|Assembly||Sindelfingen, West Germany
Barcelona, Venezuela (CKD)
|Designer||Friedrich Geiger (1969)|
|Body and chassis|
|Class||Full-size luxury car (F)|
|Body style||4-door sedan|
3.0L I5 turbodiesel
|Wheelbase||2,865 mm (112.8 in)
2,965 mm (116.7 in) (SEL)
|Length||4,960 mm (195 in)
5,060 mm (199 in) (SEL)
5,220 mm (206 in) (SE US bumpers)
5,334 mm (210.0 in) (SEL US bumpers)
|Width||1,870 mm (74 in)|
|Height||1,410 mm (56 in) & 1,430 mm (56 in)|
The Mercedes-Benz W116 is a series of flagship luxury sedans produced from September 1972 until 1979. The W116 automobiles were the first Mercedes-Benz models to be officially called S-Class, although earlier sedan models had already unofficially been designated with the letter 'S' - for Sonderklasse or "special class."
The 'new' S-class generation development began in 1966, which was only a year after the launch of the W108/09. This was the first Mercedes saloon to feature the brand new corporate styling theme which was to be continued until 1993 when the 190 was discontinued. The design, finalized in 1969 (December 1969) was a dramatic leap forward, with more masculine lines that combined to create an elegant and sporty character. The basic design concept was actually inspired from the R107 SL-Class roadster, especially the front and rear lights.
The car was presented in September 1972. The model range initially included two versions of the M110 engine (Straight-six with 2,746 cc displacement) - the 280S (using a Solex carburetor) and the 280SE (using Bosch D-Jetronic injection), plus the 350 SE, powered by the M116 engine (V8 with 3,499 cc displacement). Half a year later two new models powered by the M117 engine (V8 with 4,520 cc displacement) were added to the range - the 450SE and the 450SEL (with a 100 mm longer body).
The most notable W116 was the high-performance, limited-production 450 SEL 6.9, which was introduced in 1975, and became the first production car to use an electronic four-wheel multi-channel anti-lock braking system (ABS) as an option from 1978 on. This model boasted by far the largest engine installed in a post-war Mercedes-Benz (and any non-American production automobile) up to that time, and also featured self-leveling hydropneumatic suspension.
Production totaled 473,035 units. The W116 was succeeded by the W126 S-Class in 1979. The W116 was sold throughout Europe, the Americas, Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and Australia.
In 1975, the W116 was upgraded with a new fuel injection system to comply with revised exhaust emission standards in European markets. A slight power reduction was a result of this update. In 1978, a series of engine upgrades restored original performance levels with new fuel injection systems.
|Chassis code||Model Years||Model||Engine||No. built|
|W116.020||1973–1980||280 S sedan||2.8 L M110 I6||122,848|
|W116.024||1973–1980||280 SE sedan||2.8 L M110 I6||150,593|
|W116.025||1974–1980||280 SEL sedan||2.8 L M110 I6||7,032|
|W116.028||1973–1980||350 SE sedan||3.5 L M116 V8||51,100|
|W116.029||1973–1980||350 SEL sedan||3.5 L M116 V8||4,266|
|W116.032||1973–1980||450 SE sedan||4.5 L M117 V8||41,604|
|W116.033||1973–1980||450 SEL sedan||4.5 L M117 V8||59,578|
|W116.036||1975–1980||450 SEL 6.9||6.9 L M100 V8||7,380|
|W116.120||1978–1980||300 SD sedan||3.0 L OM617 I5 turbodiesel
(USA and Canada only)
The high-performance 450SEL 6.9 version of the S-Class was built on its own assembly line by Daimler-Benz in Stuttgart, Germany and based on the long-wheelbase version of the W116 chassis. The model was generally referred to in the company's literature as the "6.9", to separate it from the regular 450SEL.
The 6.9 was first shown to the motoring press at the Geneva Auto Show in 1974, and produced between 1975 and 1981 in extremely limited numbers. It was billed as the flagship of the Mercedes-Benz car line, and the successor to Mercedes-Benz's original high-performance sedan, the 300SEL 6.3. The 6.9 also has the distinction of being among the first vehicles ever produced with optional electronically controlled anti-lock brakes, first introduced by Mercedes-Benz and Bosch in 1978. The 6.9's successor—the top of range 500 SEL—continued the 6.9's remarkable self-leveling hydropneumatic suspension as an extra-cost option.
