Mercedes-Benz W123

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Mercedes-Benz W123
123 280E 0477110307 (14wik).JPG
1982 Mercedes-Benz 280E (W123)
Overview
ManufacturerMercedes-Benz
Production1976–1986
2,696,915 built[1]
4-door: 2,375,410
Coupé: 99,884
Estate: 199,517
Limousine: 13,700
Chassis: 1,353
LWB chassis: 7,020
Assembly
DesignerBruno Sacco, Friedrich Geiger (Saloon & coupe: 1973, T-Model: 1975)
Body and chassis
ClassExecutive car (E)
Body style4-door saloon
2-door coupé (C123)
5-door estate (S123)
4-door limousine (V123)
LayoutFR layout
RelatedMercedes-Benz E-Class
Powertrain
Engine
Transmission4-speed 722.1 automatic
4-speed 4G-TRONIC automatic
4-speed manual
5-speed manual
Dimensions
WheelbaseSaloon: 2,795 mm (110.0 in)
Coupé: 2,710 mm (106.7 in)
Limousine/ambulance/hearse: 3,425 mm (134.8 in)
Length4,725 mm (186.0 in)[3]
4,849 mm (190.9 in) (US bumpers)
4,640 mm (183 in) (Coupé)
4,763 mm (187.5 in) (Coupé US bumpers)
5,355 mm (210.8 in) (Limousine)
WidthSaloon: 1,784 mm (70.2 in)[3]
HeightSaloon: 1,435 mm (56.5 in)[3]
Curb weightSaloon: 1,625 kg (3,582.5 lb) (turbodiesel, automatic)
Chronology
PredecessorMercedes-Benz W114
SuccessorMercedes-Benz W124

The Mercedes-Benz W123 is a range of executive cars produced by German manufacturer Mercedes-Benz from November 1975 to January 1986. The W123 models surpassed their predecessor, the Mercedes-Benz W114, as the most successful Mercedes, selling 2.7 million units before production ended in the autumn of 1985 for the saloon/sedan versions and January 1986 for coupés and estates/station wagons.[4]

Following a slow production build-up during the first year, customers who placed their orders faced a lengthy waiting period of nine to twelve months. A black market emerged for the customers who were willing to pay more for immediate delivery. The slightly used W123 commanded about 5,000 Deutsche Mark premium over its original sale price.[5]

Like its predecessors, the W123 gained the reputation of being well built and reliable. Many taxi companies chose the W123, and they were a common sight in Germany. Reaching 500,000 or 1,000,000 km with only minor mechanical issues was common with W123s used as taxicabs.[citation needed] Once the W123 reached the end of its service life, they were often shipped to Africa and third world countries where they were highly esteemed for their ability to travel on rough roads and to not require frequent maintenance[citation needed].

W123 production ended in January 1986 with 63 final T-models rolling out. The most popular single models were the 240 D (455,000 built), the 230 E (442,000 built), and the 200 D (378,000 built).

Design[edit]

The W123 shares technical similarities with its predecessors including engines, steering system, and suspension system. The design is updated with styling cues from its larger sibling, Mercedes-Benz W116, namely wider ribbed taillights, horizontal headlamps, front turn signal indicators on the outer edge, and pull-to-open door handles. The interior is revised with a larger instrument panel, central round ventilation outlets, HVAC control panel[definition needed] and a single row of control switches in the centre.

The instrument panel has three large gauges placed behind a single plastic cover. The manual HVAC control panel has three large dials with the left and right for individual temperature control and the centre dial for fan speed control. Air flow is controlled by two sliders (left for upper zone and right for lower zone). If the optional air conditioning unit was ordered, a temperature roll dial was fitted to the row of control switches. The automatic HVAC control panel is simplified with a single roll disc on the left for temperature control, a row of push buttons in the middle for directing the air flow and switching the system on and off and a vertical set of buttons on the right for controlling the fan speed and switching automatic control on and off.

All models except the 280, 280 E, and coupé feature larger round headlamps with smaller round fog lamps with large glass plate covering the entire headlamp housing and acting as a diffusing lens. This setup is the same for North American models with the sealed beam units and glass plate partially covering the headlamp housing. The 280, 280 E, and coupé models use large rectangular headlamps with round fog lamps. The headlamp washers and wipers set are optional.

