Mercaz HaRav massacre
|Mercaz HaRav Massacre|
|Location||The Mercaz HaRav yeshiva at Kiryat Moshe, Jerusalem, Israel|
|Date||6 March 2008
8:36 pm – 8:56 pm (GMT+2)
|Mass shooting, massacre, school shooting|
|Deaths||8 students and 1 perpetrator|
|Perpetrator||Lone Palestinian assailant (Alaa Abu Dhein)|
|Defenders||Yitzhak Dadon and David Shapira|
The Mercaz HaRav massacre, also called the Mercaz HaRav shooting, was a mass shooting attack that occurred on 6 March 2008, in which a lone Palestinian gunman shot multiple students at the Mercaz HaRav yeshiva, a religious school in Jerusalem, Israel, after which the gunman himself was shot dead. Eight students and the perpetrator were killed. Eleven more were wounded, five of them placed in serious to critical condition.
The attack began at 8:36 p.m. local time and ended about twenty minutes later. According to survivor Mijael Mendelson, the attack lasted about 14 minutes. Mendelson reports he saw the time before the shooting started and shortly after knowing the gunman was dead. The attacker was stopped by long-time Mercaz HaRav student Yitzchak Dadon and off-duty Israel Defense Forces Captain David Shapira who fought back using their personal firearms.[clarification needed]
The attack was praised by Hamas and, according to a subsequent poll, was supported by 84 percent of the Palestinian population, the highest result showing support for violence in 15 years, which the pollster concluded was the result of recent actions by Israel in Gaza and the West Bank. It was condemned in official statements by various countries around the world.
The attacker, Alaa Abu Dhein, age 26, from the Arab neighborhood of Jabel Mukaber in East Jerusalem, who, according to his family, worked as a driver for a private company that made deliveries to the yeshiva, entered the building carrying a box concealing an AKM along with several magazines, later firing as many as 500–600 rounds.
Less than twenty[not in citation given] minutes after he started shooting, the attacker was shot by a part-time student, Yitzhak Dadon (40). Dadon said that he waited on the roof of a nearby building with a rifle. "He came out of the library spraying automatic fire ... the terrorist came to the entrance and I shot him twice in the head."
Capt. David Shapira, an officer in the Israel Defense Forces who was living nearby but not on duty at the time and was a graduate of the yeshiva, heard the gunfire, entered, and shortly thereafter confirmed that the shooter was dead at the scene. A police patrolman who arrived at the scene before Shapira, remained outside in an effort to "freeze the situation" by preventing civilians from entering instead of making contact and stopping the shooting.
- 8:36 pm – First call received by a Magen David Adom operator from a yeshiva student inside the building requesting emergency services.
- 8:37 pm – First ambulances dispatched.
- 8:40 pm – The first police car arrives at the scene; officer does not enter.
- 8:41 pm – First paramedic on site reports of one wounded.
- 8:42 pm – Shapira enters the yeshiva.
- 8:45 pm – Two detectives arrive on the scene.
- 8:45 pm – Dadon shoots the attacker.
- 8:51 pm – 'A.R.A.N.' declared (multiple wounded event).
- 8:57 pm – MADA operator reports 'end of shooting' and orders paramedics into yeshiva.
|Segev Pniel Avihail||15||Neve Daniel||Yashlatz|
|Avraham David Moses||16||Efrat||Yashlatz|
|Yehonatan Yitzhak Eldar||16||Shilo||Yashlatz|
|Ro'i Roth||18||Elkana||Mercaz Harav|
|Yonadav Chaim Hirshfeld||18||Kokhav HaShahar||Mercaz Harav|
|Doron Mahareta||26||Ashdod||Mercaz Harav|
In addition to those who were shot to death, ten other students were wounded, three seriously.
The gunman, Alaa Abu Dhein (Arabic: علاء أبو دهيم, Hebrew: עלא אבו-דהיים), a resident of Jerusalem, was, according to his family, a driver who delivered goods to the yeshiva; this was later denied by the head of the yeshiva. [clarification needed] The gunman's family said he was an intensely religious Muslim but not a member of any militant group.
Abu Dhein, like other Arab residents of east Jerusalem who choose not to have Israeli citizenship, carried an Israeli identity card that granted him freedom of movement and travel throughout Israel. On 5 January 2009, the Israeli High Court of Justice authorized the demolition of Abu Dhein's family home.
Although Abu Dhaim left behind no statement describing his motive, his sister, Iman Abu Dhaim, told the Associated Press that he had been radicalised by the violence in Gaza, where 126 Palestinians were killed by Israeli forces from Wednesday through Monday, in response to rocket fire from Palestinian terrorist groups based in Gaza.