The 6.9 was the first Mercedes-Benz to be fitted with the hydropneumatic self-levelling suspension system introduced by Citroën in 1954, unlike the 600 and 6.3 which employed air suspensions. Using a combination of fluid-filled struts and nitrogen-filled pressure vessels or "accumulators" in lieu of conventional shock absorbers and springs, the system was pressurized by a hydraulic pump driven by the engine's timing chain. Compared to the new Mercedes-Benz system, Citroën's was belt-driven, exactly like a conventional power steering pump; failure of the Citroën system thus might result in loss of suspension. Conversely, every unit of the 6.9 was shipped with hard rubber emergency dampers that served as temporary springs and allowed the car to be driven in the event of a hydraulic failure. The special hydraulic fluid required by the system was stored in a tank inside the engine compartment. Not only was the system totally self-adjusting, ride height could be altered by a dash-mounted push-pull knob under the speedometer that raised the car an additional two inches (50 mm) for increased ground clearance.
The suspension system gave the 4200 pound (1900 kg) car the benefits of a both a smooth ride and handling that allowed it, in the words of automotive journalist David E. Davis, to be "tossed about like a Mini." The car also featured a model W3B 050 three-speed automatic transmission unique to the 6.9 and a standard ZF limited slip differential both for enhanced roadholding performance on dry pavement and enhanced traction in inclement weather.
Four-wheel disc brakes and four-wheel independent suspension were standard on these top-of-the-line models.
M-100 power plant
The engine was a cast iron V8 with single overhead camshafts operating sodium-filled valves against hardened valve seats on each aluminium alloy cylinder head. Bosch K-Jetronic electromechanical fuel injection came standards on the W116 range. The crankshaft, connecting rods and pistons were forged instead of cast. The non-American market trim version of the 6.9 l (6,834 cc or 417 in³) power plant was rated at 286ps (DIN PS / german unit of hp measure) (213 kW) and 405 lb·ft (549 N·m) of torque helping to compensate for the 2.65 to 1 final drive ratio necessary for sustained high-speed cruising. The W116 featured a "dry sump" engine lubrication system was used. Dry sump lubrication was originally developed for use in race cars as a way to prevent foaming of the engine oil by the crankshaft, which in turn would create a serious drop in oil pressure. The system circulated twelve quarts of oil between the storage tank and the engine, as opposed to the usual four or five quarts found in V8s with a standard oil pan and oil pump. As a result, the engine itself had no dipstick for checking the oil level. Rather, the dipstick was attached to the inside of the tank's filler cap (accessible from the engine compartment) and the oil level was checked with the engine running and at operating temperature. The dry sump system also had the benefit of extending the oil change interval to 12,500 miles (20,000 km). This, along with hydraulic valve lifters which required no adjusting and special cylinder head gaskets which eliminated the need for periodic retorquing of the head bolts, made the 6.9 relatively easy to maintain and service for its first 50,000 miles (80,500 km). The 6.9 required little basic service other than coolant, minor tune-ups, oil changes, and replacement of the air, fuel, oil and power steering filters.
Race track performance
Top speed was factory-rated at 140 mph (225 km/h), but some journalists testing the car saw speeds approaching 150 mph (241 km/h). Among those journalists was Brock Yates. Yates was approached by the factory to write promotional literature about the 6.9 for advertising purposes. He agreed under the condition that he could list the car's faults as well as its positives and create a genuine extensive review. Daimler-Benz agreed in turn, and Yates was given an American-market spec 6.9 to drive from Manhattan to the Road Atlanta grand prix race track in Georgia. There, Yates would drive the car in as-arrived condition at racing speeds for a full 40 laps or just over 100 miles (160 km). His complaint on this long drive on public roads was that the magnetic CB antenna blew off at 130 miles per hour. The only change made to the car upon its arrival at Road Atlanta was an adjustment of tire pressure. Driving 40 laps was a difficult task for the street-legal full size luxury sedan primarily designed and geared for comfortable Autobahn cruising. The 6.9 suffered no major mechanical problems and averaged a respectable 72 mph (116 km/h) throughout the test, completing it with little more than excess dust on the bodywork from the Michelin radial street tires on which the car was driven to Atlanta. Yates was so comfortable driving the 6.9 around the track that he reported having run at least one lap with the sunroof open and the radio on, but the high price of the car made him think better of such risky driving and he finished the test with the radio off and both hands on the wheel.
