Meriden, Connecticut

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Meriden, Connecticut
Aerial view, about 1914
Aerial view, about 1914
Official seal of Meriden, Connecticut
Nickname(s): The Silver City[1]
Location in New Haven County, Connecticut
Location in New Haven County, Connecticut
Coordinates: 41°32′12″N 72°47′41″W / 41.53667°N 72.79472°W / 41.53667; -72.79472Coordinates: 41°32′12″N 72°47′41″W / 41.53667°N 72.79472°W / 41.53667; -72.79472
Country United States
State Connecticut
NECTA New Haven
Region South Central Region
Incorporated (town) 1806
Incorporated (city) 1867
Consolidated 1922
 • Type Council-manager
 • Council Leaders Manny Santos (R), Mayor
Bob Williams, Jr. (W), Deputy Mayor
Matthew C. Dominello, Sr. (D), Majority Leader
Brian P. Daniels (D), Deputy Majority Leader
Cathy Battista (D), Deputy Majority Leader
Dan Brunet (R), Minority Leader
Miguel Castro (D)
Larue A. Graham (D)
Steven J. Iovanna (D)
David Lowell (D)
Lenny Rich (R)
Kevin Scarpetti (U)
Walter A. Shamrock (W)
 • City Manager Lawrence J. Kendzior
 • Total 24.1 sq mi (62.5 km2)
 • Land 23.8 sq mi (61.5 km2)
 • Water 0.4 sq mi (1.0 km2)
Elevation 177 ft (54 m)
Population (2010)[2]
 • Total 60,868
 • Density 2,500/sq mi (970/km2)
Time zone Eastern (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) Eastern (UTC-4)
ZIP code 06450, 06451
Area code(s) 203
FIPS code 09-46450
GNIS feature ID 0208834

Meriden is a city in New Haven County, Connecticut, United States, located halfway between New Haven and Hartford. At the 2010 census, the population of the city was 60,868.[2]


Solomon Goffe House (1711), Meriden. Photo in 2007.
Plaque commemorating Abraham Lincoln's visit to Meriden in 1860 in front of City Hall. Photo in 2012.
Meriden Britannia Co. electro-gold and silverplating factory, 1881.
A stand manufactured by the Bradley & Hubbard Manufacturing Company, Meriden, c. 1885 exhibited in the Brooklyn Museum of Art exhibition 19th century Modern (2011-12).
In the Los Angeles County Museum of Art collection, a punch bowl (1895) made by the Meriden Cut Glass Company, a subsidiary of the Wilcox Silver Plate Co., that later became part of the International Silver Company.
A flask manufactured by the Napier Company, Meriden, 1925-1930, exhibited in the Brooklyn Museum of Art exhibition 19th century Modern (2011-12).
2015 photo of Home National Bank building designed by McKim, Mead & White, downtown Meriden. The building has been repurposed as a disco/music venue.

18th century[edit]

Meriden was originally part of Wallingford. It was granted a separate meetinghouse in 1727, became a town in 1806 with over 1000 residents, and incorporated as a city in 1867 with just under 9000 residents. It was once proposed as the Connecticut state capital.[3] It was named for the town of Meriden, West Midlands, England, near Birmingham. Popular myth also states that it is named after the Merry Den tavern that may have been located near present-day U.S. Route 5.

The oldest house in town still standing, built by Solomon Goffe in 1711, became a museum in 1986, the Solomon Goffe House.[4]

The grave of Winston Churchill's great-great-great maternal grandfather, Timothy Jerome, can be seen today at what is now called "Burying Ground 1720" (Google Maps: 41.522877, -72.787707) at the juncture of Dexter Avenue and Lydale Place. At the time the location was known as "Buckwheat Hill," and overlooked the salt-making estate for which Jerome had received a royal grant.[5] Timothy Jerome's son, Samuel, is the great-great grandfather of Jennie Jerome, Winston Churchill's mother.[6][7]

19th century-WWII[edit]

In the 1800s, Meriden became a manufacturing center of note, with several companies forming, or relocating to the city, including the Meriden Britannia Company (a predecessor of the International Silver Company with corporate HQ in Meriden),[8] C.F. Monroe Company (1892-1916),[9] Parker Gun, Manning Bowman Company (1849-1945),[10][11] the Meriden Flint Glass Company (1876–92),[12] the Miller Company (1844–present),[13] Wilcox and White, Handel Lamp Company (1864-1936),[14] and the Bradley & Hubbard Manufacturing Company (1852-1940). Meriden earned the nickname "Silver City", due to the large number of cutlery and related products which were manufactured there by companies such as International Silver and Meriden Cutlery. During this time, several mansions and houses of note were built, particularly on Broad Street.[15][16]