According to journalist Ian Black, the attack seemed intended to send the message that Israeli attacks on its enemies, either in Gaza, Lebanon or Syria would not go unanswered. The seminary is identified with the spiritual leadership of the Jewish settlement movement in the West Bank, and especially with Gush Emunim. Jerusalem may have been chosen as there had been no attacks in the city during 2007.
Claims of responsibility
Hezbollah television network Al-Manar reported that a group calling itself Galilee Liberators Brigades—the Martyrs of Imad Mughniyeh has claimed responsibility for the attack, raising the possibility that the shooting was in retaliation for the assassination of Imad Mughniyeh. Israel had previously denied responsibility for that assassination.
Hamas praised the attack on Thursday but did not claim responsibility for it. On Friday an anonymous phone call to the Reuters news agency took responsibility on Hamas's behalf. However, Fawzi Barhoum, a senior Hamas spokesman in Gaza, said that no claim was official unless made in a written statement signed by the military wing of Hamas.
Ehud Olmert, Israel's Prime Minister, called the attack "horrible". Olmert also said that the Mercaz Harav yeshiva had produced, "the finest soldiers for many generations; people who have realized the Zionist faith. This yeshiva — which was founded by Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook — has educated and nurtured tradition and legacy, as part of Israel's resilience." A spokesman for Olmert said Israel would act after proper investigation and deliberation, and he condemned those, like Hamas, who celebrated the killings with parades in Gaza. "That Hamas calls this a heroic act, and praises it, this exposes them for what they are", the Olmert spokesman said. However in their grief Olmert was not welcomed to visit the place of Torah learning. A yeshiva spokesperson told Ehud Olmert that he was not welcome at that time, saying it wanted to "save him and us the embarrassment."
Dalia Itzik of the ruling Kadima party, Speaker of the Knesset and acting president while Shimon Peres is overseas, called for the demolition of the mourning tent for the killer and the demolition of his family's home.
A Channel 1 report that three alumni of the yeshiva were planning a revenge attack against a senior Arab official affiliated with a mosque on Jerusalem's Temple Mount, allegedly with permission from several rabbis, was dismissed by Public Security Minister Avi Dichter and the Shin Bet as baseless following their investigation. National Religious Party's MK Zevulun Orlev said he suspected the allegations were an attempt to "blemish religious Zionism."
Yuli Tamir, Israel's Education Minister, who made a condolence visit to the yeshiva two days after the shooting, left and later claimed '[I] was kicked in the back twice, spat at, and verbally attacked by dozens of youths outside building', they called me 'murderer' and they said that "the Left is to blame for everything." She had said at the Yeshivah itself "This [hostility to the left as she saw it] reminded me of the days before (former Prime Minister Yitzhak) Rabin's murder. It's unfortunate that there is a public which cannot put limits from [sic] itself. I only came to pay my respect to the murdered, not to engage in politics." In fact no political assassinations took place in the aftermath of the killing spree, nor were there any threats of political assassinations. The next morning Yuli Tamir threatened to cut off funding for the yeshiva, citing a lack of "democratic values".
The Israel Football Association called for a minute's silence prior to the weekend's football matches, though it was marred in Sakhnin where some supporters of the Arab Bnei Sakhnin team booed. Bnei Sakhnin F.C. spokesman Mundar Haleileh said his club honored the moment of silence, "but we don't have full control over all fans. The association made the decision, and perhaps mixing politics with soccer is a matter to be discussed."
On 17 March, hundreds of activists attacked Arab homes in the east Jerusalem neighborhood Jebl Mukaber in an attempt to raze the house of the family of the gunman. For three hours, the activists chanted "revenge, revenge", vandalized property of the Arab village (which the police tried to prevent), and clashed with the police, whom they accused of "guarding the murderers." Many of the protesters were part of the settler movement and carried signs with slogans such as "Expel the Arab Enemy" and "The Land of Israel for the Jewish People" while others shouted "kill the Arabs". Despite a heavy police blockade at the entrance to Jebl Mukaber and a massive deployment of security forces in the area, the marchers managed to enter the village, stone residents' homes and damage a couple of cars belonging to villagers. The police declared the demonstration illegal, and finally forced the protesters to leave.
At an event one month after the attack, former Sephardi Chief Rabbi Mordechai Eliyahu told some 1,000 attendants that in retribution for the massacre the government should establish a yeshiva or Jewish township for every one of the lives lost that evening. However, other National Religious voices were more moderate. In the same one-month commemoration event, the Chief Rabbi of Ramat Gan, Rabbi Yaacov Ariel, reminded his audience:
We do not seek revenge, only retaliation ... we are against killing innocent people or harming children.