In September 2013, a 1979 W116 300SD was campaigned in the 24 Hours of Lemons at Carolina Motorsports Park, where it completed 166 laps at an average speed of 54.8 MPH. It won the highest prize of the event, the Index of Effluency. Other than mild issues relating to brake and tire wear, no mechanical issues were encountered. After numerous modifications to handling, the car was again run in February 2014 at Barber Motorsports park in Birmingham, AL. It placed 44th, but turned 281 laps at an average pace of 59.6 MPH. One of the key advantages of the 300SD is its exceptional fuel economy on track, where it burns just 2.5 GPH (Roughly 18MPG). In July of 2014 it placed first in class at Sebring. It is still active in the series.
Price and interior features
All of this technology came at a very high price. At a time when the most expensive Cadillacs, the mid-sized Seville and full-sized Cadillac Fleetwood Series Seventy-Five limousine each listed for about US$16,000, the 6.9 listed for around $40,000, more than the Big Three but less than most Rolls-Royces. When the car was officially introduced into the North American market for the 1977 model year, the price was well past $40,000 and was $52,995 by the end of production. Though the 6.9 was undeniably a luxury car, it was a rather austere one compared to the sheer opulence available in a Rolls-Royce or full-sized Cadillac. The interior was identical to that in the less expensive models except for the push-pull suspension control knob just under the speedometer, a low suspension pressure warning and height adjustment indicator lights in the instrument cluster, and wood trim finished in burled walnut veneer on the dash and console. The rest of the W116 lineup was trimmed in striated zebrano veneer.
The 6.9 lacked expected luxury touches such as power-adjustable outside mirrors or front seats, although a unique power rear seat, heated seats and even orthopedically designed front seats were options. Buyers outside North America could also opt for headlight wipers and washers and/or headlights with a special vacuum-operated linkage whose aim could be adjusted at the dash depending on vehicle load. There was also a new standard feature in 1976: most Mercedes-Benz automobiles that year were equipped with a sophisticated electronic climate control system developed for Chrysler Corporation for use in their top models. The system turned on the heater, air conditioner or both, depending on the thermostat's setting and ambient temperature, automatically maintaining whatever temperature the driver selected. The compressor was an American import as well, supplied by the Harrison division of General Motors.
Far more modern than the contemporary Cadillac, which still had a live rear axle, and both faster and larger inside than the either the Rolls-Royce or Cadillac, the 6.9 was indistinguishable from its W116 stablemates save for a modest "6.9" badge on the decklid and wider tires. US models also had different bumper rubbers fitted to the "park bench" impact absorbing bumpers. As discreet as the badge was, it could be deleted/ordered with option 261 omission of the displacement figure on the trunk lid at extra cost for those who wanted to avoid attention either from drivers of other high-performance cars or from law enforcement. In the words of David E. Davis, the 6.9 was "a $50,000 exercise in going fast."
Still, for fans of the discontinued 6.3 or for those who simply had to have a car which Car and Driver proclaimed to be "the greatest Mercedes-Benz ever built," it seemed that money was no object. At its launch in 1975, the 450SEL 6.9 cost DM 69,930. In the last year of production, 1979, the car was available at a price of DM 81,247. Even though this was far from inexpensive, the courage of the Mercedes-Benz strategists in launching the car onto the market paid off. A total of 7,380 units were built by 1980, and most of these were exported to the USA. This volume figure looks rather small at first glance, but production figures tend to be significantly smaller in the top luxury segment where this model competes. Also, the 6.9 was not the only S-Class model, and was purchased by the rich, the famous, and the powerful despite the rising cost of gasoline brought on by the Arab oil embargo. Thus, the 7,380 total sales volume is quite respectable once the price and contemporary economic climate are taken into account.