Charles Parker and his younger brother opened their first factory in Meriden in 1832, with a capital outlay of $70.00. Over the years they manufactured a wide variety of products‚ from steam engines, train wheels and printing presses to piano stools. During the Civil War, Parker's Meriden Machine Company was under Union contract to produce 10,000 repeating rifles and 15,000 Springfield rifles. Parker began producing his own shotgun, referred to as "The Gun of 1866". In 1868, Charles and his sons, Wilbur, Charles and Dexter, started the Parker Brothers Gun Company, which continued as an independent company until 1934 when it was purchased by the Remington Arms Company.[17]

On March 7, 1860, Abraham Lincoln spoke in Meriden seeking the Republican presidential nomination.[18]

The Bradley & (Walter) Hubbard Manufacturing Company (1852-1940) was formed in Meriden, and over the years produced call bells, clocks, sewing machines, flags, hoop skirts, spring measuring tapes, match safes, kerosene burning lamps, architectural grilles, railings, fences, window guards, and elevator enclosures. Overall the company patented 238 designs and mechanical devices. "By the 1890's, the Bradley and Hubbard name was synonymous with high quality and artistic merit," said Richard E. Stamm for the Smithsonian Institution, which has an extensive collection of Bradley and Hubbard manufactured design objects in its collection. In 1940, the business was sold to the Charles Parker company.[19]

2012 photo of Isaac C. Lewis mansion (1868) at 189 East Main Street, Meriden. Since 1950, the building has been used for other purposes.[20] Since 2012 it is a mosque.
2015 photo of Meriden City Hall (1907) with Civil War monument in the foreground. This building replaced two previous designs (1869-89 and 1889-1904, the latter destroyed by fire).[21]

In 1876, the Meriden Britannia Company made significant efforts at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, and won the First Place medal for plated wares. According to the Sotheby's auction house, "The publicity of the award and the impression the firm made on the fair's 8 million visitors was continued by the catalogues and other intensive marketing; by the end of the 1870s Meriden Britannia Co. was considered the largest silverware company in the world."[22]

Meriden also was an important site for graphic arts innovation. In 1888, the Meriden Gravure Company (in Meriden 1888-1989) was founded by Charles Parker and James F. Allen, and continued a previous printing operation by Parker. The company developed an expertise in high quality image reproduction, which initially was driven by the needs of the silver industry. The company quickly attracted business from clients that required highly detailed image reproduction, including scientific journals, museums, libraries, and illustrated book publishers. The company developed an extensive list of academic, museum, and commercial customers, including General Electric and the United States government. According to the Yale University Library, "Through careful quality control, including an insistence on photographing directly from the item to be reproduced and using high quality paper, Meriden Gravure achieved a reputation of consistent excellence in printed illustration... [and] rose to prominence in the early twentieth century through specialization in high-fidelity image reproduction." A "driving force" of the company's success was Meriden Gravure Company president E. Harold Hugo (1910–85), from the late 1920s onward when he started working there at the age of 14.[23] In 1977, the company merged with another known for printing quality, the Stinehour Press in Lunenberg, Vermont. In 1989, the Meriden operations were closed and the Meriden Gravure presses moved to the Vermont location. The Meriden Gravure archive at Yale University in New Haven consists of business documentation, proofs and other material documenting the company's work from 1895-1990.[24]

Hubbard Park in the Hanging Hills was financed by Walter Hubbard. The design for the park was originally conceived by Hubbard in consultation with the Olmsted Brothers, sons of Frederick Law Olmsted, America’s foremost landscape architect. In 1900, Castle Craig on a peak was dedicated in the park.[25]

The Curtis Memorial Library opened in 1903. The Meriden Firearms Co. manufactured small arms from 1905 to 1918. The stock was owned by Sears, Roebuck & Company.[26]

The Hollywood connection (1937-50)[edit]