The Israeli human rights group B'Tselem released a statement condemning the attack which read: "B'Tselem severely condemns the Palestinian terror attack that took place in a yeshiva (religious school) in Jerusalem, in which 8 Israeli civilians, including 4 minors were killed and many other persons were injured. Attacks aimed at civilians are immoral, inhuman, and illegal."
- United Nations: The United Nations Security Council failed to agree on a condemnation of the attack due to opposition from Libya which wanted to link the condemnation to a resolution calling for censure of Israel over its actions in Gaza the previous week.
- The Organisation of the Islamic Conference condemned the killings, saying it abhorred violence anywhere in the world.
- Swedish Minister for Foreign Affairs Carl Bildt, described the incident as "an unacceptable terrorist attack."
- United States President George W. Bush condemned the attack, and expressed his solidarity with the families of the victims and the people of Israel. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice expressed her condolences on the attack. She also wrote that "The United States condemns tonight's act of terror and depravity." United States Democratic presidential candidate Senator Barack Obama (IL) phoned Israeli foreign minister Tzipi Livni while she was visiting the US. Obama expressed his condolences to the Israeli people and to the bereaved families in the wake of the terror attack in the Mercaz Harav Yeshiva. He also stressed Israel's right to defend itself and made it clear that both the US and Israel were interested in ensuring that Iran will not be acquiring nuclear weapons. United States Senator Hillary Clinton (D-NY), at the time a leading presidential candidate, said "My thoughts and prayers are with the victims and families who are suffering the loss and horror of this despicable act of terrorism. The United States and the international community must make clear that such deplorable acts of terrorism will not be tolerated and we must continue to stand with Israel in its fight against terror.”
- Argentina's Foreign Ministry said: "Argentina's Government expresses our deep concern at the escalation of tensions and violence in the region and condemns the attack [...]" "Argentina urges for the cessation of violence ... this way will allow the negotiation process for a fair, global and durable peace"
- Canada's Minister of Foreign Affairs Maxime Bernier stated that "Canada condemns this terrorist act in the strongest possible terms. The attack does nothing to advance the Palestinian cause."
- Chinese Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Qin Gang condemned the attack and expressed hope for the lessening of tensions in the Middle East.
- Slovenia, which held the Presidency of the Council of the European Union, issued a statement condemning the attack, and stating that "terrorist acts are unacceptable."
- France's Minister of Foreign Affairs Bernard Kouchner condemned the attack, and called for peace talks to continue despite the attack.
- Germany's Minister of Foreign Affairs Frank-Walter Steinmeier said that the attack horrified him, and expressed his sympathy to the families.
- The Georgian Ministry of Foreign Affairs strongly condemned the attack, and expressed its profound condolences to the families.
- The Indian Ministry for External Affairs condemned "the mindless terrorist attack" in which "eight young innocent Israeli lives were lost" and called for dialogue to end the "current cycle of violence".
- Ireland's Foreign Minister Dermot Ahern "strongly condemned the terrorist attack" and urged "all parties to end the spiral of violence."
- Masahiko Kōmura, the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs, said that "Japan expresses its condolences to the bereaved families as well as deepest sympathy for the people who were injured. Terrorism cannot be justified for any reason, and any attempt to justify it is unacceptable."
- Jordanian police dismantled a mourning tent erected outside the home of relatives of the shooter.
- Norway's Minister of Foreign Affairs Jonas Gahr Støre condemned the attack and expressed his sympathies to the families.
- British Prime Minister Gordon Brown condemned the attack, saying that it was "an attempt to strike a blow at the very heart of the peace process." Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs David Miliband condemned the attack and expressed his hope for a peaceful Middle East.
Praise for the attack
The Palestinian National Authority daily newspaper, Al-Hayat al-Jadida, honored the shooter as a "martyr". The paper prominently placed a picture of the gunman on the front page, with the caption, "The Martyr Alaa Abu Dheim". In a front-page article on the killings, his act was again defined as a "martyrdom-achieving" action. Hamas spokesman Sami Abu Zuhri stated that "This heroic attack in Jerusalem is a normal response to the crimes of the occupier and its murder of civilians".
In a poll taken two weeks later by the Palestinian Center for Policy and Survey Research, 84 percent of Palestinians supported the attack on the Mercaz Harav yeshiva. The pollster, Mr. Shikaki was "shocked" and said the result was the single highest support for an act of violence in his 15 years of polling. According to The New York Times, the pollster posited in his own words that recent Israeli actions had "led to despair and rage among average Palestinians who thirst for revenge", including the death of 130 people as a result of attacks on Gaza, the killing of four militants in an undercover operation in Bethlehem and plans to expand several Israeli settlements in the West Bank.
