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Meriden, Connecticut

Coordinates: 41°32′12″N 72°47′41″W / 41.53667°N 72.79472°W / 41.53667; -72.79472
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Meriden, Connecticut
City of Meriden
City Hall, Meriden
Official seal of Meriden, Connecticut
The Silver City[1]
Coordinates: 41°32′12″N 72°47′41″W / 41.53667°N 72.79472°W / 41.53667; -72.79472
Country United States
U.S. state Connecticut
CountyNew Haven
RegionSouth Central CT
Incorporated (town)1806
Incorporated (city)1867
 • TypeCouncil-manager
 • City ManagerEmily Holland, Acting
 • City Leaders
List of CLs
  • Kevin M. Scarpati (U), Mayor
  • Bruce A. Fontanella (D), Dep. Mayor
  • Sonya Jelks (D), Majority Leader
  • Larue A. Graham (D), Dep. Maj. Leader
  • Michael S. Rohde (D), Dep. Maj. Leader
  • Dan Brunet (R), Minority Leader
  • Bob Williams, Jr. (W), Dep. Min. Leader
  • Michael Carabetta (R)
  • Chad Cardillo (D)
  • Yvette Cortez (D)
  • Ray R. Ouellet (R)
  • Joseph Scaramuzzo (D)
  • Michael Zakrzewski (R)
 • Total24.16 sq mi (62.58 km2)
 • Land23.80 sq mi (61.64 km2)
 • Water0.36 sq mi (0.94 km2)
177 ft (54 m)
 • Total60,850
 • Density2,557/sq mi (987.2/km2)
Time zoneUTC−05:00 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−04:00 (Eastern)
ZIP Codes
06450, 06451
Area code(s)203/475
FIPS code09-46450
GNIS feature ID0208834
AirportMeriden Markham Airport
Major highways
Commuter Rail

Meriden (/ˈmɛərədɪn/ MAIR-ə-din) is a city in New Haven County, Connecticut, United States, located halfway between the regional cities of New Haven and Hartford. The city is part of the South Central Connecticut Planning Region. In 2020, the population of the city was 60,850.[3]


Solomon Goffe House
Meriden Britannia electro-gold and silverplating factory, 1881

18th century


Meriden was originally a part of the neighboring town of Wallingford. It was granted a separate meetinghouse in 1727, became a town in 1806 with over 1,000 residents. Meriden was incorporated as a city in 1867, with just under 9,000 residents. It was once proposed as the Connecticut state capital.[4] It was named for the village of Meriden, West Midlands, England, near Birmingham.

The oldest house in town still standing, built by Solomon Goffe in 1711, became a museum in 1986. The building is the Solomon Goffe House.[4]

The grave of Winston Churchill's great-great-great maternal grandfather, Timothy Jerome, can be seen today at what is now called "Burying Ground 1720" (Google Maps: 41°31′22″N 72°47′16″W / 41.522877°N 72.787707°W / 41.522877; -72.787707) at the juncture of Dexter Avenue and Lydale Place. At the time the location was known as "Buckwheat Hill", and overlooked the salt-making estate for which Jerome had received a royal grant.[5] Timothy Jerome's son, Samuel, is the great-great-grandfather of Jennie Jerome, Winston Churchill's mother.[6][7]

19th century to World War II

Meriden, c. 1914

In the second half of the 1800s, Meriden became a manufacturing center of note, with several companies forming, or relocating to the city, involved in the production of mainly silver, lamps and metalware, glassware, guns, and musical instruments. A substantial number of design and technology patents were secured.[8]

Silver and cutlery


For silver, the numerous companies included the Meriden Britannia Company (a predecessor of the International Silver Company with corporate HQ in Meriden),[9] Meriden earned the nickname "Silver City", due to the large number of silver manufacturers, and the International Silver Co. continued production until the early 1980s. Along with the silver companies, other producers of cutlery included the Meriden Cutlery Co. and Miller Bros. Cutlery.[10]

In 1876, the Meriden Britannia Company made significant efforts at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, and won the First Place medal for plated wares. According to the Sotheby's auction house, "The publicity of the award and the impression the firm made on the fair's 8 million visitors was continued by the catalogues and other intensive marketing; by the end of the 1870s Meriden Britannia Co. was considered the largest silverware company in the world."[11] A key design attributed to launching the company and the town's international name was the Buffalo Hunt with a smaller edition in the White House collection, Washington, DC. For some time the original Buffalo Hunt sculpture went missing, and in a shocking report by Bailey Wright in 2018, it was learned that it was recently 'missing' actually in Meriden.[12][13]

Lamps and metalware


For lamps and metalware, the companies with national and international markets included the Edward Miller & Co / Miller Company (1844–stopped manufacturing lighting c. 1980),[14] the Charles Parker Company, Handel Company,[15] and the Bradley & Hubbard Manufacturing Company (1852–1940), which also was widely known for producing metal-based products like decorative tables and andirons.