From 1937-47, the International Silver Company sponsored the Silver Theater, a national radio program broadcast via CBS in Hollywood. The radio program featured many Hollywood actors and actresses of the time like Jimmy Stewart and Rosalind Russell. Over 200 programs were produced.[27][28] In c. 1941, several Hollywood stars endorsed the company's silverware in print advertisements in LIFE magazine.[29] After WWII, in 1949-1950, The Silver Theatre was brought to television and broadcast on CBS, also with the International Silver Company as the sponsor. Guest stars included Eva Gabor, Kim Hunter, and Burgess Meredith.[30]

Legacy of Meriden's grand manufacturing era[edit]

Many design objects from this manufacturing era from Meriden are in leading museums across the United States including those in Boston;[31] at the Corning Museum of Glass in Corning, New York (28 objects);[32] Chicago;[33][34] Dallas;[35] Los Angeles;[36] New York;[15][37][38][39][40][41][42] Philadelphia;[43] Richmond, Virginia;[44] Toledo, Ohio;[9] and Washington, DC.[19] Design objects from this era from Meriden have also been included in notable museum exhibitions since at least the 1920s.[45] Some comparatively recent examples include In pursuit of Beauty: Americans and the Aesthetic Movement at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York (1986–87),[46] and more recently, Modernism in American Silver: 20th century design (2005–06) in Dallas, Miami Beach, and Washington, DC[47] and 19th century Modern (2011–12) in Brooklyn. In this exhibition, designs by the International Silver Company and the Napier Company, another Meriden manufacturer, were exhibited alongside iconic designs by Tiffany & Co. and the Thonet Brothers.[48]

With this level of attention, some special design objects from the era have become sought-after collectors items also at auction, sometimes due to their association with the commission or commissioner, or the product designer. For example, a painted glass and metal table lamp by Bradley and Hubbard, (c. 1920) sold for USD$14,950, doubling its estimate, at Christie's auction house in New York in 1999.[49] Later, a 14-inch, International Silver Company cocktail shaker (c. 1927) sold for USD$21,600 tripling its estimate, at Christie's in New York in 2005.[50] A Parker gun made for a Russian czar before WWI, but never delivered, was reported to have been sold for USD$287,500 in 2007.[51] In 2009, a Handel lamp (c. 1920) was sold at Christie's auction house in London for GBP8,750 (USD$12,880) in their 20th century decorative art and design sale.[14] Jim Hoyle, who sells lamps in North Carolina, reports in the online Victoriana magazine that some rare Handel lamps have sold for over $80,000.[52] In 2012, in Sotheby's New York Important 20th century design auction, an "extremely rare" Paul Lobel-designed cocktail shaker produced by the International Silver Company (c. 1934-36) sold for USD$34,375.[53] Lastly, on March 5-6, 2014 at Sotheby's in London, "Al Capone's cocktail shaker" made by the Meriden International Sterling Company (c. 1932) achieved over 33 times its estimate with a sale price of GBP50,000 (USD$83,250 on the day).[54]

WWII-21st century[edit]

In 1939, Edwin Howard Armstrong, a network radio pioneer who invented FM radio, used West Peak in 1939 for the location of one of the first FM radio broadcasts. His original 70-foot-tall (21 m) radio mast still stands on the peak.[55] Currently West Peak is home to six FM broadcast stations, including WNPR,[56] WWYZ, WKSS, WDRC-FM, WMRQ-FM[57] and WHCN.

During WWII, factories in Meriden worked three shifts (24 hours/day). On March 8, 1944, the War Manpower Commission gave Meriden the designation as "National Ideal War Community", and Jimmy Durante and Glenn Miller entertained those at the ceremeny.[58]

In addition to manufacturers that continued operations after WWII, starting in the later 1940s, the Miller Company, Burton Tremaine, Sr. and Emily Hall Tremaine firmly put Meriden on the international, 20th century art/design map. In 1948, Meriden became known once again for design innovation via The Miller Company Collection of Abstract Art and the organization of a Painting toward architecture exhibition which opened at Hartford's Wadsworth Atheneum[59] and later travelled to 24 American cities over a two-year period. The exhibition featured and referred to the leading Modernists in American and European art and architecture with a connection to then-Miller Company lighting designs. The catalogue was edited by Henry-Russell Hitchcock; Alfred H. Barr, Jr., director of the Museum of Modern Art in New York, wrote the foreword. With the success of the show, Emily Hall Tremaine earned the position of Art Director of the Miller Company.[60] During this time, Philip Johnson closely consulted on product design for the company for at least a three-year period; Josef Albers formerly at the internationally influential Bauhaus in Germany was hired to work on the corporate logo; and Serge Chermayeff to redesign all the stationary. Around 1955, Emily Hall Tremaine collaborated with influential architect Frank Lloyd Wright on textile designs, with five in the Cooper-Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum collection in New York.[61] Part of the international avant-garde, the Tremaines were in contact with several visual artists and decision-makers now spotlighted in 20th century art and design survey books, including Walter de Maria. In the 1970s, they offered their Arizona ranch that they partly owned as the site of de Maria's iconic Lightning Field, a 1-mile x 1 km earthwork designed to attract lightning into an art performance with metal poles, before its relocation to New Mexico.[62]