According to The Jerusalem Post, in March 2008, Abdel Bari Atwan, editor-in-chief of Arab language newspapers, as well as a London based Pan-Arab paper, said the murder of 15-year-old students "was justified" and that the celebrations in Gaza following the murders symbolized "the courage of the Palestinian nation" and "marks Israel's destruction." Conversely in his English language appearances on BBC Dateline and Dutch television, and in his book he stated "We have to learn to live together in peace and co-operation in a multi-cultural society in one democratic secular state for two people. One state for both peoples governed by a representative democracy and on an equal footing. We manage it here in London, it is working in South Africa, and there is enough room for everyone in Palestine. I respect the Jewish people and their religion. I do not want to destroy Israel but I do want to end racism and the current Apartheid system."
- List of school-related attacks
- Ma'alot massacre
- Hebrew University massacre
- Avivim school bus massacre
- Jerusalem bulldozer attack
- Jerusalem BMW attack
- 2014 Jerusalem synagogue massacre
- "Twenty minutes of fire until terrorist killed" (in Hebrew). Nana 10. Archived from the original on 13 March 2008. Retrieved 9 March 2008.
- "Mercaz Harav hit by worst terror attack since April 2006". The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 7 March 2008.
- "Terrorist was a driver for the Yeshiva". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 7 March 2008.[permanent dead link]
- "Eight killed at Jerusalem school", BBC News, 6 March 2008
- "Terror Attack At Jerusalem Seminary – Merkaz HaRav Yeshiva"; 8 Dead, NationalTerrorAlert.com, 6 March 2008.
- Jerusalem seminary attacked, UPI.com, 6 March 2008.
- One year on, horror of yeshiva terror attack still fresh Haaretz, 2009-02-24
- Bronner, Ethan (19 March 2008). "Poll Shows Most Palestinians Favor Violence Over Talks". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 May 2010.
- "Poll: 84% of Palestinians back yeshiva attack". The Jerusalem Post. 19 March 2008. Retrieved 18 March 2011.
- Kershner, Isabel; Steven Erlanger (2008-03-08). "8 Burials for Jerusalem Seminary's Dead". The New York Times.
- "8 murdered by terrorist in J'lem". The Jerusalem Post. Jerusalem. 6 March 2008.
- Zino, Aviram (7 March 2008). "8 killed in Jerusalem terror attack". Ynetnews. Retrieved 2012-12-18.
- "Gunmen open fire in Jerusalem Jewish seminary". CNN. 6 March 2008. Retrieved 7 March 2008.
- "Jerusalem police chief: Cop on duty should have stopped yeshiva attacker", Haaretz. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
- J'lem police chief: Cop on duty should've stopped yeshiva attacker Haaretz, 19 March 2008
- Aviram Zino. "Yeshiva head: This is continuation of 1929 massacre". Ynetnews. Retrieved 7 March 2008.
- Gunman was seminary driver – police, Channel 4. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
- "Eight arrested in probe of Jewish seminary attack". CNN. 8 March 2008. Retrieved 12 May 2010.
- "Demolition of Mercaz Harav terrorist's home authorized". Retrieved 19 November 2014.
- "Attacks Mar Israeli-Palestinian Talks", NPR. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
- "Israel signals that it will continue peace talks despite attack", MSNBC. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
- Black, Ian."A double act of revenge: carefully planned atrocity strikes at Israel's spiritual heart", The Guardian. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
- Lis, Jonathan; Yair Ettinger; Amos Harel. "Eight killed in terrorist attack at Jerusalem yeshiva". Haaretz. Retrieved 6 March 2008.
- Copans, Laurie. Israel Say Peace Talks to Continue
- Vered, Luvitch. "Education minister verbally attacked at Mercaz Harav yeshiva", Ynetnews. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
- "Stricken J'lem yeshiva: PM not welcome to visit", Haaretz, 10 March 2008.
- Knesset speaker calls for demolition of Jerusalem yeshiva terrorist's home Haaretz. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
- McCarthy, Ron."Murder victims buried". The Guardian, 7 March 2008.
- "Rightist rabbis urge Jews to avenge enemies 'measure for measure'", Haaretz, 12 March 2008.
- "Report: Yeshiva graduates plan revenge attack against Arab figure", Haaretz. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
- Yeshiva students warned against Shin Bet agent, The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
- "Itzik: Destroy mourning' tent, home of Jerusalem terrorist". 10 March 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-10.