Nomenclatures[edit]

Per Mercedes-Benz tradition (prior to the 1994 change), model designation corresponded to the engine displacement, chassis type (coupé or estate/station wagon), fuel type (for diesel engines only), and availability of fuel injection system (for petrol engines only):

  • C for Coupé
  • T for Tourismus und Transport (estate/station wagon)

No designation was given for the long-wheelbase: it was simply called "Lang" (long) in the brochures and order forms.

  • D for Diesel
  • E for Einspritzung (fuel injection)

When the diesel engine is turbocharged, TURBODIESEL is affixed to the right side of the boot lid.

As for the chassis codes, W123 is the saloon/sedan, S123 the estate/station wagon, C123 the coupé, V123 the long-wheelbase saloon/sedan a.k.a. Lang, and F123 refers to the bare long-wheelbase chassis as used for ambulances and other conversions.

Model variations[edit]

Mercedes-Benz 280 CE (C123) (Euro-spec)
Mercedes-Benz 280 CE (C123) rear (Euro-spec)
Mercedes-Benz V123 "Lang" or Long Wheelbase (Euro-spec)
Mercedes-Benz 280 TE estate
Mercedes-Benz 240D (W123) saloon (Euro-spec)
Mercedes-Benz 240D (W123) saloon rear (Euro-spec)

Saloon (W123)[edit]

The four-door version went on sale on 29 January 1976.[6][7]

Coupé (C123)[edit]

In the spring of 1977, a coupé version was introduced on a shortened wheelbase (2,710 mm (106.7 in) versus 2,795 mm (110.0 in) for the saloon). The C123 was available as 230 C (later 230 CE) and as 280 C and 280 CE in most markets. Unlike the W123 saloon, the rectangular headlamps were fitted to the C123 regardless of engine type.

Limousine (V123)[edit]

From August 1976, a long-wheelbase version (3,425 mm (134.8 in)) with seating for seven to eight was produced. The limousine was built on a stretched W123 saloon/sedan chassis with lower side panels from the coupé behind the rear passenger doors. The elongated roof has the same C-pillar form as on the saloon/sedan. The rear passenger doors were custom-designed in rectangular shape and of the same length as the ones on the saloon/sedan. The engine options were 250, 240 D, and 300 D. A few 280 E limousines were built as special orders.

Chassis (F123)[edit]

The stretched limousine version was offered with complete front body clip (B-pillar forward) and strengthened chassis as the base for ambulances or hearses to be built by the conversion specialists such as Binz and Miesen. F stands for Fahrgestelle (chassis).

Estate (S123)[edit]

At the 1977 IAA in Frankfurt, the first-ever factory-built estate, S123, was introduced. The letter T in the model designation stood for Tourismus und Transport (Touring and Transport). Previous estates had been custom-built by the coachbuilders, namely Binz. S123 production began in April 1978 at Mercedes-Benz Bremen factory. All engines except the 2-litre version of the M115 were available in the range.

Convertible[edit]

While Mercedes-Benz never built its own convertible, they have been built by external companies such as Crayford in the UK, who built the St. Tropez models, and also by Niko-Michaels in New York, USA. In the city of Hagen, Germany, until 2016 one small family owned firm- Baehr [not be mistaken with Baur, which have for many years built BMW-based cabriolet conversions], have produced cabrio versions of the C123 Coupe models, and also sold kits for cabrio conversions of the same model.[8][9]

Engine[edit]

All engines from the W114/W115 are carried over. The single new engine was the SOHC 2.5-litre M123 inline six. The 3-litre, five-cylinder diesel engine received a proper nomenclature for the W123, matching the engine displacement: 300 D instead of 240 D 3.0 on the previous W114/W115.

In the autumn of 1978, the power output of the 240 D was increased from 65 PS (48 kW; 64 hp) to 72 PS (53 kW; 71 hp) and of the 280 E from 177PS to 185 PS. In early 1979, the power output rose from 55 PS (40 kW; 54 hp) to 60 PS (44 kW; 59 hp) for the 200 D and from 80 PS (59 kW; 79 hp) to 88 PS (65 kW; 87 hp) for the 300 D. The 220 D was deleted from the model range for 1980.

