Mercurialis annua is a species of flowering plant in the spurge family known by the common name annual mercury. It is native to Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East but it is known on many other continents as an introduced species.
This is an annual herb growing 10 to 70 centimeters tall with oppositely arranged, stipulate oval leaves each a few centimeters long. The male flowers are borne in spikelike clusters sprouting from leaf axils, and female flowers grow at leaf axils in clusters of 2 or 3. The fruit is a bristly schizocarp 2 or 3 millimeters wide containing shiny, pitted seeds.
The plant is mostly dioecious with male and female plants producing different types of inflorescence, Mercurialis annua can also be found to be monooecious or androdioecious, their complicated sexuality makes them the ideal model plant for studying sexual systems in plants.
Isorhamnetin-3-rutinoside-4′-glucoside, rutin, narcissin (Isorhamnetin 3-rutinoside), quercetin-3-(2G-glucosyl)-rutinoside and isorhamnetin-3-rutinoside-7-glucoside can be isolated from the methanolic extract of M. annua.
Distribution and habitat
- Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
- Altervista Flora Italiana, Mercorella comune, ortiga muerta, urtiga-morta, Einjähriges Bingelkraut, mercuriale annuelle, Annual Mercury, Mercurialis annua L. includes photos, drawings, and a European distribution map
- Mayfield, Mark H.; Webster, Grady L. (2016). "Mercurialis annua". Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora. Retrieved 14 January 2016.
- Messina, Antonio (2014). "Mercurialis annua". Acta plantarum. Retrieved 14 January 2016.
- Phytochemical investigation on Mercurialis annua. R Aquino, I Behar, M D'agostino, F De Simone, O Schettino and C Pizza, doi:10.1016/0305-1978(87)90042-1
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