Mental Rotations Test

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The Mental Rotations Test is a test of spatial ability by Steven G. Vandenberg and Allan R. Kuse, first published in 1978. It has been used in hundreds of studies since then.[1]

A meta-analysis of studies using this test showed that men performed better than women with no changes seen by birth cohort.[2]


  1. ^ M. Peters, B. Laeng, K. Latham, M. Jackson, R. Zaiyouna, C. Richardson (1995). "A Redrawn Vandenberg and Kuse Mental Rotations Test - Different Versions and Factors That Affect Performance". Brain and Cognition.
  2. ^ Voyer, Daniel (April 2011). "Time limits and gender differences on paper-and-pencil tests of mental rotation: a meta-analysis". Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. 18 (2): 267–277. doi:10.3758/s13423-010-0042-0. ISSN 1069-9384.