By the 1950s, the growing art collection was privatized to the Tremaines,[63] and their art/design decision-making activities took place in Meriden; Madison, CT; New York City and beyond. "By the early 1980s the Tremaine collection had grown to more than 400 works by European and American artists", reported the New York Times,[64] and it was "considered by museum directors, dealers and art writers to be one of the greatest private collections of 20th century art in the world", reported the Hartford Courant.[65] The collection was estimated to be worth USD$84 million in 1987.[66] In 2015 dollars, this amount can be very roughly estimated at over USD$150 million.[67]

Photo of the black-and-white Modernist facade of the Miller Company addition, designed by international architect Philip Johnson, built in 1965. Center Street, Meriden, CT. (The original design featured the Miller Company logo, which was influenced by Bauhaus design legend Josef Albers and Serge Chermayeff). Photo in 2015.

In 1965, the Miller Company addition on Center Street was completed. The black-and-white Modernist facade was designed by influential American architect Philip Johnson.[68][69]

On April 27, 1976, Jimmy Carter campaigned at city hall and the Latin American Society for the nomination of the Democratic Party for President of the United States.[70]

In 1987, the Emily Hall Tremaine Foundation was founded by the noted art collector, before her passing, with three focus areas: learning disabilities, the arts, and the environment.[71] The offices were located in downtown Meriden. The foundation is very well-known nationally and frequently mentioned in the national American fine art press and exhibition catalogues as a funder.[72] In c. 2010, the foundation offices were relocated to New Haven, near Yale University.[73]

Meriden was a location chosen for the filming of the 1989 film Jacknife directed by David Jones starring Robert De Niro, Ed Harris and Kathy Baker. De Niro played a Vietnam War veteran suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder adjusting to a return to American life. The film was adapted by the play, Strange Snow by Stephen Metcalfe, a native from the adjacent town of Cheshire, Connecticut. A number of Meriden locations can be seen in the film, including a historic house on Linsley Avenue, as well as film locations in the greater region.[74]

The Franciscan Sisters of the Eucharist have their mother house in Meriden, as do the Franciscan Brothers of the Eucharist.


The Hanging Hills and Hubbard Park, and Meriden below. Photo in 2003.
The Quinnipiac River as it winds through the Quinnipiac River Gorge in South Meriden.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 24.1 square miles (62.5 km²), of which 23.8 square miles (61.5 km²) is land and 0.4 square miles (1.0 km²), or 1.66%, is water.

Meriden is a showcase for a number of prominent peaks of the Metacomet Ridge, a mountainous trap rock ridgeline that stretches from Long Island Sound to nearly the Vermont border. Notable peaks in Meriden include the Hanging Hills (West Peak, East Peak, South Mountain, and Cathole Mountain); Lamentation Mountain, Chauncey Peak, and Besek Mountain. Castle Craig, a city landmark for over a century, was constructed among the Hanging Hills in Hubbard Park.

The Quinnipiac River cuts through the southwest quadrant of the city, which is known to area residents as "South Meriden". Here, the river cuts through two hills for almost a mile, resulting in a gorge full of exposed sandstone and brownstone cliffs. Harbor Brook (originally named Pilgrim Harbor Brook) cuts through the town from the northeast to the southwest (passing underneath downtown Meriden in a culvert) before emptying into Hanover Pond (part of the Quinnipiac River) in South Meriden.

