Temple menorah

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Menorah (Temple))
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Reconstruction of the menorah of the Temple in Jerusalem, created by the Temple Institute of Israel

The menorah (/məˈnɔːrə/; Hebrew: מְנוֹרָה, Hebrew pronunciation: [menoˈʁa]) is a seven-branched candelabrum that is described in the Hebrew Bible as having been used in the Tabernacle and in the Temple in Jerusalem. Since antiquity, it has served as a symbol of the Jewish people and Judaism in both the Land of Israel and the Diaspora;[1] it is depicted on the Israeli national emblem.

According to the Hebrew Bible, the menorah was made out of pure gold, and the only source of fuel that was allowed to be used to light the lamps was fresh olive oil. Biblical tradition holds that Solomon's Temple was home to ten menorahs, which were later plundered by the Babylonians; the Second Jewish Temple is also said to have been home to a menorah. Following the Roman besiegement of Jerusalem in 70 CE, the menorah was taken to Rome; the Arch of Titus, which still stands today, famously depicts the menorah being carried away by the triumphant Romans along with other spoils of the destroyed Second Jewish Temple. Traces of the temple menorah have been lost since late antiquity.

Representations of the temple menorah have been discovered on Jewish tombs and monuments dating from the first century.[1] As a symbol, the menorah has been used since then to distinguish synagogues and Jewish cemeteries from the places of worship and cemeteries of Christians and pagans.[2] The Hanukkah menorah, a nine-branched variant, is closely associated with the Jewish festival of Hanukkah.

Construction and appearance[edit]

Hebrew Bible[edit]

The Hebrew Bible states that God revealed the design for the menorah to Moses and describes the construction of the menorah as follows:[3]

31Make a lampstand of pure gold. Hammer out its base and shaft, and make its flowerlike cups, buds and blossoms of one piece with them. 32Six branches are to extend from the sides of the lampstand—three on one side and three on the other. 33Three cups shaped like almond flowers with buds and blossoms are to be on one branch, three on the next branch, and the same for all six branches extending from the lampstand. 34And on the lampstand are to be four cups shaped like almond flowers with buds and blossoms. 35One bud shall be under the first pair of branches extending from the lampstand, a second bud under the second pair, and a third bud under the third pair—six branches in all. 36The buds and branches shall be all of one piece with the lampstand, hammered out of pure gold.

37Then make its seven lamps and set them up on it so that they light the space in front of it. 38Its wick trimmers and trays are to be of pure gold. 39A talent of pure gold is to be used for the lampstand and all these accessories. 40See that you make them according to the pattern shown you on the mountain.[4]

The Book of Numbers (Chapter 8) adds that the seven lamps are to give light in front of the lampstand and reiterates that the lampstand was made in accordance with the pattern shown to Moses on the mountain.[5]

In other sources[edit]

Rabbinic sources teach that the menorah stood 18 handbreadths/palms (three common cubits) high, or approximately 1.62 metres (5.3 ft).[6] Although the menorah was placed in the antechamber of the Temple sanctuary, over against its southernmost wall, the Talmud (Menahot 98b) brings down a dispute between two scholars on whether or not the menorah was situated north to south, or east to west.

Maimonides' drawing of the menorah.

The branches are often artistically depicted as semicircular, but Rashi,[7] (according to some contemporary readings) and Maimonides (in a sketch commented on by his son Avraham),[8] held that they were straight;[9] all other Jewish authorities, both classical (e.g. Philo and Josephus) and medieval (e.g. Ibn Ezra) who express an opinion on the subject state that the arms were round.[10]

The Roman-Jewish historian Josephus, who witnessed the Temple's destruction, says that the menorah was actually situated obliquely, to the east and south.[11]

Arch of Titus[edit]

Depiction of the menorah on a modern replica of the Arch of Titus in Rome, displayed in the Beit Hatfutsot: Museum of the Jewish People in Tel Aviv.

The most famous preserved representation of the menorah of the Second Temple was depicted in a frieze on the Arch of Titus, commemorating his triumphal parade in Rome following the destruction of Jerusalem in the year 70 CE.[12] In that frieze, the menorah is shown resting upon a hexagonal base, which in turn rests upon a slightly larger but concentric and identically shaped base; a stepwise appearance on all sides is thus produced. Each facet of the hexagonal base was made with two vertical stiles and two horizontal rails, a top rail and a bottom rail, resembling a protruding frame set against a sunken panel. These panels have some relief design set or sculpted within them.