- "Yuli Tamir threatens to ultimately cut funding of Mercaz Harav". IMRA. 10 March 2008.
- "Moment of silence marred in Sakhnin" Haaretz, 10 March 2008.
- Paz, Shelly (16 March 2008). "22 nabbed in right-wing Jebl Mukaber protest". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 3 April 2008.[permanent dead link]
- "Rabbi Eliyahu: Life of one yeshiva boy worth more than 1,000 Arabs", Ynetnews. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
- "8 Israeli civilian including 4 minors killed by Palestinians in Jerusalem". B'Tselem. 7 March 2008.
- "Eight teens killed in Jerusalem attack". Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 2008-03-06.[permanent dead link]
- "Libya Blocks UN Council Condemnation of Jerusalem Attack". Nasdaq.com. 6 March 2008.
- Mar’i, Mohammed. "Annan, Carter to Launch Mideast Peace Mission", ArabNews.com, 8 March 2008. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
- "Embassy of Sweden". swedenabroad.com. Archived from the original on 14 March 2008. Retrieved 8 March 2008.
- "President Bush Condemns Terrorist Attack in Israel". White House. Retrieved 7 March 2008.
- "Condolences on Attack against Rabbinical Students". state.gov. Archived from the original on 6 March 2008. Retrieved 7 March 2008.
- Obama calls Livni, back's Israel's right for self-defense, Ynetnews. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
- Livni, in U.S., speaks to Obama by phone, pressing Iran issue, Haaretz. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
- Hillary Rodham Clinton, Senator for New York: Statement of Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton on Terrorist Attack in Jerusalem, clinton.senate.gov. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
- "El Gobierno condenó el atentado en Jerusalén" (in Spanish). lanacion.com.ar. Retrieved 7 March 2008.
- "Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada". w01.international.gc.ca. Archived from the original on 16 March 2008. Retrieved 8 March 2008.
- "Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Qin Gang's Remarks on the Attack at a Jewish School in Jerusalem". chinaembassy.org.il. Archived from the original on 14 March 2008. Retrieved 7 March 2008.
- "EU Presidency condemns Jerusalem terror attack". European Commission. Retrieved 8 March 2008.
- "Attentat contre une école talmudique à Jérusalem – Mon site SPIP" (in French). 184.108.40.206. Archived from the original on 14 March 2008. Retrieved 8 March 2008.
- "- Startseite" (in German). tel-aviv.diplo.de. Retrieved 8 March 2008.
- "- עמוד פתיחה" (in Hebrew). tel-aviv.diplo.de. Retrieved 8 March 2008.
- "Ministry Of Foreign Affairs Of Georgia". mfa.gov.ge. Archived from the original on 13 August 2008. Retrieved 8 March 2008.
- "India condemns attack on Israel seminary". The Times of India. 9 March 2008. Retrieved 2 April 2008.
- "Department of Foreign Affairs – Minister Ahern condemns killing of Israeli religious students in Jerusalem". dfa.ie. Retrieved 7 March 2008.
- "MOFA: Statement by Foreign Minister Koumura on the terrorist shooting attack in Jerusalem". mofa.go.jp. Retrieved 8 March 2008.
- "JTA, Jewish & Israel News". jta.org. Archived from the original on 14 March 2008. Retrieved 8 March 2008.
- "Jordan stops public mourning of gunman". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 8 March 2008.[permanent dead link]
- "Norway condemns terrorist attack in Jerusalem". regjeringen.no. Retrieved 8 March 2008.
- "British Embassy Tel Aviv, News: PM Brown condemns Jerusalem terror attack". britemb.org.il. Archived from the original on 15 March 2008. Retrieved 8 March 2008.
- "Press Releases Foreign & Commonwealth Office". fco.gov.uk. Archived from the original on March 8, 2009. Retrieved 7 March 2008.
- "8 shot at Jerusalem school". The Times of India. 7 March 2008. Retrieved 7 March 2008.
- Paul, Jonny (15 March 2008). "Arab daily: Mercaz Harav attack was justified". The Jerusalem Post. London. Retrieved 10 November 2012.
- A Country of Words, p. 280. Saqi Books, London, 2008; ISBN 978-0-86356-621-9.
- "Gunman kills 8 in Jerusalem Jewish college", reuters.com, 7 March 2008.
- "Gunman Kills 8 in Attack on School in Jerusalem", The New York Times, 6 March 2008.
- Death Comes for Israel's Seminarians – published on TIME on March 6, 2008
- Terror shooting at Mercaz Harav Kook Yeshiva in Jerusalem, mfa.gov.il, 6 March 2008.