Meningoencephalitis ( ; from Greek: meninges- membranes; enkephalos brain; and -itis inflammation) is a medical condition that simultaneously resembles both meningitis, which is an infection or inflammation of the meninges, and encephalitis, which is an infection or inflammation of the brain.
Causative organisms include
protozoans, viral and bacterial pathogens.
Specific types include:
Bacterial [ edit ]
Other/multiple [ edit ]
Protozoal [ edit ]
Ameobic pathogens exist as free-living protozoans. Nevertheless, these pathogens cause rare and uncommon CNS infections. N. fowleri produces primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). The symptoms of PAM are indistinguishable from acute bacterial meningitis. Other amebae cause granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE), which is a more subacute and can even a non-symptomatic chronic infection. Ameobic meningoencephalitis can mimic a brain abscess, aseptic or chronic meningitis, or CNS malignancy.
Animal pathogens exist as
facultative parasites. They are an exceptionally rare cause of meningoencephalitis. [6 ]
Prognosis [ edit ]
The disease is associated with high rates of
mortality and severe morbidity.
Notable cases [ edit ]
It was cause of death of the popular British TV presenter
Christopher Price. [7 ]
In May, 2009 former Premier of New South Wales (Australia)
Morris Iemma was admitted to hospital with meningoencephalitis. [8 ]
Recent medical research indicates that it was the cause of
Mary Ingalls' (older sister of Laura Ingalls) blindness (not scarlet fever as the book indicates). [9 ] [10 ] [11 ] [12 ]
In popular culture [ edit ]
In the 2011 film
Contagion, the pandemic disease kills when it causes meningoencephalitis in patients. The film's virus is named Meningoencephalitis Virus One (MEV-1).
In the 'House' episode Euphoria (Part 2), primary amoebic meningoencephalitis was the cause of Foreman's symptoms.
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ Bruyn HB, Sexton HM, Brainerd HD (March 1957). "Mumps meningoencephalitis; a clinical review of 119 cases with one death". Calif Med 86 (3): 153–60. PMC 1512024. PMID 13404512.
^ Newton, PJ; Newsholme, W; Brink, NS; Manji, H; Williams, IG; Miller, RF (2002). "Acute meningoencephalitis and meningitis due to primary HIV infection". BMJ (Clinical research ed.) 325 (7374): 1225–7. doi: 10.1136/bmj.325.7374.1225. PMC 1124692. PMID 12446542.
^ Del Saz, SV; Sued, O; Falcó, V; Agüero, F; Crespo, M; Pumarola, T; Curran, A; Gatell, JM; et al. (2008). "Acute meningoencephalitis due to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in 13 patients: clinical description and follow-up". Journal of neurovirology 14 (6): 474–9. doi: 10.1080/13550280802195367. PMID 19037815.
^ Orgogozo JM, Gilman S, Dartigues JF, et al. (2003-07-08). "Subacute meningoencephalitis in a subset of patients with AD after Aß42 immunization". Neurology 61 (1): 46–54. doi: 10.1212/01.WNL.0000073623.84147.A8. PMID 12847155 . Retrieved . 2008-05-01
^ at Amebic Meningoencephalitis eMedicine
^ "Rare parasitic worm kills two kidney donor patients, inquest hears". The Guardian. 2014-11-18 . Retrieved . 2014-11-24
^ "Presenter Killed by Rare Infection". BBC News. 2002-06-19 . Retrieved . 2008-05-01
^ Silmalis, Linda (2009-06-28). "Paralysed Iemma fights to walk again". The Sunday Telegraph . Retrieved . 2009-06-28
^ Allexan, Sarah S.; Byington, Carrie L.; Finkelstein, Jerome I.; Tarini, Beth A. (2013). "Blindness in Walnut Grove: How Did Mary Ingalls Lose Her Sight?". Pediatrics. peds.2012-1438.
^ Dell'Antonia, KJ (2013-02-04). "Scarlet Fever Probably Didn’t Blind Mary Ingalls". New York Times . Retrieved . 2013-02-04
^ Serena, Gordon (2013-02-04). "Mistaken Infection 'On The Prairie'?". U.S. News and World Report . Retrieved . 2013-02-04
^ "What really made Mary Ingalls go blind?". NBC News. 2013-02-04.