Magdala Stone[edit]

Stone with menorah that was found in the archaeological site Magdala.

In 2009, the ruins of a synagogue in Magdala with pottery dating from before the destruction of the Second Temple were discovered under land owned by the Legionaries of Christ, who had intended to construct a center for women's studies.[13] Inside that synagogue's ruins, a carved stone block was discovered, which had on its surface, among other ornate carvings, a depiction of the seven-lamp menorah differing markedly from the depiction on the Arch of Titus, which could possibly have been carved by an eyewitness to the actual menorah present at the time in the Temple at Jerusalem. This menorah has arms which are polygonal, not rounded, and the base is not graduated but triangular. It is notable, however, that this artifact was found a significant distance from Jerusalem and the Arch of Titus has often been interpreted as an eyewitness account of the original menorah being looted from the temple in Jerusalem.

Usage[edit]

According to the Book of Exodus, the lamps of the menorah were lit daily from fresh, consecrated olive oil and burned from evening until morning.[14]

Josephus states that three of the seven lamps were allowed to burn during the day also;[15] however, according to one opinion in the Talmud, only the center lamp was left burning all day, into which as much oil was put as into the others.[16] Although all the other lights were extinguished, that light continued burning oil, in spite of the fact that it had been kindled first. This miracle, according to the Talmud, was taken as a sign that the Shechinah rested among Israel.[17] It was called the ner hama'aravi (Western lamp) because of the direction of its wick. This lamp was also referred to as the ner Elohim (lamp of God), mentioned in I Samuel 3:3.[18][1] According to the Talmud, the miracle of the ner hama'aravi ended after the High Priesthood of Simon the Just in the 3rd or 4th century BC.[19]

Contrary to some modern designs, the ancient menorah burned oil and did not contain anything resembling candles, which were unknown in the Middle East until about 400 CE.

History[edit]

Tabernacle[edit]

The original menorah was made for the tabernacle, and the Bible records it as being present until the Israelites crossed the Jordan River. When the tabernacle tent was pitched in Shiloh,[20][21] it is assumed that the menorah was also present. However, no mention is made of it during the years that the Ark of the Covenant was moved in the times of Samuel and Saul.[22]

Solomon's Temple[edit]

According to 2 Kings and the Books of Chronicles, Solomon created ten lampstands ("menorahs"), that were put in the heikal, Solomon's Temple main chamber.[23][24][25] The weight of the lampstands forms part of the detailed instructions given to Solomon by David. According to the Book of Jeremiah, the lampstands were taken away by the Babylonian general Nebuzaradan following the destruction of Jerusalem.[26]

Second Temple[edit]

During the construction of the Second Temple following the Return to Zion, no mention is made of the return of the menorah but only of "vessels."[27] The book of Maccabees records that Antiochus IV took away the lampstands (plural) when he pillaged the Temple.[28] The later record of the making of "new holy vessels" may refer to the manufacture of new lampstands.[29]

Rome[edit]

The menorah from the Second Temple was carried to Rome after the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 CE at the height of the First Jewish–Roman War. Its fate is recorded by Josephus, who states that it was brought to Rome and carried along during the triumph of Vespasian and Titus. The bas relief on the Arch of Titus in Rome depicts a scene of Roman soldiers carrying away the spoils of the Second Temple, including the menorah.

Destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem by Francesco Hayez. The menorah is carried away by Roman soldiers, on the bottom-left corner. Oil on canvas, 1867.

For centuries, the menorah and the other temple treasures were displayed as war trophies either at the Temple of Peace in Rome, or in the Imperial Palace.[30] It was still there when the city was sacked by Vandals in 455 CE.[31]

Following the Vandal sack of Rome[edit]

Painting on Genseric sacking Rome by Karl Bryullov (1833-1836), depicting the menorah taken away by the Vandals.