In a poll conducted by Britain's Classic & Sports Car magazine and printed in their April 1999 edition, the Mercedes-Benz 6.9 ranked fourth on their list of the "world's greatest saloons." The May 2004 edition of another British publication, Mercedes Enthusiast magazine, ranked the 6.9 number fifteen on their all-time top twenty list of great Mercedes-Benz automobiles. Even with such accolades, a 6.9 is a reasonably priced collectible automobile despite its rarity. The online NADA Used Car Guide lists a top value of US$40,000. At present, the market for cars of this type is somewhat soft, and a prime example can be had for considerably less. As is often the case with older cars that contain exotic engineering and parts unique to that one model, however, running and maintenance costs for a 6.9 can quickly overshadow a low initial purchase price.
- In 1976, French film director Claude Lelouch attached a camera to the front bumper of a 6.9 and drove it at high speed through the streets of Paris at daybreak. The resulting nine-minute one-take cinéma vérité film, C'était un rendez-vous, was greeted with moral outrage over the apparent risks taken by Lelouch as he sped past pedestrians and other vehicles. However, the sound of a five-speed Ferrari 275 GTB was dubbed over the three-speed 6.9. Careful investigation of the film furthermore shows, that the actual driving speed was not that high.
- There were never any plans to build a station wagon version of the W116, 6.9 or otherwise, owing both to the location of the fuel tank ahead of the rear axle and the overwhelming demand for the sedan versions. Still, a number of W116s were converted to station wagons by coach builders in Germany and England (see  for details of the English conversions). In 1977, a German diplomat named Manfred Sittmann commissioned Brinkmann Karosserie in Bremen to build a 6.9 station wagon, or "estate car." Sittmann frequently travelled with two large dogs and a family entourage to Italy. German motorsports magazine Auto, Motor und Sport learned of the car and requested an interview with Mr Sittmann and a photo shoot as well. The magazine's feature would be titled "Die teuerste Hundehütte," or "The Most Expensive Doghouse." This one-off 6.9 currently[when?] sees regular use with its third owner, a Mercedes-Benz collector in Pennsylvania. Another 450SEL 6.9 was converted to station wagon form for actress Sophia Loren—complete with mesh dog-guard to prevent her hounds climbing into the passenger area (see  for details).
- The 1998 action film Ronin features a car chase where a Mercedes 6.9 is driven by the protagonists who perform high-speed driving through mountain roads and inside a French town, all with dramatic stunts (drifting, J-turns, etc.).
- In David Lynch's 1996 film, Lost Highway, a Mercedes 6.9 is used as a major plot device, ultimately connecting all three main male characters of the movie. In one scene, the hood is opened to reveal an after-market modification, bringing the engine power to "1400 horsepower", according to one character. In another scene, the car is used to push a Ford Thunderbird off the road, despite the latter applying the brakes.
- The last Shah of Iran had at least two armoured car versions of the vehicle, with one later put up for auction in New York City
- Claude Francois, French singer and composer of Comme d'habitude (the original version of My Way) drove a 450 SEL 6.9 from November 1976 till March 1978. He was attacked in this car in 1977, and after escaping several bullet holes were later found in various areas of the car
- The actor Telly Savalas negotiated a 6.9 and 450 SL in exchange for two days of promotional work for Mercedes Benz
- James Bond actor Sir Sean Connery owned a 1978 US Spec 300SD Turbo Diesel until 1983 when it passed to his brother Neil, the car was reregistered in the UK and came to Edinburgh and was roadworthy until 2001. Although not on the road the car still exists and is stored.
- Former President of Nicaragua Anastasio Somoza Debayle used a W116 when in exile in Paraguay, in which he was assassinated in 1980.
- Soviet State Automobile Inspectorate (GAI) used a batch of Mercedes-Benz W116 in militsiya livery from 1976, first of all for escorting columns of automobiles, in Moscow, Leningrad and Kiev.