Principal communities[edit]

  • Meriden Center
  • South Meriden


Historical population
Census Pop.
1820 1,309
1870 8,893
1880 15,540 74.7%
1890 21,652 39.3%
1900 24,296 12.2%
1910 27,265 12.2%
1920 29,867 9.5%
1930 38,481 28.8%
1940 39,494 2.6%
1950 44,088 11.6%
1960 51,850 17.6%
1970 55,959 7.9%
1980 57,118 2.1%
1990 59,479 4.1%
2000 58,244 −2.1%
2010 60,868 4.5%
Est. 2014 60,293 [75] −0.9%
U.S. Decennial Census[76]

As of the 2010 census, there were 60,868 people in Meriden, with a population density of 2558 persons per square mile. There were 23,922 households (2009–13). The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.10. Husband-wife households account for 41% of all households. The population under 5 years (2010) was 6.7%, under 18 years (2010) was 23.9%, and 65 years and over was 12.9%. The female population was 51.6% compared to the male population at 48.4% (2010).[77]

The racial makeup of the city in 2010 was 73.5% White, 9.7% Black or African American, 0.5% Native American, 2.1% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 10.7% from other races, and 3.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 28.9% of the population. In 2009-2013, 9.7% of the population was foreign-born.[2][77]

For 2009-13, the median household income was $52,590. The per capita income for the city was $26,941. The median value of owner-occupied housing units was $188,400. The home ownership rate was 61.8%. The high school graduation or higher rate was 83.6% (age 25+) and the bachelor's degree or higher rate was 19.1% (age 25+). 14.4% of people were below the poverty line.[77]

Political affiliation[edit]

Voter registration and party enrollment as of October 25, 2005[78]
Party Active voters Inactive voters Total voters Percentage
  Democratic 9,225 524 9,749 30.15%
  Republican 4,275 213 4,488 13.88%
  Unaffiliated 16,927 1,147 18,074 55.90%
  Minor Parties 19 2 21 0.06%
Total 30,446 1,886 32,332 100%



The city of Meriden is located on Interstate 91, which provides access to Hartford, Springfield, and New Haven. Interstate 691 provides access to Interstate 84 and connects to points west like Waterbury. The Wilbur Cross Parkway (Connecticut Route 15) travels in a southwestern direction connecting to towns and cities like Wallingford, New Haven, and towards New York City. The parkway becomes the Berlin Turnpike (also Connecticut Route 15) on the northern end of Meriden. U.S. Route 5 passes through the city as North and South Broad Street.

Photo of train at Meriden's train station in 2013.
The former MM&WRR right of way prior to construction of the linear trail.


The city of Meriden is connected to the cities of New Haven, Hartford, and Springfield, Massachusetts, by regional rail service provided by Amtrak, which runs north-to-south through the center of the city. This rail line opened in 1839, and operated for many years under the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad. The city was also served by the Middletown, Meriden and Waterbury Railroad, which provided both freight and passenger service to Waterbury and Middletown from 1888 until its abandonment in 1924.

Currently, Amtrak runs 16 trains through the Meriden station on most weekdays, but these are not widely used for commuting. However, the success of the state's subsidized commuter rail line, Shore Line East, has spurred the state to open a New Haven – Hartford – Springfield commuter rail line in 2011. Funds from the state will pay for a new station in Meriden, and city officials are hoping to capitalize on the commuters that will use the station and create a transit village in the city. They hope this will spur revitalization of the downtown area.

In the Quinnipiac River Gorge in South Meriden, 1.3 miles (2.1 km) of the original MW&CR Railroad right of way has been converted into a recreational rail trail as the Meriden Linear Trail. Open to the public in December 2006, the formal dedication occurred on November 3, 2007.


Beginning in 1784, Meriden had a stop on the New Haven-Hartford Stage Coach on Route 5 near the intersection of East Main Street. Years later, the same stop served as the bus stop for Greyhound and Peter Pan buses. Meriden had four daily departures to/from Hartford/Boston, and four daily departures to/from New Haven/New York daily from the 1970s through 2007, when intercity bus service ceased serving Meriden.

Meriden is linked to the Connecticut Transit System, Connecticut's extensive public transit bus network. Three bus lines loop throughout the city of Meriden once per hour. The "B" bus route departs the Meriden railroad station for the southern terminus of Kohls Plaza, connecting for New Haven; the "A" bus route departs the rail station for the northern terminus of Meriden Square with connections to New Britain and Hartford; and the east/west "C" bus travels along East Main and West Main streets, with a handful of departures to Middletown and Waterbury.


Meriden Markham Municipal Airport is the city-owned airport, located 3 miles (4.8 km) south of the city center on the border of South Meriden and Yalesville, and serves private and charter planes.