For glassware, the companies included the C.F. Monroe Company (1892–1916).[16] and the Meriden Flint Glass Company (1876–1892),[17][10]

Kitchen appliances and guns


Manning, Bowman & Co. (1849–1945) centered its production in Meriden, and into the early 20th century became a nationally known producer of small electrical appliances and chrome ware.[18] Meriden was also the site of the production of Parker Brothers (guns), widely-known and traded by firearms enthusiasts. From 1905 to 1918, the Meriden Firearms Co. manufactured small arms from 1905 to 1918. The stock was owned by Sears, Roebuck & Company.[4]

Musical instruments including player pianos


Internationally known companies Wilcox and White and the Aeolian Company were involved in the production of musical instruments north of the downtown area at Tremont and Cambridge Streets.[19] The Aeolian Company grew quickly forming production sites in other places and developed a music hall in New York. (The largest holder today of instruments and music rolls by the two companies is the Pianola Museum in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.) [20]

Graphic arts innovation


Meriden also was an important site for graphic arts innovation. In 1888, the Meriden Gravure Company (in Meriden 1888–1989) was founded by Charles Parker and James F. Allen, and continued a previous printing operation by Parker. The company developed an expertise in high quality image reproduction, which initially was driven by the needs of the silver industry.[21]

With the wealth of entrepreneurs during this time, several mansions and houses of note were built, particularly on Broad Street.[22][4]

Of political and historical note, on March 7, 1860, Abraham Lincoln spoke in Meriden seeking the Republican presidential nomination.[23]

Isaac C. Lewis mansion (1868). Since 1950, the building has been used for other purposes.[4] Since 2012, it has been a mosque.
Meriden City Hall (1907) with Civil War monument in the foreground. This building replaced two previous designs (1869–1889 and 1889–1904, the latter destroyed by fire).[4]

For public places, Hubbard Park in the Hanging Hills was financed by Walter Hubbard (of the Bradley & Hubbard company). The design for the park was originally conceived by Hubbard in consultation with the Olmsted Brothers, sons of Frederick Law Olmsted, America's foremost landscape architect. In 1900, Castle Craig on a peak was dedicated in the park.[24] In 1903, the Curtis Memorial Library, across from Meriden's city hall, was opened.[4]

Hollywood connection (1937–1950)


From 1937 until 1947, the International Silver Company sponsored the Silver Theater, a national radio program broadcast via CBS in Hollywood. The radio program featured many Hollywood actors and actresses of the time like Jimmy Stewart and Rosalind Russell. Over 200 programs were produced.[25][26] In c. 1937–1945, several Hollywood stars, including Judy Garland, Ginger Rogers and Barbara Stanwyck, endorsed the company's 1847 Rogers Bros. silverware in print advertisements in LIFE magazine.[27][28]

After World War II, in 1949–1950, The Silver Theatre was brought to television and broadcast on CBS, also with the International Silver Company as the sponsor. Guest stars included Eva Gabor, Kim Hunter, and Burgess Meredith.[29]

Legacy of Meriden's grand manufacturing era


A few thousand designs from this manufacturing era from Meriden are in museums and historical societies across the United States and into Europe, Australia and New Zealand.[10] Design objects from this era from Meriden have also been included in over 200 national and international exhibitions and expositions since the 1850s.[10] The 1930s tea urn by Eliel Saarinen for the Wilcox Silver Plate Co. / International Silver Company, Meriden, is the one design exhibited most and most published in design books as an international Modern design icon.[30][31]

