSM. Studies have found that less than 5% of MSM in Africa, Asia, and Latin America have access to HIV-related health care.
Hepatitis B is a disease caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) which infects the liver of hominoidea, including humans, and causes an inflammation called hepatitis. The disease has caused epidemics in parts of Asia and Africa, and it is endemic in China. About a third of the world's population, more than 2 billion people, have been infected with HBV. Transmission of HBV results from exposure to infectious blood or body fluids containing blood. Possible forms of transmission include (but are not limited to) unprotected sexual contact, blood transfusions, re-use of contaminated needles and syringes, and vertical transmission from mother to child during childbirth. HBV can also be transmitted between family members within households, possibly by contact of non-intact skin or mucous membrane with secretions or saliva containing the virus. However, at least 30% of reported hepatitis B cases among adults cannot be associated with an identifiable risk factor.
Other sexually transmitted infections
Syphilis (caused by infection with Treponema pallidum) is passed from person to person through direct contact with a syphilis sore; these occur mainly on the external genitals, or in the vagina, anus, or rectum. Sores also can occur on the lips and in the mouth. Transmission of the organism occurs during vaginal, anal, or oral sex. In 2006, 64% of the reported cases in the United States were among men who have sex with men. This is consistent with a rise in the incidence of syphilis among MSM in other developed nations, attributed by Australian and UK authors to increased rates of unprotected sex among MSM.
Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common virus that most sexually active people in the U.S. will have at some time in their lives. It is passed on through genital contact and is also found on areas that condoms do not cover. Most men who get HPV of any type never develop any symptoms or health problems. Some types of HPV can cause genital warts, penile cancer, or anal cancer. MSM and men with compromised immune systems are more likely than other men to develop anal cancer. Men with HIV are also more likely to get severe cases of genital warts that are hard to treat.
Though not commonly classified as an STI, giardiasis can be transmitted between gay men, and it can be responsible for severe weight loss and death for individuals who have compromised immune systems, especially HIV.
MSM blood donor controversy
List of countries with their stand on MSM blood donors
|Country||Deferral for MSM||Deferral for female
sex partners of MSM
|Argentina||1 year||[not in citation given]|
|Australia||1 year||1 year|||
|Bhutan||No deferral||No deferral|||
|Brazil||1 year|||
|Bulgaria||No deferral|||
|Canada||5 years||1 year|||
|Chile||No deferral||No deferral|||
|Czech Republic||1 year||1 year|||
|Israel||Indefinite A||No deferral|||
|Italy||No deferral||No deferral|||
|Latvia||No deferral B||No deferral B|||
|Mexico||No deferral||No deferral|||
|New Zealand||1 year||1 year|||
|Poland||No deferral B||No deferral B|||
|Portugal||No deferral||No deferral|||
|Russia||No deferral||No deferral|||
|Serbia||1 year|||
|South Africa||No deferral||No deferral|||
|South Korea||No deferral||No deferral|||
|Slovakia||1 year|||
|Spain||No deferral||No deferral|||
|Sweden||1 year||1 year|| |
|Thailand||No deferral||No deferral|||
|United Kingdom (excluding Northern Ireland)||1 year||1 year|| |
|United States||indefinite C||1 year|
|Uruguay||No deferral||No deferral|||
|Venezuela||Indefinite D||No deferral|||
- ^A No restriction if last MSM activity was before 1977.
- ^B People of any sexual orientation involved in any kind of sexual activity are welcome to donate blood, if they are confident that their sexual behaviour is safe and does not expose them to sexually transmitted diseases by e.g. unprotected sex with non-trusted partners, regardless of sexual orientation.
- ^C No restriction if last MSM activity was before 1977. As of July 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration is proposing to change the policy by replacing the indefinite deferral with a 1-year deferral.
- ^D Individuals are requested to fill a "Yes/No" questionnaire about their sexual life. Direct questions like "Have you ever had any sexual intercourse with someone from your same sex?" could appear.
