მეფე (mepe) literally means king, but was used by female monarchs of Georgia as well.
Georgian language having no grammatical gender, word mepe is strictly masculine royal title.
Even though მეფე (mepe) has a female equivalent which is დედოფალი (dedopali, literally meaning queen) it is only applied to the king's consort and does not have a meaning of a ruling monarch.
Later, after David IV official title of king has become "mepet mepe" (king of kings), similar to Persian Shahanshah.
- Georgia, Tim Burford, p15
- Law in Medieval Russia, Ferdinand Joseph Maria Feldbrugge, p331
- Etymological Dictionary of the Kartvelian Languages, Georgij A. Klimov, p120
- Syntactic Analysis and Description: A Constructional Approach, David Lockwood, p214
- Stability, Variation, and Change of Word-order Patterns Over Time, Rosanna Sornicola, Erich Poppe, Ariel Shisha-Halevy, p158
- Women's Movements: Networks and Debates in Post-communist Countries in the 19th and 20th Centuries, Edith Saurer, Margareth Lanzinger, Elisabeth Frysak, Böhlau Verlag Köln Weimar, 2006, p65
- Studies in Relational Grammar, Volume 2, David M. Perlmutter, Carol G. Rosen, p276
- Royal Imagery in Medieval Georgia, Antony Eastmond, p109