In June 1980, the new M102 four-cylinder inline petrol engine replaced the M115. The 2-litre version was only available with a carburettor while the 2.3-litre version was available with fuel injection only. The carburetted version of 2.8-litre M110 engine in the 280 and 280 C was discontinued in 1981 leaving the 250 as the sole carburetted six-cylinder inline engine.

The world's first turbocharged diesel engine for a passenger vehicle, OM617 A was finally introduced in W123 models in September 1979, exclusive to the 300 TD TURBODIESEL for the European market. The same engine was offered in North America and Japan in 1981 as the 300 D TURBODIESEL, 300 CD TURBODIESEL, and 300 TD TURBODIESEL.[10]

Racing the W123[edit]

1977 280E that won 1977 London–Sydney Marathon in MB Museum

One notable achievement was in the 28,200 km (17,500 mi)[11] 1977 London–Sydney Marathon road race, where the 280E won first and second, ahead of the third and fourth place Citroën CX.[12]

Equipment and features[edit]

The standard and optional features are numerous along with a large number of engine and gearbox options. Customers could choose cloth, MB-Tex vinyl, velour or leather for the upholstery as well as interior wood trim for dashboard and centre console. The paint and interior colour palettes are extensive as well.

The driving dynamic enhancement options for extra cost became more extensive over the time: ABS (from August 1980 onward), self-locking differential gear, five-speed manual gearbox (introduced in 1982 for European markets only), Tempomat cruise control system, power steering system (standard from 1982 onward), passenger-side external rear view mirror (standard on S123 model), "Alpine" horn with selectable loudness (popular in Switzerland due to strict noise regulations), retractable steering column (from 1982 onward) and so forth.

The extra cost options for creature comforts includes power windows (with a cut-off switch for the rear passenger door windows), vacuum-powered central locking system, sunroof (manual and electric), air conditioning system (manual or automatic control), seats with orthopaedic support, electrically heated seats (all seats were individually ordered), pre-heating system (for heating the passenger compartment at a pre-selected time when the engine is not running), an assortment of different radios with and without cassette players, rear seat head rests, etc. The W123s destined for the North American market tended to have more features as standard, reflecting the American customer's preference for luxury accessories. For the first time in an executive saloon from Mercedes-Benz, the W123 had the option of fully automatic climate control at extra cost. This option was popular in the North American and Japanese markets. A rare option was a column gear selector that could be ordered with an automatic gearbox if the customer wished. The most expensive option was the Becker radio telephone, selling for 13,512 Deutsche Mark.

In the estate/station wagon model, a third row rear-facing foldable seat was offered as an extra cost option.

Updates[edit]

Mercedes-Benz updated the W123 in incremental steps, calling them series:

  • Series 0.5, November 1975 – July 1976
  • First Series, August 1976 – July 1979
  • Second Series, August 1979 – August 1982
  • Third Series, September 1982 – January 1986

Changes to the second series (from August 1979):

  • smaller steering wheel (10 mm) in a more elegant design
  • modernized toggle switches with smoother edges (hazard lights, windows, etc.)
  • pneumatic headlamp leveling system
  • modified belt buckles and smaller headrests
  • new fabric patterns for the seats
Mercedes-Benz W123 with passenger airbag

Changes to the third series (from September 1982):

  • Rectangular headlights and power steering as standard for entire model range
  • Molded front seat backrests for more knee freedom in the rear
  • Cloth insert in the door panels
  • Zebrano wood paneling in the dashboard
  • Reduced wind noise due to improved roof trim strips
  • Ventilation outlets are no longer chrome-plated
  • Driver's Airbag available as optional equipment

For the 1981 model year, the automatic climate control panel from the W126 S-Class with a simplified icon design was adopted. A new five-speed manual gearbox was introduced in February 1982 and was available in all models except those with the 3-litre turbocharged diesel engine but not in North America. This gearbox was only offered to North America via the grey market.

In September 1982, the driver's airbag with seat belt pre-tensioners for the passenger were offered as a 1,762.80 Deutsche Mark option for all models from the 1983 model year onward.[13] Very few W123s had both driver and passenger air bags. The passenger air bag used a pyrotechnic gas discharge design, a world's first.

