Mengjiang yuan

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Mengjiang yuan
蒙疆银行1元纸币
Mengjiang banknote 1 yuan.jpg
Central Bank of Mengjiang 1 yuan
Denominations
Subunit
 1/10Chiao/jiǎo
 1/100fēn
Banknotes5 fēn, 1, 5 Chiao/jiǎo, 1, 5, 10, 100 yuan 1, 5, 10, 100, 1000 yuan
Coins5 jiǎo
Demographics
Date of introduction1937
Date of withdrawal1951
Replaced byPeople's Bank of China banknotes
User(s)Flag of Mongol Military Government (1936-1937).svgMongolian military government
Flag of Mongol United Autonomous Government (1937-1939).svgMongol United Autonomous Government (1937-1939)
Mengjiang Mengjiang
Innermongolpeoplerep1945.gifPeople's Republic of Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
Issuance
Central bankBank of Mengchiang
This infobox shows the latest status before this currency was rendered obsolete.

The Yuan of Mengjiang is the monetary unit that was issued in 1937–1945 by several governments of Menchiang.

History[edit]

In April 1934, the Chinese government recognized the autonomy of Inner Mongolia. Japan, which controlled part of the territory of Inner Mongolia at that time, provoked separatist speeches in 1935–1936. On December 22, 1935 (according to other sources - May 27, 1936) the independence of Inner Mongolia was proclaimed. On May 12, 1936, with the help of the Japanese, the Mongolian military government was created.

On October 28, 1937, the government was merged with the provincial governments of Southern Chahar (ru) and Northern Shanxi (ru), forming the "Mengjiang Joint Committee". On November 27 of the same year, complete independence from China was proclaimed, the military government was transformed into a formally civilian autonomous government of the United Mongolian aimags (ru). On September 1, 1939, the United Autonomous Government of Menjiang was created. On August 4, 1941, the name of the state was changed, the Mongolian Autonomous Federation was proclaimed.

In August 1945, with the beginning of the Soviet–Japanese War, the troops of Inner Mongolia took part in the battles on the side of Japan. On October 10, 1945, the People’s Republic of Inner Mongolia was proclaimed in the territory liberated from the Japanese and their allies. With the departure of the Soviet troops in 1946, the republic lost control over most of its territory. In parallel with it, the People’s Autonomous Government of Eastern Mongolia (ru) was established in the east of the region. The authorities of both republics succeeded in uniting their states, and on May 1, 1947, the Autonomous Government of Inner Mongolia was created in most of Mengjiang in the provinces of Suiyuan, Rehe and Chakhar.

Emission in the territory Inner Mongolia[edit]

5 jiao of 1938 года

At the beginning of 1937, the South Chakhar Bank (Cha-Nan Bank) was created in Kalgan, for its issue it used banknotes of the “Provincial Bank of Three Eastern Provinces”, sample 1929, in 1, 5, 10 and 100 yuan, which were overprinted[1]. Soon, this bank was replaced by the newly created Bank of Menjiang, which began issuing new banknotes. The Bank of Mengjiang issued banknotes of 5 fyn, 1, 5 jiao, 5 jiao - 50 fyn, 1, 5, 10, 100 yuan[2]. In 1938, a 5-jiao copper-nickel coin was issued[3].

After the liquidation of the Mongolian Autonomous Federation in 1945 and the proclamation of the People’s Republic of Inner Mongolia, the Mengjiang Banknotes continued to be used in circulation. In 1945–1946, the Yuan of the Red Army Command (ru) was issued to provide Soviet military units, in parallel with the previously issued banknotes[4].

In August 1948, monetary reform began in China, and on December 1 of the same year, the People's Bank of China was established through the merger of three banks. However, the unification of monetary circulation in China required considerable time and was completed only by the beginning of 1952. The exchange rate for the single currency was set separately for each local issue of money. The exchange of the yuan of Inner Mongolia into the bank notes of the People’s Bank of China was made in 1951 at a ratio of 91⁄2: 1.

Banknotes of Mengjiang Bank[edit]

Image Face value Dimensions
(mm)
Front side Downside
Mengjiang banknote 27 5 Fen.jpg Mengjiang banknote 27 5 Fen back.jpg 5 fen
Mengjiang banknote 74 1jiao.jpg Mengjiang banknote 74 1jiao back.jpg 1 Chiao/jiao
Mengjiang banknote 1 yuan.jpg Mengjiang banknote 1 yuan back.jpg 1 yuan
Mengjiang banknote 15 5 Yuan.jpg Mengjiang banknote 15 5 Yuan backside.jpg 5 yuan
Mengjiangbanknote10yuan.jpg Mengjiang banknote 10yuan back.jpg 10 yuan

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cuhaj 2008, pp. 355.
  2. ^ Cuhaj 2008, pp. 353-354.
  3. ^ Cuhaj 2011, pp. 446.
  4. ^ Сенилов 1991.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Сенилов Б.В. (1991). Военные деньги Второй мировой войны. М.: Финансы и статистика.
  • Cuhaj G., Michael T., Miller H. (2011). Standard Catalog of World Coins 1901-2000 (39-е изд ed.). Iola: Krause Publications. ISBN 978-1-4402-1160-7.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  • Cuhaj G.S. (2008). Standard Catalog of World Paper Money. General Issues 1368—1960 (12-е изд ed.). Iola: Krause Publications. ISBN 978-0-89689-730-4.