Mental disability is a broad concept which may refer to any of a number of specific disabilities:
- Developmental disability, a chronic condition that is due to mental impairments, often detected early in a child's development. There are however, many developmental disabilities that have no effect on the intellect.
- Disabilities affecting intellectual abilities, a broad concept encompassing various intellectual or cognitive deficits
- Intellectual disability, aka intellectual developmental disability (IDD), general learning disability, or mental retardation (MR), a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning
- Learning disability, a classification that includes several areas of functioning in which a person has difficulty learning in a typical manner
- Mental disorder (also called mental illness or psychiatric disorder), a diagnosis of a behavioral or mental pattern that can cause suffering or a poor ability to function in ordinary life
- Neurodevelopmental disorder, impairments of the growth and development of the brain or central nervous system
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