She is currently the director of the Institute of African Women in Religion and Culture at Trinity Theological Seminary in Ghana.
Oduyoye earned a bachelor's degree from the University of Ghana in 1963, a second bachelor's degree from Cambridge University in 1965, and a master's degree from Cambridge in 1969. From 1967 to 1979, she was youth education secretary for the World Council of Churches; from 1987 to 1994, she was Deputy General Secretary for the same organization. She has taught at Harvard University, Union Theological Seminary, and the University of Ibadan. She has also served as president of the World Student Christian Federation.
Oduyoye has written four books and more tham eighty articles focusing on Christian theology from a feminist and African perspective. One of her central subjects is how African religion and culture influences the experiences of African women. In particular, she has addressed the effects of economic oppression on African women.
- Hearing and Knowing: Theological Reflections on Christianity in Africa (1986)
- 'Women and Ritual in Africa' in The Will to Arise: Women, Tradition, and the Church in Africa (1992)
- 'Feminist Theology in an African Perspective' in Paths of African Theology (1994)
- Daughters of Anowa: African Women and Patriarchy (1995)
- Introducing African Women's Theology (2001)
- Beads and Strands: Reflections of an African Woman on Christianity in Africa (2004)
- Kwok Pui-lan (Spring 2004). "Mercy Amba Oduyoye and African Women's Theology". Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion. 20 (1): 7–22. JSTOR 25002487.
- Oredein, Oluwatomisin (Fall 2016). "Interview with Mercy Amba Oduyoye: Mercy Amba Oduyoye in Her Own Words". Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion. 32 (2): 153–164. doi:10.2979/jfemistudreli.32.2.26. JSTOR 10.2979/jfemistudreli.32.2.26.
- The Circle of Concerned African Women Theologians, annual report 2001-02.
- Mary E. O'Leary, "Yale graduates 3,100 under sunny skies", New Haven Register, 27 May 2008.
- Phiri, Isabel Apawo; Nadar, Sarojini, eds. (2012). African Women, Religion, and Health: Essays in Honor of Mercy Amba Ewudziwa Oduyoye. Wipf and Stock Publishers. ISBN 978-1-62032-092-1.
- Pemberton, Carrie (2003). Circle Thinking: African Women Theologians in Dialogue with the West. Brill. ISBN 90-04-12441-1.