- Down-low (sexual slang)
- Prison sexuality
- Terminology of homosexuality
- Women who have sex with women
- Rape of males by males
- "UNAIDS: Men who have sex with men" (PDF). UNAIDS. 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 21, 2013. Retrieved April 2, 2014.
- Young RM, Meyer IH (July 2005). "The trouble with "MSM" and "WSW": erasure of the sexual-minority person in public health discourse". Am J Public Health 95 (7): 1144–1149. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2004.046714. PMC 1449332. PMID 15961753.
- Glick M, Muzyka BC, Salkin LM, Lurie D (May 1994). "Necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis: a marker for immune deterioration and a predictor for the diagnosis of AIDS". J. Periodontol. 65 (5): 393–7. doi:10.1902/jop.19126.96.36.1993. PMID 7913962.
- A review of knowledge about the sexual networks and behaviors of men who have sex with men in Asia. Dowsett, Grierson and McNally.[dead link]
- "MSM in Africa: highly stigmatized, vulnerable and in need of urgent HIV prevention".
- "Criminalizing high-risk groups such as MSM".
- Operario D, Burton J, Underhill K, Sevelius J (January 2008). "Men who have sex with transgender women: challenges to category-based HIV prevention". AIDS Behav 12 (1): 18–26. doi:10.1007/s10461-007-9303-y. PMID 17705095.
- Greenwood, Cseneca; Mario Ruberte (April 9, 2004). "African American Community and HIV (Slide 14 mentions TG women)" (ppt). East Bay AIDS Education and Training Center. Retrieved July 24, 2008.
- Operario D, Burton J (April 2000). "HIV-related tuberculosis in a transgender network—Baltimore, Maryland, and New York City area, 1998–2000". MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 49 (15): 317–20. PMID 10858008.
- "Between Men – HIV/STI prevention for men who have sex with men" (PDF). p. 3.
- Mosher, William D.; Anjani Chandra; Jo Jones (September 15, 2005). "Sexual Behavior and Selected Health Measures: Men and Women 15–44 Years of Age, United States, 2002" (PDF). Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics (362): 2. Retrieved May 7, 2012.
- Kaye Wellings, Kirstin Mitchell, Martine Collumbien (2012). Sexual Health: A Public Health Perspective. McGraw-Hill International. p. 91. ISBN 0335244815. Retrieved August 29, 2013.
- "Not all gay men have anal sex". Go Ask Alice!. May 10, 1996. Retrieved April 26, 2010.
- Goldstone, Stephen E.; Welton, Mark L. (2004). "Anorectal Sexually Transmitted Infections in Men Who Have Sex with Men—Special Considerations for Clinicians". Clin Colon Rectal Surg 17 (4): 235–239. doi:10.1055/s-2004-836944. PMC 2780055. PMID 20011265.
- Edwin Clark Johnson, Toby Johnson (2008). Gay Perspective: Things Our Homosexuality Tells Us about the Nature of God & the Universe. Lethe Press. p. 139. ISBN 978-1-59021-015-4. Retrieved February 12, 2011.
- Steven Gregory Underwood (2003). Gay Men and Anal Eroticism: Tops, Bottoms, and Versatiles. Harrington Park Press. ISBN 978-1-56023-375-6. Retrieved February 12, 2011.
- Sexual Behavior Does Not Explain Varying HIV Rates Among Gay And Straight Men
- Schlager, Neil, ed. (1998). Gay & Lesbian Almanac. St. James Press. ISBN 1-55862-358-2, p. 152.
- Goodreau SM, Golden MR (October 2007). "Biological and demographic causes of high HIV and sexually transmitted disease prevalence in men who have sex with men". Sex Transm Infect 83 (6): 458–462. doi:10.1136/sti.2007.025627. PMC 2598698. PMID 17855487.
- "HIV Transmission". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Retrieved May 3, 2014.