Technical data Mercedes-Benz W116  (Manufacturer's figures except where stated)
|450 SEL 6.9
|Produced:||1972–1980||SE: 1972 - 1980
SEL: 1974 − 1980
|SE: 1972 - 1980
SEL: 1973 − 1980
|Engine:||6-cylinder-inline engine (four-stroke), front-mounted||90° 8-cylinder-V engine (four-stroke), front-mounted||5-cylinder-inline engine (four-stroke), front-mounted|
|Bore x Stroke:||86 mm x 78.8 mm||92 mm x 65.8 mm||92 mm x 85 mm||107 mm x 95 mm||90.9 mm x 92.4 mm|
|Displacement:||2746 cc||3499 cc||4517 cc||6834 cc||3005 cc before 1979, 2998 cc after 1979|
|Max. Power @ rpm:||160 PS (120 kW; 160 hp) @ 5500
USA: 120 bhp (89 kW; 122 PS) @ 4800
|185 PS (136 kW; 182 hp) @ 6000
USA: 142 bhp (106 kW; 144 PS) @ 5750
|200 PS (150 kW; 200 hp) @ 5800||225 PS (165 kW; 222 hp) @ 5000
USA: 193 PS (142 kW; 190 hp) @ 4750
|286 PS (210 kW; 282 hp) @ 4250
250 bhp (186 kW; 253 PS) @ 4000
|1979: 110 bhp (82 kW; 112 PS) @ 4200
1980: 120 bhp (89 kW; 122 PS) @ 4350
|Max. Torque @ rpm:||225 N·m (166 lb·ft) @ 4000
USA: 143 ft·lbf (194 N·m)
|238 N·m (176 lb·ft) @ 4500
USA: 149 ft·lbf (202 N·m)
|286 N·m (211 lb·ft) @ 4000||377 N·m (278 lb·ft) @ 3000
USA: 240 ft·lbf (325 N·m)
|550 N·m (410 lb·ft) @ 3000
USA: 360 ft·lbf (488 N·m)
|1979: 168 ft·lbf (228 N·m) @ 2400
1980: 170 ft·lbf (230 N·m) @ 2400
|Compression Ratio:||9.0: 1||9.0: 1||9.5: 1||8.8: 1||8.8: 1||21.5: 1|
|Fuel feed:||One 2-bbl Solex 4A1||Bosch D-Jetronic, from July 1975 K-Jetronic||Bosch K-Jetronic||Bosch injection pump
|Fuel tank capacity:||96 L (25.4 US gal; 21.1 imp gal)||82 L (21.7 US gal; 18.0 imp gal)|
|Valvetrain:||DOHC, duplex chain||SOHC, duplex chain|
|Gearbox:||4-speed manual or 3-speed automatic (4-speed auto on the 6cyl 280)
rear wheel drive, standard axle ratio 3.92:1 or 3.69:1 (V8: 3.46:1 & 3.07:1)
rear wheel drive, standard axle ratio 3.07:1
rear wheel drive, standard axle ratio 2.65:1
rear wheel drive, standard axle ratio 3.07:1
|Electrical system:||12 volt|
|Front suspension:||Double wishbones, coil and additional rubber springs, stabilising bar
6.9: Double wishbones, hydropneumatic damping, stabilizing torsion bar
|Rear suspension::||Diagonal swing axle, trailing arms, coil springs, stabilizing torsion bar
6.9: Diagonal swing axle, hydropneumatic damping, stabilizing torsion bar
|Brakes:||Disc brakes (Ø 278 mm front, 279 mm rear), power assisted, from 1979 on request ABS|
|Steering:||Recirculating ball steering, manual or servo-assisted|
|Body structure:||Sheet steel, monocoque (unibody) construction|
|Dry weight:||1,660 kg (3,660 lb)
USA: 3,770 lb (1,710 kg)
|1,665 kg (3,671 lb)
SEL: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb)
USA: 3,750 lb (1,700 kg)
|1,725 kg (3,803 lb)
SEL: 1,760 kg (3,880 lb)
|1,790 kg (3,950 lb)
SEL: 1,825 kg (4,023 lb)
USA: 3,843 lb (1,743 kg)
|1,985 kg (4,376 lb)
USA: 4,285 lb (1,944 kg)
|1,815 kg (4,001 lb)|
|Loaded weight:||2,130 kg (4,700 lb)||2,130 kg (4,700 lb)
SEL: 2,165 kg (4,773 lb)
|2,195 kg (4,839 lb)
SEL: 2,220 kg (4,890 lb)
|2,250 kg (4,960 lb)
SEL: 2,285 kg (5,038 lb)
|2,420 kg (5,340 lb)||2,215 kg (4,883 lb)|
|1,521 mm (59.9 in) / 1,505 mm (59.3 in)|
|Wheelbase:||S/SE: 2,865 mm (112.8 in)
SEL: 2,965 mm (116.7 in)
|Length:||4,960 mm (195 in)
5,060 mm (199 in)
|Width:||1,870 mm (74 in)|