Photo of historic Board of Education building, Meriden, formerly a high school. Photo in 2012.

The Meriden Board of Education operates public schools.[79]

Schools in Meriden
Public Elementary schools (K-5) Middle schools (6-8) Catholic K-8 schools High schools
John Barry Lincoln (public) St. Stanislaus School[80] Francis T. Maloney (public)
Benjamin Franklin Washington (public) St. Joseph School[81] Orville H. Platt (public)
Nathan Hale Thomas A. Edison (Magnet; run by ACES of North Haven)[82] Our Lady of Mount Carmel[83] H. C. Wilcox (CT technical high school system)[84]
Thomas Hooker
Casimir Pulaski
Israel Putnam
Roger Sherman

Other schools in the area include the Catholic high schools Xavier High School (boys) and Mercy High School (girls) in neighboring Middletown. The private schools Cheshire Academy and Choate Rosemary Hall are in adjacent Cheshire and Wallingford respectively.

Points of interest[edit]

Looking west from city hall to the downtown area, Meriden, CT. The Civil War monument (1873) is to the right, and the Hanging Hills are in the distance to the right. Photo in 2007.
Close-up view of soldier on Civil War monument in Meriden, CT. Photo in 2012.
The Curtis Memorial Library building. Photo in 2007.
Red Bridge, one of only four remaining lenticular through trusses in the state of Connecticut. Photo in 2006.

Notable people[edit]

Since 1975, the Meriden Hall of Fame organization has issued recognitions. In the Meriden City Hall, plaques pay tribute to the inductees.[99]

Arts and humanities[edit]


  • E. Harold Hugo (1910–85), president of the Meriden Gravure Company, an innovator in the graphic arts industry[110]

Science and technology[edit]



