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T80 on display at the Mercedes-Benz Museum in Stuttgart
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||six-wheel, mid-engined, 1-seater experimental racing car|
|Related||Mercedes Silver Arrows|
Mercedes-Benz W125 Rekordwagen
|Engine||44.5 litre (2,716 cu in) Daimler-Benz DB 600 V12|
|Power output||3,000 hp (2,237 kW; 3,042 PS)|
The Mercedes-Benz T80 was a six-wheeled vehicle built by Mercedes-Benz, developed and designed by Ferdinand Porsche. It was intended to break the world land speed record, but never made the attempt, the project having been overtaken by the outbreak of World War II.
World-renowned German auto racer Hans Stuck's pet project was to take the world land speed record and he convinced Mercedes-Benz to build a special racing car for the attempt. Officially sanctioned by Adolf Hitler (a race car fan influenced by Stuck), the project was started in 1937, while the Nazi Third Reich was at the height of its powers. Automotive designer Dr Ferdinand Porsche first targeted a speed of 550 km/h (342 mph), but after George Eyston's and John Cobb's successful LSR runs of 1938 and 1939 the target speed was raised to 600 km/h (373 mph). By late 1939, when the project was finished, the target speed was a much higher 750 km/h (466 mph). This would also be the first attempt at the absolute land speed record on German soil, Hitler envisioned the T80 as another propaganda triumph of German technological superiority to be witnessed by all the world, courtesy of German television. The same Autobahn course had already been proven ideal for record-breaking in smaller capacity classes, Britain's Goldie Gardner having exceeded 200 mph (322 km/h) there in a 1,500 cc MG.
The massive 44.5 litre Daimler-Benz DB 603 inverted V12 was selected to power the record-setting car. The engine was an increased displacement derivative of the famous DB-601 aircraft engine that powered the Messerschmitt Bf 109 fighter in production at the time, with the DB 603 ending up as the largest displacement inverted V12 aviation engine in production for Germany during the World War II years. The DB-603 fitted was just the third prototype (V3) engine of this variant and tuned up to 3,000 hp (2,237 kW; 3,042 PS), roughly twice the power of the Bf 109 or the Supermarine Spitfire. The engine ran on a special mixture of methyl alcohol (63%), benzene (16%), ethanol (12%), acetone (4.4%), nitrobenzene (2.2%), avgas (2%), and ether (0.4%) with MW (methanol-water) injection for charge cooling and as an anti-detonant.
The difficulty of the challenge was met with money and engineering genius. By 1939, the T80 was fully completed at a cost of RM 600,000. The car was over 8 m (26 ft) long, had three axles with two of them driven, weighed over 2.7 metric tons (three short tons), and produced 3,000 hp (2,237 kW; 3,042 PS) together with the aerodynamics of specialist Josef Mickl to attain a projected speed of 750 km/h (466 mph). Aerodynamically, the T80 incorporated a Porsche-designed enclosed cockpit, low sloping bonnet, rounded wings, and elongated tail booms. Midway down the body were two small wings to provide downforce and ensure stability - these wings were inspired by the wings of Opel's famous rocket cars from 1928[verification needed]. The heavily streamlined twin-tailed body (forming the fairings for each pair of tandem rear wheels) achieved a drag coefficient of 0.18, an astonishingly low figure for any vehicle.
Projections for the 1940 land speed record attempt
As ambitiously planned, Hans Stuck would have driven the T80 over a special stretch of the  Reichsautobahn Berlin — Halle/Leipzig, which passed south of Dessau (now part of the modern A9 Autobahn) between the modern A9 freeway's exits 11 and 12, which was 25 m (82 ft) wide and almost 10 km (6 mi) long with the median paved over as the Dessauer Rennstrecke (Dessau racetrack). The date was set for the January 1940 "RekordWoche" (Record Week), but the war begun on September 1, 1939 prevented the T80 run. In 1939, the vehicle had been unofficially nicknamed Schwarzer Vogel (Black Bird) by Hitler and was to be painted in German nationalistic colours, complete with German Adler (Eagle) and Hakenkreuz (Swastika), but the event was cancelled and the T80 garaged.
War and after the war
The DB 603 aircraft engine was subsequently removed during the war while the vehicle was moved to safety and storage in Kärnten, Austria. The T80 survived the war and was eventually moved into the Mercedes-Benz Museum in Stuttgart for permanent display.
After the war, John Cobb drove the Railton Mobil Special to a land speed record of 634 km/h (394 mph) in 1947, a speed which was 116 km/h (72 mph) slower than the 750 km/h (466 mph) projected for the T80 in 1940. It took until 1964 for Art Arfons to hit 875 km/h (544 mph) in the turbojet-powered "Green Monster" to attain and surpass the T80's speed target, purely on the jet thrust for the Arfons vehicle. The wheel-driven record of 409 mph (658 km/h) was set by the four-Chrysler Hemi-engined Goldenrod car in 1965; this is still the piston-engined land speed record for non-supercharged, wheel-driven cars. Since the DB 603 engine possessed a mechanically-driven centrifugal supercharger in its normal form (and as used in the T80), the T80 would have been classed differently from the Goldenrod. No wheel-driven land speed record vehicle exceeded the T80's maximum design velocity until 2001, when Don Vesco's turboshaft-powered "Turbinator" attained 458.440 mph (737.788 km/h) at Bonneville.
- Total weight: 2,896 kg (6,385 lb)
- Power: 3,000 hp (2,237 kW; 3,042 PS) at 3200 rpm
- Engine: 44.5 liters (2,716 cu in)
- Wheels: (6) 7 X 31
- Length: 8.128 meters (26 ft 8 in)
- Width (body without wings): 1.753 meters (5 feet 9.0 inches)
- Width (body with wings): 3.20 meters (10 feet 6 inches)
- Height: 1.245 meters (4 feet 1 inch)
- Drag Coefficient: 0.18
- Speed: estimated at between 550–750 km/h (340–470 mph)
Names of the T80
- Official: Mercedes-Benz T80
- Porsche: Mercedes Rekordwagen (Record Car)
- Mikcl: Hochgeschwindigkeitsrennwagen (High-speed racing car)
- Hitler: Schwarzer Vogel (Black Bird)
- Wolf-Heinrich Hucho (1997). Aerodynamik des Automobils (VDI-Buch). Springer.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mercedes-Benz T80.|
- Mercedes-Benz T 80 record car, 1939, website "mercedes-benz-classic.com"
- Official Mercedes-Benz Museum website
- Speed record attempts, lists cars that attempted to break the land speed record from 1934 to 1940, including the T80.
- Museum tour of the Mercedes-Benz Museum at official website of European Car.
- Old Machine Press Page on the Mercedes-Benz T80