|Height:||1,410 mm (56 in) − 1,430 mm (56 in)|
|Tyre/Tire sizes:||185 HR 14||205/70 HR 14||215/70 HR 14||185 HR 14|
|Acceleration 0–100 km/h:||11.5s||10.5s||9.5s (10.0s SEL)||9.3s (9.9s SEL)||7.4s||17.0s 16.2s (from 10.1979)|
|Top speed:||190 km/h (120 mph)||200 km/h (120 mph)||205 km/h (127 mph)||210 km/h (130 mph)||225 km/h (140 mph)||165 km/h (103 mph)|
|Fuel Consumption (guideline DIN 70030: determined at 3/4 of top-speed (not more than 110 km/h), plus 10%):||12.5 litres per 100 kilometres (22.6 mpg-imp; 18.8 mpg-US)||13.0 litres per 100 kilometres (21.7 mpg-imp; 18.1 mpg-US)||14.5 litres per 100 kilometres (19.5 mpg-imp; 16.2 mpg-US)||16.0 litres per 100 kilometres (17.7 mpg-imp; 14.7 mpg-US)||10.6 litres per 100 kilometres (27 mpg-imp; 22 mpg-US)|
The W116 S-Class incorporated a broad variety of Mercedes-Benz safety innovations.
- Four wheel anti-lock brakes were first featured on the W116 S-Class. This system prevents the wheels from locking while braking. The system improves steering control during hard braking situations, and to shorten brake distances.
- Strengthened body structure. The W116 featured a more stable security passenger cell with a stiffened roof frame structure. High strength roof and door pillars, along with other reinforced zones, provided enhanced vehicle occupant protection.
- A padded dashboard, deformable switches and controls, and a four-spoke steering wheel with impact absorber and broad impact cushion aimed to reduce occupant injury during collisions.
- The fuel tank was no longer fitted at the rear end, but was now placed above the rear axle for added protection.
- Wraparound turn signals made it easier to communicate with nearby drivers.
- "W116 : Mercedes-Benz S-Class - 280S, 280SE, 280SEL, 300SD, 350SE, 350SEL, 450SE, 450SEL & 450SEL 6.9". w116.org.
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- Mercedes S-Klasse, Serie 116, ab 1972: 280S/280SE/350SE/450SE/450/SEL. Reparaturanleitung series, Band 1042. (in German). Zug, Switzerland: Verlag Bucheli. 2012. ISBN 9783716817933.
- Mercedes 280 S / 280 SE / 350 SE / 340 SE / 450 SEL bis Aug 79. Reparaturanleitung series, Band 267/268. (in German). Zug, Switzerland: Verlag Bucheli. 2013. ISBN 9783716813317.
- Mercedes-Benz Technical Companion. Cambridge, MA, USA: Bentley Publishers. 2005. ISBN 9780837610337.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mercedes-Benz W116.|
- International M-100 Group — Factory-authorized site with information on all M-100-powered Mercedes-Benz automobiles, (including technical forums and maintenance information). The Brock Yates article can be found here as well
- A Mercedes for the '70s: The W116 Series S-Class — A site mixing the history of the full-scale W116 with that of its many miniature replicas.
- Classic Car driver review
- Golden Brown: Four Days in a Mercedes-Benz 450SEL 6.9 - Feature (Car and Driver)
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|4-cylinder||Sedan||W136 / W191||W120 / W121||W110||W115||W123|
|6-cylinder||Sedan||W187||W105 / W180 / W128||W111||W114||W123|
|Coupé||W187||W180 / W128||W111||C107|
|W108 / W109|
|Limousine||W186 / W189||W100 (600)|
|Sports||Roadster||W198 / W121 B2||W113||R107|