- Werner W. K. Hoeger, Sharon A. Hoeger (2010). Fitness and Wellness: A Personalized Program. Cengage Learning. p. 455. ISBN 1133008585. Retrieved May 3, 2014.
- Sepkowitz KA (June 2001). "AIDS—the first 20 years". N. Engl. J. Med. 344 (23): 1764–1772. doi:10.1056/NEJM200106073442306. PMID 11396444.
- Weiss RA (May 1993). "How does HIV cause AIDS?". Science 260 (5112): 1273–1279. doi:10.1126/science.8493571. PMID 8493571.
- Cecil, Russell (1988). Textbook of Medicine. Philadelphia: Saunders. pp. 1523, 1799. ISBN 0-7216-1848-0.
- "2009 AIDS epidemic update". Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS and World Health Organization. November 2009. Retrieved September 28, 2011.
- Men who have sex with men, HIV and AIDS
- Consumer Affairs Branch (CBER) (2013-03-18). "Blood Donations from Men Who Have Sex with Other Men Questions and Answers". Fda.gov. Retrieved 2013-05-17.
- "Few Americans with HIV have virus under control". MSNBC.com News Services. Retrieved November 30, 2011.
- "1 in 5 men who have sex with men have HIV, nearly half don't know it". USA Today. September 23, 2011. Retrieved November 30, 2011.
- HIV more prevalent among black MSM despite fewer risk behaviors
- "Explaining disparities in HIV infection among black and white men who have sex with men: a meta-analysis of HIV risk behaviors". AIDS: Official Journal of the International AIDS Society. October 2007.
- Kaiser Daily HIV/AIDS Report Summarizes Opinion Pieces on U.S. AIDS Epidemic – The Body
- "2005 report".
- Paddock, Catharine (June 27, 2008). "HIV Rising Among Young Gay Men In The US". Medical News Today.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (June 2008). "Trends in HIV/AIDS diagnoses among men who have sex with men—33 States, 2001–2006". MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 57 (25): 681–6. PMID 18583954.
- "New HIV diagnoses rising in New York City among young men who have sex with men".
- "HIV rates skyrocketing among men who have sex with men".
- Williams R (2006). "Global challenges in liver disease". Hepatology 44 (3): 521–526. doi:10.1002/hep.21347. PMID 16941687.
- "WHO | Hepatitis B".
- Petersen NJ, Barrett DH, Bond WW, Berquist KR, Favero MS, Bender TR, Maynard JE (1976). "Hepatitis B surface antigen in saliva, impetiginous lesions, and the environment in two remote Alaskan villages". Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 32 (4): 572–4. PMC 170308. PMID 791124.
- "Hepatitis B – the facts".
- Shapiro CN (1993). "Epidemiology of hepatitis B". Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 12 (5): 433–437. doi:10.1097/00006454-199305000-00036. PMID 8392167.
- Syphilis & MSM (Men Who Have Sex With Men) – CDC Fact Sheet, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
- Christopher K Fairley, Jane S Hocking and Nicholas Medland. "Syphilis: back on the rise, but not unstoppable". Medical Journal of Australia 2005; 183 (4): 172–173.
- M Hourihan, H Wheeler, R Houghton, B T Goh (2004). "Lessons from the syphilis outbreak in homosexual men in east London". Sex Transm Infect 80 (6): 509–511. doi:10.1136/sti.2004.011023. PMC 1744940. PMID 15572625.
- "STD Facts – HPV and Men". Retrieved August 17, 2007.
- Frisch M, Smith E, Grulich A, Johansen C (2003). "Cancer in a population-based cohort of men and women in registered homosexual partnerships". Am. J. Epidemiol. 157 (11): 966–972. doi:10.1093/aje/kwg067. PMID 12777359.
However, the risk for invasive anal squamous carcinoma, which is believed to be caused by certain types of sexually transmitted human papilloma viruses, notably type 16, was significantly 31-fold elevated at a crude incidence of 25.6 per 100,000 person-years.