Carried off by the Vandals during the Sack of Rome in 455 CE, the Menorah and other assorted treasures of the Temple in Jerusalem were taken to Carthage, the capital of the Vandal Kingdom.[32][33][34][35] They were still there when a Byzantine army under General Belisarius captured the city and defeated the Vandals in 533. Belisarius removed the Menorah and the other treasures and brought them to Constantinople as trophies of war. According to Procopius, the Menorah was carried through the streets of Constantinople during Belisarius' triumphal procession.[36][33][34][35] Procopius adds that Justinian, prompted by superstitious fear that the treasures had been unlucky for Rome and Carthage, sent them back to Jerusalem and the "sanctuaries of the Christians" there. No record however exists of their arrival there, and there are no indications of pilgrimages to a shrine for the Menorah there. If the Menorah arrived in Jerusalem, it may have been destroyed when Jerusalem was pillaged by the Persians in 614, though legend suggests that it was secreted away by holy men, much as tradition purports the original Menorah was hidden before Nebuchadnezzar's invasion.[33][34][37][36]

Legends and theories hypothesize the Menorah may have been melted down or broken into chunks of gold by conquerors, destroyed in a fire, kept at or returned to Constantinople, or lost in a shipwreck. One persistent rumor is that the Vatican has kept it hidden for centuries. Some claim that it has been kept in Vatican City, others that it is in the cellars of the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran.[31][38]

In the Avot of Rabbi Natan, one of the minor tractates printed with the Babylonian Talmud, there is a listing of Jewish treasures, which according to Jewish oral tradition are still in Rome, as they have been for centuries.

The objects that were crafted, and then hidden away are these: the tent of meeting and the vessels contained therein, the ark and the broken tablets, the container of manna, and the flask of anointing oil, the stick of Aaron and its almonds and flowers, the priestly garments, and the garments of the anointed [high] priest.

But, the spice-grinder of the family of Avtinas [used to make the unique incense in the Temple], the [golden] table [of the showbread], the menorah, the curtain [that partitioned the holy from the holy-of-holies], and the head-plate are still sitting in Rome.[39]

Symbolism[edit]

Judaism[edit]

Seven-branched menorah, Eshtemoa synagogue (4th–5th century CE). Rockefeller Museum

The menorah symbolized the ideal of universal enlightenment.[40] The idea that the menorah symbolizes wisdom is noted in the Talmud, for example, in the following: "Rabbi Isaac said: He who desires to become wise should incline to the south [when praying]. The symbol [by which to remember this] is that… the Menorah was on the southern side [of the Temple]."[41]

The seven lamps allude to the branches of human knowledge, represented by the six lamps inclined inwards towards, and symbolically guided by, the light of God represented by the central lamp. The menorah also symbolizes the creation in seven days, with the center light representing the Sabbath.[1]

Menorah in the Cave of the Sarcophagi, Beit She'arim necropolis

Hannukah Menorah[edit]

19th century Hanukkah menorah from Austria-Hungary. Musée d'Art et d'Histoire du Judaïsme

A nine-branched menorah is also a symbol closely associated with the Jewish holiday of Hanukkah. According to the Talmud, after the Seleucid desecration of the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem, there was only enough sealed (and therefore not desecrated) consecrated olive oil left to fuel the eternal flame in the Temple for one day. Miraculously, the oil burned for eight days, which was enough time to make new pure oil.

The Talmud states that it is prohibited to use a seven-lamp menorah outside of the Temple.[42] A Hanukkah menorah therefore has eight main branches, plus the raised ninth lamp set apart as the shamash (servant) light which is used to kindle the other lights. The word shamash was not originally a "Hanukkah word" and only became associated with the holiday in the 16th century although it first appeared in the Mishnah (c. 200 C.E.) and Talmud (c. 500 C.E.).[43] This type of menorah is called a hanukkiah in Modern Hebrew.[1]

Kabbalah and the symbol of light[edit]

This is alluded to in the verses: "Though I walk through the valley of the deepest darkness, I will fear no evil, because You are with me"[44] and "because even if I have fallen, I will rise again; even if I feel in the darkness, Hashem is my light. "Let the light of Divinity perceptions descend into the depths of "darkness ", into "the valley of the deepest darkness", to illuminate the lowest, so that even that light and consciousness of Divinity reaches them, so that He can heal and correct them to return them to Him.[45]

In Kabbalah Or Panim ("the light of the Face") is a fundamental conception for the process called Tikkun. All the Kavvanot, the spiritual measures of faith for the realization of the Kingdom of God, focus on the manifestation of the Or Panim; actually darkness is in itself a negative element, that is, it does not give the hope of obtaining complete devotion: "darkness" is like an inaccessible place, darkness conceals the depth of the gaze; in Chassidut an awakening from below is the "service" for God, i.e. the Avodah.