Copies[edit]

The W123 was officially produced by FAW in China from 1987 until 1988, as a 200 sedan or as a long wheelbase 230E. Only 828 cars were built in their Changchun plant.[2] Another Chinese company called Bamin Automobile made W123 lookalikes using other parts. Bamin was a army-owned company located in Minhou. Their W123 copy was built on the chassis of the Bamin BM212A/213A, a copy of the Beijing BJ212 and came in a few different bodystyles. There was a four-door pickup called the BM2022A (or the better equipped BM1020KHA) and a wagon derived from it, as well as the BM1020KH/BM6480 (proper station wagons).[14] The Chinese copies used the 2.4-litre BJ492 pushrod inline-four engine from the BJ212.

Technical data[edit]

Petrol Engines
Model Chassis Years Configuration Displ. Fuel Delivery Power Torque Leer
Weight
0–100 km/h
(0–62 mph)
Top
Speed
Fuel
Consumption
Units
200 123.020 2/76–8/80 M115 V 20
(115.938)
I4
1988 cc Carburettor 94 PS (69 kW; 93 hp) at 4,800 rpm 158 N⋅m (117 lb⋅ft) at 3,000 rpm 1,340 kg
(2,950 lb)
15.2 s 160 km/h
(99 mph)
12.3 L/100 km
(19.1 mpg‑US)
158,772
123.220 9/80–11/85 M102 V 20
(102.920)
I4
1997 cc Carburettor 109 PS (80 kW; 108 hp) at 5,200 rpm 170 N⋅m (125 lb⋅ft) at 3,000 rpm 1,350 kg
(2,980 lb)
14.4 s 168 km/h
(104 mph)
10.2 L/100 km
(23 mpg‑US)
217,315
200 T 123.280 11/80–1/86 1,470 kg
(3,240 lb)
15.3 s 10.4 L/100 km
(23 mpg‑US)
18,860
230 123.023 2/76–8/80 M115 V 23
(115.954)
I4
2307 cc Carburettor 109 PS (80 kW; 108 hp) at 4,800 rpm 186 N⋅m (137 lb⋅ft) at 2,500 rpm 1,350 kg
(2,980 lb)
13.7 s 170 km/h
(106 mph)
12.2 L/100 km
(19.3 mpg‑US)
196,185
230 C 123.083 6/77–8/80 1,375 kg
(3,031 lb)
12.1 L/100 km
(19.4 mpg‑US)
18,675
230 T 123.043 5/78–4/80 1,470 kg
(3,240 lb)
12.2 L/100 km
(19.3 mpg‑US)
6,884
230 E 123.223 7/80–11/85 M102 E 23
(102.980)
I4
2299 cc Bosch K-Jetronic Fuel Injection 136 PS (100 kW; 134 hp) at 5,100 rpm 205 N⋅m (151 lb⋅ft) at 3,500 rpm 1,360 kg
(3,000 lb)
11.5 s 180 km/h
(112 mph)
10.4 L/100 km
(23 mpg‑US)
245,876
230 CE 123.243 4/80–11/85 1,380 kg
(3,040 lb)
29,858
230 TE 123.283 4/80–9/86 1,480 kg
(3,260 lb)
12.2 s 10.5 L/100 km
(22 mpg‑US)
42,248
250 123.026 4/76–8/79 M123 V 25
(123.920)
I6
2525 cc Carburettor 129 PS (95 kW; 127 hp) at 5,500 rpm 196 N⋅m (145 lb⋅ft) at 3,500 rpm 1,410 kg
(3,110 lb)
11.3 s 185 km/h
(115 mph)
12.8 L/100 km
(18.4 mpg‑US)
117,684