Some comparatively recent examples of Meriden designs in exhibitions include In pursuit of Beauty: Americans and the Aesthetic Movement at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York (1986–1987),[32] and more recently, Modernism in American Silver: 20th century design (2005–2006) in Dallas, Miami Beach, and Washington, DC, which highlighted downtown Meriden and the area's role as an important center of Modernist silver production.[33] In 19th century Modern (2011–2012) in Brooklyn, designs by the International Silver Company and the Napier Company, another Meriden manufacturer, were exhibited.[34] In November 2016-November 2017, the city's iconic Napier penguin cocktail shaker was in an exhibition at the Dallas Museum of Art; the Napier penguin was the lead image of the show.[35]

In summer 2017 alone, historical Meriden area design was exhibited in museum shows in at least Dallas, Newark, at the Museum of Modern Art in New York, the Cooper-Hewitt Smithsonian Museum in New York, the Gemeentemuseum in The Hague, The Netherlands, and the KunstHalle in Berlin, Germany.[30]

With this level of attention, some special design objects from the era have become sought-after collectors items also at auction, sometimes due to their association with the commission or commissioner, or the status of the design, or being in the sought-after Modernism style. For example, a painted glass and metal table lamp by Bradley and Hubbard, (c. 1920) sold for US$14,950, doubling its estimate, at Christie's auction house in New York in 1999.[36] Later, a 14-inch, International Silver Company cocktail shaker (c. 1927) sold for US$21,600 tripling its estimate, at Christie's in New York in 2005.[37] A Parker gun made for a Russian czar before World War I, but never delivered, was reported to have been sold for US$287,500 in 2007.[4] In 2008, a rare Handel lamp sold for US$85,000.[38] On March 5–6, 2014 at Sotheby's in London, "Al Capone's cocktail shaker" made by the Meriden International Sterling Company (c. 1932) achieved over 33 times its estimate with a sale price of GBP50,000 (US$83,250 on the day).[39] Lastly, in 2014, at Sotheby's New York, a rare Paul Lobel-designed coffee service (c. 1934–1935) produced by the Wilcox Silver Plate Co. / International Silver Company sold for US$377,000.[40]



In 1939, Edwin Howard Armstrong, a network radio pioneer who invented FM radio, used West Peak in 1939 for the location of one of the first FM radio broadcasts. His original 70-foot-tall (21 m) radio mast still stands on the peak.[41] Currently West Peak is home to six FM broadcast stations, including WNPR,[42] WWYZ, WKSS, WDRC-FM, WMRQ-FM[43] and WHCN.

During World War II, factories in Meriden worked three shifts (24 hours/day). On March 8, 1944, the War Manpower Commission gave Meriden the designation as "National Ideal War Community", and Jimmy Durante and Glenn Miller entertained those at the ceremony.[4]

In addition to manufacturers that continued operations after World War II, starting in the later 1940s, the Miller Company, Burton Tremaine, Sr. and Emily Hall Tremaine firmly put Meriden on the international, 20th century art/design map. In December 1947, Meriden became known once again as a site of design innovation, now with Modern art, via the Miller Company Collection of Abstract Art and the organization of a Painting toward architecture exhibition which opened at Hartford's Wadsworth Atheneum[44] and later travelled to venues in 27 venues across the United States (1947–52). Substantial national media coverage reported on the exhibition. Painting toward architecture is considered one of the important art-design-architecture crossover exhibitions of the 20th century, tabling European influences for usage in the Post-World War II United States.[45] In the 1950s, the Miller Company Collection of Abstract Art was privatized to "Mr & Mrs Burton Tremaine, Meriden, CT" and numerous artworks were lent to hundreds of exhibitions nationally and internationally into the 1970s with this designation.[46]

Black-and-white Modernist facade of the Miller Company addition, designed by Philip Johnson, built in 1965.

In 1965, the Miller Company addition on Center Street was completed. The black-and-white Modernist facade was designed by influential American architect Philip Johnson.[47][48]

On April 27, 1976, Jimmy Carter campaigned at city hall and the Latin American Society for the nomination of the Democratic Party for President of the United States.[49]



In 1981, the Ku Klux Klan was present in Meriden, holding various rallies in the first half of the year. At these rallies, Connecticut State Police would protect the KKK from anti-KKK protestors.[50] At a March 21, 1981, rally, where the KKK was showing support for a police officer who killed a Black person, protestors threw rocks at the KKK. Two protesters were injured.[51]

In 1987, the Emily Hall Tremaine Foundation was founded by the noted art collector that partly worked in Meriden, before her death, with three focus areas: learning disabilities, the arts, and the environment.[52] The offices were located in downtown Meriden.[53] In c. 2010, the foundation offices were relocated to New Haven, near Yale University.[54]

The Franciscan Sisters of the Eucharist have their mother house in Meriden, as do the Franciscan Brothers of the Eucharist. The headquarters of Eastern Mountain Sports is located in Meriden.