During the victory of the Kedushah in Hanukkah, the Kohen Gadol almost declared that divine light must triumph. When the risk of "fall" can do the loss of faith in the Jewish religion as the abyss of Israel's personal and collective identity, the Kohen Gadol thus insists for the "awakening" of the most distant souls in order to direct them with Kavanah towards the fulfillment of the Mitzvot: ...because the Torah is the light and the Mitzvah is a lamp.

Christianity[edit]

Reverse of 1590 coin in honor of Urban VII with menorah and the legend
SIC•LUCEAT•LUX•VESTRA
(Let your light so shine – Matt. 5:16)

The New Testament Book of Revelation refers to a mystery of seven golden lampstands representing seven churches.[46] The messages to the seven churches from Jesus Christ found have at least four applications: (1) a local application to the specific cities and believers in the church; (2) to all the churches of all generations; (3) a prophetic application unveiling seven distinct phases of church history from the days of the apostle John until today; (4) a personal application to individual believers who have ears to hear what the Spirit is saying.[47]

According to Clement of Alexandria and Philo Judaeus, the seven lamps of the golden menorah represented the seven classical planets in this order: the Moon, Mercury, Venus, the Sun, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn.[48][unreliable source?]

It is also said to symbolize the burning bush as seen by Moses on Mount Horeb.[49][50]

The giant menorah from the 14th century in the Basilica of the Assumption of Our Lady, Brno

Kevin Conner has noted of the original menorah, described in Exodus 25, that each of the six tributary branches coming out of the main shaft was decorated with three sets of "cups... shaped like almond blossoms... a bulb and a flower..." (Exodus 25:33, NASB).[51] This would create three sets of three units on each branch, a total of nine units per branch. The main shaft, however, had four sets of blossoms, bulbs and flowers, making a total of twelve units on the shaft (Exodus 25:34). This would create a total of 66 units, which Conner claims is a picture of the Protestant canon of scripture (containing 66 books). Moreover, Conner notes that the total decorative units on the shaft and three branches equate to 39 (the number of Old Testament books within Protestant versions of the Bible); and the units on the remaining three branches come to 27 (the number of New Testament books).[52] Conner connects this to Bible passages that speak of God's word as a light or lamp (e.g. Psalms 119:105; Psalms 119:130; cf. Proverbs 6:23).[53]

In the Eastern Orthodox Church the use of the menorah has been preserved, always standing on or behind the altar in the sanctuary.[54] Though candles may be used, the traditional practice is to use olive oil in the seven-lamp lampstand. There are varying liturgical practices, and usually all seven lamps are lit for the services, though sometimes only the three centermost are lit for the lesser services. If the church does not have a sanctuary lamp the centermost lamp of the seven lamps may remain lit as an eternal flame.

The menorah has also become a symbol for the Iglesia ni Cristo since the 20th century.

Samaritanism[edit]

Samaritan stone lamps were a major feature of Samaritan synagogues in the Byzantine period.[55]

Modern Jewish use[edit]

In synagogues[edit]

Synagogues have a continually lit lamp or light in front of the Torah ark, where the Torah scroll is kept, called the ner tamid (eternal light). This lamp represents the continually lit ner Elohim of the menorah used in Temple times.[1] In addition, many synagogues display either a menorah or an artistic representation of a menorah.

State of Israel[edit]

The Emblem of Israel shows a menorah surrounded by an olive branch on each side and the writing "ישראל" (Israel) based on its depiction on the Arch of Titus.

A menorah appears in the Emblem of Israel, based on the depiction of the menorah on the Arch of Titus.

Temple Institute reconstruction[edit]

The Temple Institute has created a life-sized menorah, designed by goldsmith Chaim Odem, intended for use in a future Third Temple. The Jerusalem Post describes the menorah as made "according to excruciatingly exacting Biblical specifications and prepared to be pressed into service immediately should the need arise."[56] The menorah is made of one talent (interpreted as 45 kg) of 24 karat pure gold, hammered out of a single block of solid gold, with decorations based on the depiction of the original in the Arch of Titus and the Temple Institute's interpretation of the relevant religious texts.