9/79–9/81 M123 V 25
(123.921)
I6
140 PS (100 kW; 140 hp) at 5,500 rpm 200 N⋅m (148 lb⋅ft) at 3,500 rpm
10/81–12/85 11.7 s
250 T 123.086 5/78–8/79 M123 V 25
(123.920)
I6
129 PS (95 kW; 127 hp) at 5,500 rpm 196 N⋅m (145 lb⋅ft) at 3,500 rpm 1,510 kg
(3,330 lb)
11.9 s 185 km/h
(115 mph)
12.8 L/100 km
(18.4 mpg‑US)
7,704
9/79–9/81 M123 V 25
(123.921)
I6
140 PS (100 kW; 140 hp) at 5,500 rpm 200 N⋅m (148 lb⋅ft) at 3,500 rpm
10/81–10/82 11.7 s
280 123.030 12/75–7/81 M110 V 28
(110.923)
I6
2746 cc Carburettor 156 PS (115 kW; 154 hp) at 5,500 rpm 223 N⋅m (164 lb⋅ft) at 4,000 rpm 1,455 kg
(3,208 lb)
10.6 s 190 km/h
(118 mph)
13.8 L/100 km
(17.0 mpg‑US)
33,206
280 C 123.050 4/77–3/80 13.1 L/100 km
(18.0 mpg‑US)
3,704
280 E 123.033 12/75–3/78 M110 E 28
(110.984)
I6
Bosch K-Jetronic 177 PS (130 kW; 175 hp) at 6,000 rpm 234 N⋅m (173 lb⋅ft) at 4,500 rpm 1,475 kg
(3,252 lb)
9.9 s 200 km/h
(124 mph)
13.3 L/100 km
(17.7 mpg‑US)
126,004
4/78–9/81 M110 E 28
(110.988)
I6
185 PS (136 kW; 182 hp) at 5,800 rpm 240 N⋅m (177 lb⋅ft) at 4,500 rpm
10/81–12/85 12 L/100 km
(20 mpg‑US)
280 CE 123.053 4/77–3/78 M110 E 28
(110.984)
I6
177 PS (130 kW; 175 hp) at 6,000 rpm 234 N⋅m (173 lb⋅ft) at 4,500 rpm 1,475 kg
(3,252 lb)
9.9 s 200 km/h
(124 mph)
13.3 L/100 km
(17.7 mpg‑US)
32,176
4/78–9/81 M110 E 28
(110.988)
I6
185 PS (136 kW; 182 hp) at 5,800 rpm 240 N⋅m (177 lb⋅ft) at 4,500 rpm
10/81–8/85 12 L/100 km
(20 mpg‑US)
280 TE 123.093 5/78-8/78 M110 E 28
(110.984)
I6
177 PS (130 kW; 175 hp) at 6,000 rpm 234 N⋅m (173 lb⋅ft) at 4,500 rpm 1,475 kg
(3,252 lb)
9.9 s 200 km/h
(124 mph)
13.3 L/100 km
(17.7 mpg‑US)
19,789
9/78–9/81 M110 E 28
(110.988)
I6
185 PS (136 kW; 182 hp) at 5,800 rpm 240 N⋅m (177 lb⋅ft) at 4,500 rpm
10/81–1/86 12 L/100 km
(20 mpg‑US)
Diesel Engines
Model Chassis Years Configuration Displ. Fuel Delivery Power Torque Leer
Weight
0–100 km/h
(0–62 mph)
Top
Speed
Fuel
Consumption
Units
200 D 123.120 2/76–1/79 OM 615 D 20
(615.940)
I4
1988 cc Fuel Injection
with precombustion chamber
55 PS (40 kW; 54 hp) at 4,200 rpm 113 N⋅m (83 lb⋅ft) at 2,400 rpm 1,390 kg
(3,060 lb)
31 s 130 km/h
(81 mph)
8.9 L/100 km
(26 mpg‑US)
378,138
2/79–4/85 60 PS (44 kW; 59 hp) at 4,400 rpm 113 N⋅m (83 lb⋅ft) at 2,500 rpm 27.4 s 135 km/h
(84 mph)
220 D 123.126 2/76–3/79 OM 615 D 22
(615.941)
I4
2197 cc 60 PS (44 kW; 59 hp) at 4,200 rpm 126 N⋅m (93 lb⋅ft) at 2,400 rpm 1,380 kg
(3,040 lb)