At one time The Meriden Daily Journal served as the community newspaper. Currently the Meriden Record Journal serves the communities of Meriden, Wallingford, Cheshire, and Southington and is located in downtown Meriden.[119]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Bill Ryan, What's in a Name? Old Industrial Fame, The New York Times, January 21, 1996
  2. ^ a b c (Undated). 2010 Demographic Profile Data. United States Census Bureau website. Retrieved July 16, 2015.
  3. ^ Franco, Janis Leach. Meriden. Arcardia: Charleston, SC, p. 7 & back cover.
  4. ^ Franco, Janis Leach. Meriden. Arcardia: Charleston, SC, p. 105.
  5. ^ Martin, Ralph G. Jennie: The Life of Lady Randolph Churchill, Vol. 1, (Prentice-Hall, August 1, 1990), p. 2
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^ (Undated). "Meriden’s Silver Lining". website. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
  9. ^ a b (Undated). "Bowl - C.F. Monroe Company". Toledo Museum of Art website. Retrieved July 30, 2015.
  10. ^ (Undated). In the collection: Cocktail set (cup). Manufactured by Manning Bowman Company, active 1849–1945. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston website. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
  11. ^ (Undated). Manning Bowman & Company catalogues page. Meriden Historical Society website. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
  12. ^ Tobin, Diane. (2012). The Meriden Flint Glass Company: An abundance of glass. The History Press: Charleston, SC.
  13. ^ Schieps, Marguerite T. (1995), The Miller Company: The first 150 years. (Research: Allen L. Weathers, curator, Meriden Historical Society.) Studley Press, p. 8.
  14. ^ a b (Undated). "Handel Lamp Company: Wisteria lamp (c. 1920)". Christie's auction house website. Retrieved July 29, 2015.
  15. ^ a b "'Gallery 737 - Renaissance Revival Parlor, 1870' webpage (of former Wilcox mansion on Broad Street, Meriden)". Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Retrieved 2015-07-08. 
  16. ^ Franco, Janis Leach. (2010). Meriden. Arcadia: Charleston, SC, back cover.
  17. ^ Copy of "The Parker Gun" by Ron Kirby from The City of Meriden Message Board
  18. ^ Kurz, Jeffery. (November 21, 2014). "The day Lincoln came to Meriden". Meriden Record-Journal, Retrieved July 18, 2015.
  19. ^ a b Stamm, Richard E. (Undated.) "The Bradley & Hubbard Manufacturing Company... Masters of Metalwork" (Selected Objects from the Smithsonian Institution Castle Collection). Smithsonian Institution (Washington, DC) website. Retrieved July 18, 2015.
  20. ^ Franco, Janis Leach. (2010). Meriden. Arcadia: Charleston, SC., p. 14.
  21. ^ Franco, Jane Leach. (2010). Meriden. Arcadia: Charleston, SC, pp. 19-20.
  22. ^ (Undated). "Philadelphia Exposition of 1876: A Monumental American silver-plated 'Chief and Squaw' centerpiece, Meriden Britannia Company, Meriden, CT, the figures attributed to Theodore Baur, 1876. Sotheby's website. Retrieved July 21, 2015.
  23. ^ (Undated). "Meriden Gravure Company". University of Virginia website, SNAC section. Retrieved July 24, 2015.
  24. ^ (Undated). "Meriden Gravure Company records" (1895-1990). Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University, New Haven, CT. Retrieved July 24, 2015.
  25. ^ (Undated). "Hubbard Park" City of Meriden website. Retrieved 2015-07-11.
  26. ^ Franco, Janis Leach. (2010). Meriden. Arcadia: Charleston, SC, p. 44.
  27. ^ (Undated.) "Silver Theater" description. Retrieved August 23, 2015.
  28. ^ (Undated). "The Silver Theater" (46 programs). Retrieved August 23, 2015.
  29. ^ (Undated, c. 1941.) "1847 Rogers Bros Silverware: 'Your Chance of a Lifetime' 1941 International Silver Company" dealer promotional video. Retrieved August 23, 2015.
  30. ^ (Undated). "The Silver Theater" (1949-50). Retrieved August 23, 2015.
  31. ^ (Undated). "Collection search: Manning Bowman Company": 14 objects in the collection. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston website. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
  32. ^ (Undated). "Glass collection - Meriden search". (Search "United States, CT, Meriden".) Corning Museum of Glass website. Retrieved July 29, 2015.
  33. ^ (Undated). "Three-Piece Tea Set with Tray, 1928", International Silver Company. Art Institute of Chicago website. Retrieved July 21, 2015.
  34. ^ (Undated). "Coffee Set, 1929/30", International Silver Company. Art Institute of Chicago website. Retrieved July 21, 2015.
  35. ^ (Undated). Eliel Saarinen’s Architectonic Tea Urn (for the International Silver Company) from the 1930s recently acquired for the Dallas Museum of Art collection. Dallas Museum of Art website. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
  36. ^ (Undated). Punch Bowl on Stand, Meriden Cut Glass Company, 1895. Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Retrieved August 30, 2015.
  37. ^ (Undated). In the collection: Manning Bowman and Co. – 1857-present. Brooklyn Museum of Art website. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
  38. ^ (Undated). In the collection: International Silver Company (25 objects). Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum, New York website. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
  39. ^ "Hanukkah Lamp", late 19th century, Meriden Britannia Company. Jewish Museum, New York website. Retrieved July 21, 2015.
  40. ^ (Undated). "Lamp: Maker - Handel & Company". Brooklyn Museum website. Retrieved July 29, 2015.
  41. ^ (Undated). "Meriden, Connecticut - Search - 48 objects". Brooklyn Museum website. Retrieved July 29, 2015.
  42. ^ Braunstein, Susan. (2004). Five centuries of hannukkah lamps from the Jewish Museum: A catalogue raisonné. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, p. 341.
  43. ^ (Undated). "Meriden search - 18 results. Philadelphia Museum of Art website. Retrieved August 23, 2015.
  44. ^ (Undated). "Lamp, ca. 1916. Handel Lamp Company Meriden, CT.". Virginia Museum of Fine Arts website. Retrieved July 29, 2015.
  45. ^ Stern, Jewel. (2005) Modernist in American Silver. Yale University Press in association with the Dallas Museum of Art, p. 102. (Roughly 20% of the featured objects were produced by International Silver companies. The book cover features an International Silver design.)
  46. ^ Metropolitan Museum of Art. (1986). In Pursuit of Beauty: Americans and the Aesthetic Movement. (Includes extensive bibliography concerning the Meriden Brittania Company). Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York & Rizzoli. Retrieved July 21, 2015.
  47. ^ (Undated). "Modernism in American Silver: 20th century design" exhibition (several International Silver designs are featured) (September 16, 2005 - January 22, 2006) (Organized by the Dallas Museum of Art, exhibited there as well as the Smithsonian Institution and Wolfsonian-FIU in Miami Beach). Smithsonian American Art Museum website. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
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