- Chin-Hong PV, Vittinghoff E, Cranston RD et al. (2005). "Age-related prevalence of anal cancer precursors in homosexual men: the EXPLORE study". J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 97 (12): 896–905. doi:10.1093/jnci/dji163. PMID 15956651.
- "Factsheet - Health Protection Surveillance Centre". Ndsc.ie. Retrieved 2013-05-17.
- "Giardia in Drinking Water Giardiasis Waterborne Disease". Water-research.net. Retrieved 2013-05-17.
- U.S. Food and Drug Administration (May 2015). "Revised Recommendations for Reducing the Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission by Blood and Blood Products" (PDF). Retrieved July 2, 2015.
- Clive R. Seed, Philip Kiely, Mathew Law, and Anthony J. Keller (December 2010). "No evidence of a significantly increased risk of transfusion-transmitted human immunodeficiency virus infection in Australia subsequent to implementing a 12-month deferral for men who have had sex with men". Transfusion (AABB) 50: 2722–2730. doi:10.1111/j.1537-2995.2010.02793.x.
- "Mclaughlin Report on Risk Management for Canadian Blood Services" (PDF). McLaughlin Center for Population Health Risk Assessment, University of Ottawa. 2007-01-31. p. 28. Retrieved 2008-05-25.
- "FAQs - Who can give". Australian Red Cross Blood Service. 18 April 2012. Retrieved 7 June 2012.
- "Rotes Kreuz: Wer darf Blutspenden?". Roteskreuz.at. Retrieved 2012-07-20.
- "Avis du CSH relatif a` la sécurisation maximale de la collecte et de la transfusion sanguine (CSH 8094)." (in French). Brussels: FPS Health Belgium. 2005-02-18. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-04-20. Retrieved 2009-09-24.
- "Who can be a blood donor?". Retrieved 1 January 2015.
- D Andreatta (2013-05-22). "Ban lifted on gay men giving blood, but tough restrictions remain". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 2013-05-22.
- "Gays and lesbians in Chile now allowed to donate blood". Santiago Times. Retrieved 2013-04-28.
- "China says lesbians may donate blood, but not gay men — Latitude News". Latitudenews.com. Retrieved 2014-03-04.
- "Legislators want to guarantee gay rights to donate blood— Inside Costa Rica". insidecostarica.com. Retrieved 2006-12-01.
- Ministry of Health (Croatia) (1998-12-16). "Pravilnik o krvi i krvnim sastojcima" [Bylaw for blood and its contents] (in Croatian). Narodne novine. Retrieved 2011-07-18.
E`lanak 16. Trajno se iskljue`uju kao davatelji krvi: [...] osobe sa homoseksualnim ponašanjem [...]
- "Doporučení Společnosti pro transfuzní lékařství ČLS JEP č. STL2007_03 ze dne 12. 4. 2007 verze 6 (2012_04)" (DOC) (in Czech). Společnost pro transfuzní lékařství ČLS JEP. p. 8. Retrieved 2013-02-07.
- "Risikobetonet adfærd" (in Danish). Bloddonorerne i Danmark. Retrieved 2014-04-25.
- "Ban on donation of blood imposed following male-to-male sexual contact to become temporary". veripalvelu.fi. Retrieved 2013-12-17.
- Arrêté du 12 janvier 2009 fixant les critères de sélection des donneurs de sang, Annexe II, page 7
- "Richtlinien zur Gewinnung von Blut und Blutbestandteilen und zur Anwendung von Blutprodukten (Hämotherapie)" [Guidelines for the collection of blood and blood components and the use of blood products (haemotherapy)] (PDF). German Medical Association. 2010. Retrieved 2013-10-28.
- "What should you know about the Health history Enquiry in Blood Donation?" (PDF) (in Traditional Chinese & English). Hong Kong: Hong Kong Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service. 2008. Retrieved 2011-08-14.
- "Blood Donation". Magen David Adom.