Other modern Jewish uses[edit]

A menorah appeared on the cap badge of the First Judeans of the Jewish Legion (1919–1921).

Sometimes when teaching learners of the Hebrew language, a chart shaped like the seven-lamp menorah is used to help students remember the role of the binyanim of the Hebrew verb.

The menorah is the main element in several Holocaust memorials.

Similar objects[edit]

The kinara is also, like the menorah, a seven candleholder which is associated with the African American festival of Kwanzaa. One candle is lit on each day of the week-long celebration, in a similar manner as the Hannukah menorah.

In Taoism, the Seven-Star Lamp qi xing deng 七星燈 is a seven-lamp oil lamp lit to represent the seven stars of the Northern Dipper.[57] This lampstand is a requirement for all Taoist temples, never to be extinguished. In the first 9 days of the lunar 9th month festival, an oil lamp of nine connected lamps may also be lit to honour both the Northern Dipper and two other assistant stars (collectively known as the Nine Emperor Stars), sons of Dou Mu appointed by the Taoist Trinity (the Three Pure Ones) to hold the Books of Life and Death of humanity. The lamps represent the illumination of the 7 stars, and lighting them are believed to absolve sins while prolonging one's lifespan.

In popular culture[edit]

The menorah features prominently in the 2013 crypto-thriller The Sword of Moses by Dominic Selwood. It is also featured in the archaeology novels Crusader Gold, by David Gibbins, and The Last Secret of the Temple, by Paul Sussman. A menorah can be seen in the movie X-Men: First Class, when Charles Xavier reads Erik Lehnsherr's mind, searching for a happy memory from his childhood before the Holocaust, and together they see Erik as a young child lighting his first menorah with his mother.