The Hanging Hills and Hubbard Park, and Meriden below (2003)
The Quinnipiac River as it winds through the Quinnipiac River Gorge in South Meriden

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 24.1 square miles (62.5 km2), of which 23.8 square miles (61.5 km2) is land and 0.4 square miles (1.0 km2), or 1.66%, is water.

Meriden is a showcase for a number of prominent peaks of the Metacomet Ridge, a mountainous trap rock ridgeline that stretches from Long Island Sound to nearly the Vermont border. Notable peaks in Meriden include the Hanging Hills (West Peak, East Peak, South Mountain, and Cathole Mountain); Lamentation Mountain, Chauncey Peak, and Besek Mountain. Castle Craig, a city landmark for over a century, was constructed among the Hanging Hills in Hubbard Park.

The Quinnipiac River courses through the southwest quadrant of the city, known to area residents as "South Meriden", where it meanders through a gorge lined with several exposed sandstone and brownstone cliffs. Harbor Brook (originally named Pilgrim Harbor Brook) cuts through the town from the northeast to the southwest before emptying into Hanover Pond, an impoundment on the Quinnipiac River in South Meriden.

Principal communities

  • Meriden Center
  • South Meriden


Historical population
U.S. Decennial Census[55]

As of the 2010 census, there were 60,868 people in Meriden, with a population density of 2558 persons per square mile. There were 23,922 households (2009–2013). The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.10. Husband-wife households account for 41% of all households. The population under 5 years (2010) was 6.7%, under 18 years (2010) was 23.9%, and 65 years and over was 12.9%. The female population was 51.6% compared to the male population at 48.4% (2010).[56]

The racial makeup of the city in 2010 was 73.5% White, 9.7% Black or African American, 0.5% Native American, 2.1% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 10.7% from other races, and 3.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 28.9% of the population. In 2009–2013, 9.7% of the population was foreign-born.[57][56]

For 2009–2013, the median household income was $52,590. The per capita income for the city was $26,941. The median value of owner-occupied housing units was $188,400. The home ownership rate was 61.8%. The high school graduation or higher rate was 83.6% (age 25+) and the bachelor's degree or higher rate was 19.1% (age 25+). 14.4% of people were below the poverty line.[56]

Political affiliation

Voter registration and party enrollment as of October 27, 2020[58]
Party Active voters Inactive voters Total voters Percentage
Democratic 11,160 1,572 12,732 34.34%
Republican 4,946 501 5,447 14.69%
Unaffiliated 15,332 3,033 18,365 49.54%
Minor parties 478 50 528 1.42%
Total 31,916 5,156 37,072 100%



Until 1980, the city had a Mayor-Council ("strong mayor") structure. The last full-time strong mayor was Walter Evilia, a Republican and a former State Representative. Dana Miller was appointed the first city manager.[59][60] The City Charter was last amended in 1994, giving the then largely ceremonial position of mayor more influence over city governance, including appointments to all boards and commissions and other positions within the appointing power of the City Council,[61] as well as line-item veto over city budgets.[62]

The current mayor, Kevin Scarpati, became the youngest popularly-elected mayor in the city's history, winning the 2015 election race by 78 votes against mayor Manny Santos, who had been the first Republican elected as mayor in nearly 30 years (the last being Walter Evilia). In 2018, Manny Santos ran an unsuccessful election for U.S. Congress in the 5th Congressional House District.[63]

The city gained notoriety in government and political circles when in 2014, at the urging of newly elected mayor, Manny Santos, plaintiffs sued to remove appointees of boards and commissions and corporation counsel.[64] Ultimately, the ruling by the state Supreme Court to vacate the appointments followed that of a lower court order. The appointments had been made by former mayor, Michael Rohde. In its ruling, the court noted, per the city charter, that the city council can appoint a corporation counsel, but only on the recommendation of the mayor, who at the time was Manny Santos.[65]