- . Valsts asinsdonoru centrs http://www.donors.lv/anketas/donora.php?bl=1&setlang=lv. Retrieved 2015-03-20. Missing or empty
- (PDF). VšĮ „Nacionalinis kraujo centras“ http://kraujodonoryste.lt/uploads/images/contentPdf/Questionnaire%20for%20donors%20of%20blood%20and%20blood%20components%20%28EN%29_26e69.pdf. Retrieved 2015-03-20. Missing or empty
- Roberts, Scott. "Mexico lifts ban on gay men donating blood". PinkNews.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-03-02.
- TFE, tfe.nl (2013-07-01). "Bloed geven - Risicofactoren hiv mannen" [Giving Blood - Risk Factors of HIV for men]. Sanquin.nl. Retrieved 2014-12-23.
- TFE, tfe.nl (2013-07-01). "Bloed geven - Risicofactoren hiv vrouwen" [Giving Blood - Risk Factors of HIV for women]. Sanquin.nl. Retrieved 2014-12-23.
- "Detailed eligibility criteria". New Zealand Blood Service. 2015-01-08. Retrieved 2015-02-01.
- "UK Government refuses to repeal Northern Ireland gay blood ban". Pinknews.co.uk. 2014-01-03. Retrieved 2014-03-04.
- "Internetowy System Aktów Prawnych" [Internet System of Legal Acts]. Isap.sejm.gov.pl. Retrieved 2012-07-20.
- "Narodowe Centrum Krwi: Nie będziemy dyskryminować homoseksualistów" [National Blood Center: We will not discriminate against homosexuals]. Wiadomosci.gazeta.pl. Retrieved 2012-07-20.
- "Honorowe krwiodawstwo mężczyzn homo- i biseksualnych. Fakty i mity" [Honorable blood donation by gay and bisexual men. Facts and Myths]. Kph.org.pl. Retrieved 2012-07-20.
- "Приказ Минздравсоцразвития России от 16.04.2008 N 175н". Российская газета. 2008-05-24. Retrieved 2013-11-13.
- Россиянам вольют "голубую кровь" (in Russian). Полит.ру. 2008-05-23. Retrieved 2013-11-13.
- DeBarros, Luiz (20 May 2014). "SA finally ends gay blood donation ban". Mamba Online. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
- "The Republic of Slovenia Institute for Transfusion: Who cannot donate blood". Ztm.si. Retrieved 2012-07-20.
- "Gay men blood donor ban to be lifted". BBC News Online. 2011-09-08.
- Regulations on blood donation from the National Board of Health and Welfare, SOSFS 2009:28 Appendix 5 Section B:3, http://www.socialstyrelsen.se/SiteCollectionDocuments/2009_28_bilaga5.pdf
- "Donor selection criteria review". Department of Health and SaBTO, Blood Donor Selection Steering Group. Retrieved 8 September 2011.
- Assessment of sexual health needs of males who have sex with males in Laos and Thailand. Naz Foundation International 
- Gay Guise: What to do when your client has sex with men and is not gay, 2007 July/August Psychotherapy Networker
- Boellstorff, Tom (2004). "Playing Back the Nation: Waria, Indonesian Transvestites" (PDF). Cultural Anthropology (American Anthropological Association) 19 (2): 159. doi:10.1525/can.2004.19.2.159. ISSN 0886-7356. OCLC 98072867. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 1, 2004.
- Zhongxin, S; Farrer, J; Choi, K H (2006). "Sexual Identity Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Shanghai". China Perspectives 64: 2–12. ISSN 1011-2006. OCLC 197632333. Archived from the original on March 9, 2008.
- UNESCO (2006). "UNESCO guidelines on language and content in HIV- and AIDS-related materials". UNESCO, Education Sector, Div. for the Coordination of UN Priorities in Education, Section on HIV and AIDS. OCLC 123125234.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gay sex.|
- CDC: HIV/AIDS among Men Who Have Sex with Men
- MSM and HIV research and needs assessments from AIDSPortal