28.1 s 135 km/h
(84 mph)
9 L/100 km
(26 mpg‑US)
56.736
240 D 123.123 2/76–7/78 OM 616 D 24
(616.916)
I4
2404 cc 65 PS (48 kW; 64 hp) at 4,200 rpm 137 N⋅m (101 lb⋅ft) at 2,400 rpm 1,395 kg
(3,075 lb)
24.6 s 138 km/h
(86 mph)
9.3 L/100 km
(25 mpg‑US)
449,780
8/78–9/81 OM 616 D 24
(616.912)
I4
2399 cc 72 PS (53 kW; 71 hp) at 4,400 rpm 22 s 143 km/h
(89 mph)
10/81–11/85 8.9 L/100 km
(26 mpg‑US)
240 TD 123.183 5/78–8/79 OM 616 D 24
(616.912)
I4
2404 cc 65 PS (48 kW; 64 hp) at 4,200 rpm 137 N⋅m (101 lb⋅ft) at 2,400 rpm 1,515 kg
(3,340 lb)
25.8 s 138 km/h
(86 mph)
9.6 L/100 km
(25 mpg‑US)
38,903
9/79–1/86 2399 cc 72 PS (53 kW; 71 hp) at 4,400 rpm 23.2 s 143 km/h
(89 mph)
8.9 L/100 km
(26 mpg‑US)
300 D 123.130 2/76–8/79 OM 617 D 30
(617.912)
I5
3005 cc 80 PS (59 kW; 79 hp) at 4,000 rpm 172 N⋅m (127 lb⋅ft) at 2,400 rpm 1,450 kg
(3,200 lb)
19.9 s 148 km/h
(92 mph)
9.9 L/100 km
(24 mpg‑US)
324,718
9/79–9/81 2998 cc 88 PS (65 kW; 87 hp) at 4,400 rpm 17.8 s 155 km/h
(96 mph)
10/81–11/85 9.3 L/100 km
(25 mpg‑US)
300 CD 123.150 9/77–8/79 3005 cc 80 PS (59 kW; 79 hp) at 4,000 rpm 172 N⋅m (127 lb⋅ft) at 2,400 rpm 1,450 kg
(3,200 lb)
20.8 s 143 km/h
(89 mph)
9.9 L/100 km
(24 mpg‑US)
7,502
9/79–8/81 2998 cc 88 PS (65 kW; 87 hp) at 4,400 rpm 19.2 s 150 km/h
(93 mph)
300 TD 123.190 5/78–8/79 3005 cc 80 PS (59 kW; 79 hp) at 4,000 rpm 172 N⋅m (127 lb⋅ft) at 2,400 rpm 1,570 kg
(3,460 lb)
20.9 s 148 km/h
(92 mph)
9.9 L/100 km
(24 mpg‑US)
36,874
9/79–9/81 2998 cc 88 PS (65 kW; 87 hp) at 4,400 rpm 18.9 s 155 km/h
(96 mph)
9/81–1/86 9.3 L/100 km
(25 mpg‑US)
300 D TURBODIESEL
(USA only)
123.133 8/81–9/82 OM 617 D 30 A
(617.952)
I5 turbo
2998 cc Fuel Injection
with precombustion chamber
and turbocharger
121 PS (89 kW; 119 hp) at 4,350 rpm 230 N⋅m (170 lb⋅ft) at 2,400 rpm 1,525 kg
(3,362 lb)
14.0 s 165 km/h
(103 mph)
9.9 L/100 km
(24 mpg‑US)
75,261
10/82–8/85 125 PS (92 kW; 123 hp) at 4,350 rpm 250 N⋅m (184 lb⋅ft) at 2,400 rpm 170 km/h
(106 mph)
300 CD TURBODIESEL
(USA only)
123.153 7/81–9/82 1,625 kg
(3,583 lb)
14.0 s 165 km/h
(103 mph)
Un­known 8,007
10/82-8/85 170 km/h
(106 mph)
300 TD TURBODIESEL 123.193 10/80–8/81 1,625 kg
(3,583 lb)
15.0 s 165 km/h
(103 mph)
9.9 L/100 km
(24 mpg‑US)
28,219
9/81–1/86 9.8 L/100 km
(24 mpg‑US)

Technical Data (for North America and Japan specific models)[edit]

In these markets, only the following models were offered:[15]