Arts and culture


Points of interest

Looking west from city hall to the Downtown Area, Meriden, CT. The Civil War monument (1873) is to the right, and the Hanging Hills are in the distance to the right. Photo in 2007.
The Curtis Memorial Library building (2007)
Red Bridge, one of no more than fifteen lenticular pony truss bridges remaining in Connecticut.[66]


Board of Education building, formerly Meriden High School

The Meriden Board of Education operates several public schools:[79]

Public elementary schools (K–5)

  • John Barry
  • Benjamin Franklin
  • Nathan Hale
  • Hanover
  • Thomas Hooker
  • Casimir Pulaski
  • Israel Putnam
  • Roger Sherman

Middle schools (6–8)

  • Lincoln (public)
  • Washington (public)
  • Edison (public)

High schools


Other schools in the area include the Catholic high schools Xavier High School (boys) and Mercy High School (girls) in neighboring Middletown. The private schools Cheshire Academy and Choate Rosemary Hall are in adjacent Cheshire and Wallingford respectively.

The former St. Stanislaus Catholic K–8 School, established in 1897 by people who immigrated from Poland,[81] closed in 2015.[82]



At one time The Meriden Daily Journal served as the community newspaper. Currently the Meriden Record Journal serves the communities of Meriden, Wallingford, Cheshire, and Southington and is located on South Broad Street by the Wallingford town line.[83]







The city of Meriden is located on Interstate 91, which provides access to Hartford, Springfield, and New Haven. Interstate 691 provides access to Interstate 84 and connects to points west like Waterbury. The Wilbur Cross Parkway (Connecticut Route 15) travels in a southwestern direction connecting to towns and cities like Wallingford, New Haven, and towards New York City. The parkway becomes the Berlin Turnpike (also Connecticut Route 15) on the northern end of Meriden. U.S. Route 5 passes through the city as North and South Broad Street.

Meriden Transit Center in 2017



Meriden Transit Center is located in downtown Meriden on the New Haven–Springfield Line, which runs between cities of New Haven and Springfield via Hartford. It is served by CT Rail Hartford Line commuter rail service, as well as Amtrak Hartford Line, Northeast Regional, Valley Flyer and Vermonter intercity rail service.

The Meriden, Waterbury and Connecticut River Railroad opened between Cromwell and Waterbury via Meriden in 1888–89. Passenger service west of Meriden to Waterbury ended in 1917, while Connecticut Company streetcars used the line between Meriden and Middletown until 1931. A portion of the line in Meriden remained in use for freight until 1976.[84]



Beginning in 1784, Meriden had a stop on the New Haven-Hartford Stage Coach [85] on Route 5 near the intersection of East Main Street. Years later, the same stop served as the bus stop for Greyhound and Peter Pan buses. Meriden had four daily departures to/from Hartford/Boston, and four daily departures to/from New Haven/New York daily from the 1970s through 2007, when intercity bus service ceased serving Meriden.

Meriden is linked to the Connecticut Transit System, Connecticut's extensive public transit bus network. Three bus lines loop throughout the city of Meriden once per hour. The "B" bus route departs the Meriden railroad station for the southern terminus of Kohls Plaza, connecting for New Haven; the "A" bus route departs the rail station for the northern terminus of Meriden Square with connections to New Britain and Hartford; and the east/west "C" bus travels along East Main and West Main Streets, with a handful of departures to Middletown and Waterbury.



Meriden Markham Municipal Airport is the city-owned airport, located 3 miles (4.8 km) south of the city center on the border of South Meriden and Yalesville, and serves private and charter planes. Bradley International Airport (BDL) in Windsor Locks and Tweed New Haven Airport (HVN) in East Haven are the closest commercial airports to Meriden.

