Merrill Swain

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Merrill Swain is a professor emerita of second-language education at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto.[1] She developed the output hypothesis, a theory of second-language acquisition which states that learners cannot reach full grammatical competence in a language from input processing alone, but must also produce spoken language output.[2] Swain is also known for her work with Michael Canale on communicative competence.[3] Swain was the president of the American Association for Applied Linguistics in 1998.[4] She received her PhD at the University of California.[1]


  1. ^ a b "Merrill Swain". Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. Retrieved 24 June 2016. 
  2. ^ Ellis, Rod (2008). The Study of Second Language Acquisition. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 260–261. ISBN 978-0-19-442257-4. 
  3. ^ Brown, H. Douglas (2007). Principles of Language Learning and Teaching (5th ed.). White Plains, NY: Pearson Education. pp. 219–220. ISBN 0-13-199128-0. 
  4. ^ "Past Presidents". American Association of Applied Linguistics. Retrieved 11 November 2012. 

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