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Birnbaum, Philip (1975). A Book of Jewish Concepts. New York: Hebrew Publishing Company. pp. 366–367. ISBN 088482876X.
  2. ^ Hachlili, Rachel (2018). The Menorah: Evolving into the most important Jewish symbol. Leiden. ISBN 978-90-04-37509-3. OCLC 1033561712.
  3. ^ Exodus 25:31–40
  4. ^ Exodus 25:31-40, New International Version.
  5. ^ Numbers 8:1-4
  6. ^ Babylonian Talmud (Menahot 28b); Maimonides, Mishne Torah (Hil. Beit ha-Baḥirah 3:10 ). Figure is based on the accepted rabbinic view that there are four finger-widths to every handbreadth/palm, and each finger-width is estimated at 2.25 cm. This measurement does not include the step-like platform upon which it rested.
  7. ^ Rashi, Exodus 25:32
  8. ^ Commentary on Exodus, ch 7
  9. ^ Maimonides depicted them as straight in a manuscript drawing, but see Seth Mandel's alternative interpretation below.
  10. ^ See the Rebbe Menachem Mendel Schneerson, Likkutei Sichot, vol 21, pp 168-171.
  11. ^ Josephus, Antiquities (Book iii, chapter vi, section 7).
  12. ^ "Arch of Titus". penelope.uchicago.edu.
  13. ^ First-century Synagogue Discovered on Site of Legion’s Magdala Center in Galilee 11 September 2009 - regnumchristi.org
  14. ^ Exodus 27:21
  15. ^ Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Seven-Branch Candlestick" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  16. ^ "Shabbat 22b:2". www.sefaria.org.
  17. ^ "Menachot 86b:8". www.sefaria.org.
  18. ^ I Samuel 3:3
  19. ^ "Yoma 39a:15". www.sefaria.org.
  20. ^ Joshua 18:1
  21. ^ 1 Samuel 3:3
  22. ^ 1 Samuel 5:1
  23. ^ 1 Kings 7:49
  24. ^ 1 Chronicles 28:15
  25. ^ 2 Chronicles 4:7
  26. ^ Jeremiah 52:19
  27. ^ Ezra 1:9–10)
  28. ^ 1 Maccabees 1:21
  29. ^ 1 Maccabees 4:49
  30. ^ Tucci, Pier Luigi, The Temple of Peace in Rome (2017), p.10
  31. ^ a b Povoledo, Elisabetta (20 February 2017). "Vatican and Rome's Jewish Museum Team Up for Menorah Exhibit". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  32. ^ Edward Gibbon: The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (Volume 7: Chapter XLI. From the Online Library of Liberty. The J. B. Bury edition, in 12 volumes.)
  33. ^ a b c Donagan, Zechariah , Mountains Before the Temple (2009), p.66
  34. ^ a b c Friedman, Asaf, Art and Architecture of the Synagogue in Byzantine Palaestina (2019), p.31
  35. ^ a b Garr, John D., Living Emblems Ancient Symbols of Faith (2009), p. 68
  36. ^ a b "The Project Gutenberg eBook of History of the Wars, Books III and IV (of 8), by Procopius". www.gutenberg.org.
  37. ^ Garr, John D., Living Emblems Ancient Symbols of Faith (2009), p. 68
  38. ^ Donagan, Zechariah , Mountains Before the Temple (2009), pp.66-67
  39. ^ "Avot D'Rabbi Natan 41:12". www.sefaria.org.
  40. ^ Chanan Morrison, Abraham Isaac Kook, Gold from the Land of Israel: A New Light on the Weekly Torah Portion - From the Writings of Rabbi Abraham Isaac HaKohen Kook, page 239 (Urim Publications, 2006). ISBN 965-7108-92-6
  41. ^ Epstein, Isadore, ed. (1976). Babylonian Talmud: Tractate Baba Bathra (English and Hebrew ed.). Soncino Press. p. 12a. ISBN 978-0900689642.
  42. ^ Menahot 28b
  43. ^ Johnson, George (15 November 2018). "Jewish Word:Shamash". Moment Magazine.
  44. ^ Book of psalms
  45. ^ Rabbi Nathan, Moshe Mykoff. Likutey Halajot: ORAJ JAIM Hashkamat Haboker Breslov Research Institute
  46. ^ Rev. 1:12,20
  47. ^ Rev. 1. TPT version, translator's footnote 'ax'
  48. ^ p.10, Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry by Albert Pike (L.H. Jenkins, 1871 [1948])
  49. ^ Exodus 3
  50. ^ Robert Lewis Berman, A House of David in the Land of Jesus, page 18 (Pelican, 2007). ISBN 978-1-58980-720-4
  51. ^ NASB, The Lockman Foundation, 1995
  52. ^ Kevin Conner, The Tabernacle of Moses, City Christian Publishing (1976), p43
  53. ^ Kevin Conner, The Tabernacle of Moses, City Christian Publishing (1976), p43-44
  54. ^ Hapgood, Isabel (1975) [1922]. "Service Book of the Holy Orthodox-Catholic Apostolic Church" (5th ed.). Englewood NJ: Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese: xxx. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  55. ^ Erlich (Zhabo), Ze’ev H.; Rotter, Meir (2021). "ארבע מנורות שומרוניות בכפר חג'ה שבשומרון" [Four Samaritan Menorahs from the village of Hajjeh, Samaria]. במעבה ההר. Ariel University Publishing. 11 (2): 188–204. doi:10.26351/IHD/11-2/3. S2CID 245363335.
  56. ^ "CITYsights: More than a model menorah". The Jerusalem Post.
  57. ^ Jeaneane D. Fowler, An Introduction to the Philosophy and Religion of Taoism: Pathways to Immortality, page 213 (Sussex Academic Press, 2005). ISBN 1-84519-085-8

Further reading[edit]

  • Fine, Steven. 2010. "'The Lamps of Israel': The Menorah as a Jewish Symbol." In Art and Judaism in the Greco-Roman World: Toward a New Jewish Archaeology. By Steven Fine, 148–163. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • --. 2016. The Menorah: From the Bible to Modern Israel. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2016.
  • Hachlili, Rachel. 2001. The Menorah, the Ancient Seven-Armed Candelabrum: Origin, Form, and Significance. Leiden: E.J. Brill.
  • Levine, Lee I. 2000. "The History and Significance of the Menorah in Antiquity." In From Dura to Sepphoris: Studies in Jewish Art and Society in Late Antiquity. Edited by Lee I. Levine and Ze’ev Weiss, 131–53. Supplement 40. Portsmouth, RI: Journal of Roman Archaeology.
  • Williams, Margaret H. 2013. "The Menorah in a Sepulchral Context: A Protective, Apotropaic Symbol?" In The Image and Its Prohibition in Jewish Antiquity. Edited by Sarah Pearce, 77–88. Journal of Jewish Studies, Supplement 2. Oxford: Journal of Jewish Studies.

External links[edit]