Notable people


Since 1975, the Meriden Hall of Fame organization has issued recognitions. In the Meriden City Hall, plaques pay tribute to the inductees.[86]

Arts and humanities


Science and technology









  • A season 5 episode of the Discovery Channel series A Haunting, called The Uninvited, takes place in Meriden in 2007.
  • The 1989 Robert De Niro starring film Jacknife, which was shot in Meriden. Several town sites are seen throughout the film, including Castle Craig at Hubbard Park, a historic house on Linsley Avenue, as well as film locations in the greater region.[110]

See also



  1. ^ Bill Ryan, What's in a Name? Old Industrial Fame, The New York Times, January 21, 1996
  2. ^ "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 2, 2020.
  3. ^ a b Census - Geography Profile: Meriden city, Connecticut . United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 17, 2021.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Franco, Janis L. (2010). Images of America: Meriden, (pp. 7, 14, 16, 19-20, 32-33, 34, 44, 64, 74, 105, and back cover). Arcadia Publishing: Charleston, SC. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  5. ^ Martin, Ralph G. Jennie: The Life of Lady Randolph Churchill, Vol. 1, (Prentice-Hall, August 1, 1990), p. 2
  6. ^ "RootsWeb's WorldConnect Project: Ancestors and Cousins – From "Mayflower" to 2012". ancestry.com. Retrieved September 8, 2016.
  7. ^ "Message Boards". ancestry.com. Retrieved September 8, 2016.
  8. ^ (Undated). "Google Patents". (Search "Meriden" and various company names.) Retrieved September 1, 2018.
  9. ^ (Undated). "Meriden's Silver Lining". ConnecticutHistory.org website. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
  10. ^ a b c d (undated). Historical Meriden area design (1860–1965). artdesigncafe. Retrieved April 28, 2019.
  11. ^ (Undated). "Philadelphia Exposition of 1876: A Monumental American silver-plated 'Chief and Squaw' centerpiece, Meriden Britannia Company, Meriden, CT, the figures attributed to Theodore Baur, 1876. Sotheby's website. Retrieved July 21, 2015.
  12. ^ (undated). The Buffalo Hunt, smaller edition (1882-86). Meriden Britannia Co. [1] White House Historical Association, Washington, DC. Retrieved April 28, 2019.
  13. ^ Wright, Bailey (January 25, 2018). In search of a piece of Silver City history. Record-Journal (Meriden, CT). Retrieved April 28, 2019.
  14. ^ Schieps, Marguerite T. (1995), The Miller Company: The first 150 years. (Research: Allen L. Weathers, curator, Meriden Historical Society.) Studley Press, p. 8.
  15. ^ (March 14, 2016). Handel lamps / Handel Company design catalogues & historical information. artdesigncafe. Retrieved April 17, 2020.
  16. ^ (Undated). "Bowl – C.F. Monroe Company". Toledo Museum of Art website. Retrieved July 30, 2015.
  17. ^ Tobin, Diane. (2012). The Meriden Flint Glass Company: An abundance of glass. The History Press: Charleston, SC.
  18. ^ (April 16, 2016). "Manning, Bowman & Co. design catalogues and historical information". artdesigncafe. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  19. ^ October 28, 2018. "Wilcox & White Co. designs in collections, at auction, in exhibitions and historical information". artdesigncafe. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  20. ^ (undated). "Pianola Museum webpage" Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  21. ^ (Undated). "Meriden Gravure Company". University of Virginia website, SNAC section. Retrieved July 24, 2015.
  22. ^ "'Gallery 737 – Renaissance Revival Parlor, 1870' webpage (of former Wilcox mansion on Broad Street, Meriden)". Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Retrieved July 8, 2015.
  23. ^ Kurz, Jeffery. (November 21, 2014). "The day Lincoln came to Meriden". Meriden Record-Journal, Retrieved July 18, 2015.
  24. ^ (Undated). "Hubbard Park" City of Meriden website. Retrieved July 11, 2015.
  25. ^ (Undated.) "Silver Theater" description. onesmedia.com. Retrieved August 23, 2015.
  26. ^ (Undated). "The Silver Theater" (46 programs). archive.org. Retrieved August 23, 2015.
  27. ^ (Undated, c. 1941.) "1847 Rogers Bros Silverware: 'Your Chance of a Lifetime' 1941 International Silver Company" dealer promotional video. Retrieved August 23, 2015.
  28. ^ (April 3, 2016). "International Silver Company design catalogues and historical information" (Advertisements 1937-45). artdesigncafe.com. Retrieved November 18, 2017.
