For the most part it is conterminous with Menominee County, Wisconsin and the town of Menominee. Many small pockets of territory within the county (and its geographically equivalent town) are not considered to be part of the reservation. These pockets amount to a fairly small 1.14 percent of the county's area; the reservation takes up about 98.86 percent of the county's area. The largest of these pockets is in the western part of the community of Keshena. A section of the reservation is located in the town of Red Springs, in Shawano County, Wisconsin. The reservation has a plot of off-reservation trust land of 10.22 acres in Winnebago County to the south, west of the city of Oshkosh. The reservation's total land area is 353.894 sq mi (916.581 km²), while Menominee County's land area is 357.960 sq mi (927.111 km²).
The non-reservation parts of the county are more densely populated than the reservation, with 1,337 (29.3%) of the county's 4,562 total population, as opposed to the reservation's 3,225 (70.7%) population in the 2000 census. (The plot of land in Winnebago County is unpopulated.) The most populous communities are Legend Lake and Keshena. The Menominee operate a number of gambling facilities. They speak English as well as the Menominee language, part of the Algonquian language family.