  29. ^ International Silver Company. (1950). Annual report, 1949 (pdf reprint). (Page 5 mentions the TV show.) Design Meriden at artdesigncafe.com. Retrieved August 15, 2017.
  30. ^ a b (July 5, 2017). Historical Meriden-area design exhibitions and expositions list. Design Meriden at artdesigncafe.com. Retrieved April 28, 2019.
  31. ^ (undated). Webpage for Eliel Saarinen's tea urn. British Museum, London. Retrieved April 28, 2019.
  32. ^ Metropolitan Museum of Art. (1986). In Pursuit of Beauty: Americans and the Aesthetic Movement. (Includes extensive bibliography concerning the Meriden Brittania Company). Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York & Rizzoli. Retrieved July 21, 2015.
  33. ^ (Undated). "Modernism in American Silver: 20th century design" exhibition (several International Silver designs are featured) (September 16, 2005 – January 22, 2006) (Organized by the Dallas Museum of Art, exhibited there as well as the Smithsonian Institution and Wolfsonian-FIU in Miami Beach). Smithsonian American Art Museum website. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
  34. ^ (Undated). "19th-Century Modern" exhibition announcement page (including designs by the International Silver Company and Napier Company). Brooklyn Museum of Art website. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
  35. ^ (Undated). "Shaken, Stirred, Styled: The Art of the Cocktail" (exhibition announcement). Dallas Museum of Art website. Retrieved August 6, 2016.
  36. ^ (Undated). "A reverse painted glass and metal table lamp" (Bradley and Hubbard), c. 1920. (Sale 9196, Lot 414 in year 1999). Christie's website. Retrieved July 21, 2015.
  37. ^ (Undated). "A silver-plated cocktail shaker in the form of Boston lighthouse" (International Silver Company), c. 1927. (Sale 1858, Lot 84 in year 2005). Christie's website. Retrieved July 21, 2015.
  38. ^ (Undated). "Handel: A fine and rare lamp". Sotheby's website. Retrieved August 1, 2016.
  39. ^ (Undated). "Al Capone's cocktail shaker" (c. 1932) (made by Meriden International Sterling Company). Sotheby's website. Retrieved July 21, 2015.
  40. ^ (Undated). Paul Lobel: An important and rare four-piece coffee service (c. 1934–1936). Sotheby's website. Retrieved August 1, 2016.
  41. ^ This Week in Amateur Radio. Cited December 13, 2007
  42. ^ FCC callsign history 90.5FM
  43. ^ FCC callsign history 104.1FM
  44. ^ Hitchcock, Henry-Russell. (1948). Painting toward architecture (exhibition catalogue; foreword by Alfred H. Barr). New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce. Copyright: The Miller Company.
  45. ^ Preece, R. J. (July / August 2017). Rethinking Painting toward architecture (1947-52). Sculpture magazine / artdesigncafe. Retrieved April 27, 2019.
  46. ^ (June 16, 2016). Tremaine Collection artworks and designs in exhibitions (compilation; 1945-present) artdesigncafe. Retrieved April 28, 2019.
  47. ^ (March 20, 1964). "Famed architect assisted in designing rolling mill". The Morning Record (Meriden, CT). Retrieved October 16, 2016.
  48. ^ (April 28, 1972). "Progress is... the Miller Company". The Morning Record (Meriden, CT). Retrieved October 16, 2016.
  49. ^ Kaferle, Dan (May 7, 1976). "Mayor Remains 'Unaffiliated' in Presidential Delegate Battle". The Morning Record. Meriden, Conn. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
  50. ^ "The Ku Klux Klan in Connecticut". Connecticut History | a CTHumanities Project. June 28, 2019. Retrieved June 8, 2020.
  51. ^ "7 Are Injured by Rocks as Connecticut Rally by Klan Is Broken Up". The New York Times. March 22, 1981. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 8, 2020.
  52. ^ (Undated). "Our origins". Emily Hall Tremaine Foundation website. Retrieved July 11, 2015.
  53. ^ Boucher, Brian. (November 6, 2012). "Burton Among Recipients of Tremaine Foundation Grants". Art in America. Retrieved July 11, 2015.
  54. ^ Brooke, Eliza. (February 11, 2011). Arts internship links Yale, New Haven. Yale Daily News. Retrieved July 11, 2015.
  55. ^ "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  56. ^ a b c (Undated). Meriden (city) QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau Archived May 8, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. United States Census Bureau website. Retrieved July 16, 2015.
  57. ^ (Undated). 2010 Demographic Profile Data . United States Census Bureau website. Retrieved July 16, 2015.
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