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A mesophile is an organism that grows best in moderate temperature, neither too hot nor too cold, typically between 20 and 45 °C (68 and 113 °F). The term is mainly applied to microorganisms. Organisms that prefer extreme environments are known as extremophiles.
The habitats of these organisms include especially cheese, yogurt, and mesophile organisms are often included in the process of beer and wine making. Since normal human body temperature is 37 °C, the majority of human pathogens are mesophiles, as are most of the organisms comprising the human microbiome.
Organisms that prefer cold environments are termed psychrophilic, those preferring warmer temperatures are termed thermophilic or thermotrophs and those thriving in extremely hot environments are hyperthermophilic. Hyperthermophiles are a type of extremophile. All bacteria have their own optimum environmental surroundings and temperatures in which they thrive the most. A genome-wide computational approach has been designed by Zheng, et al. to classify bacteria into mesophilic and thermophilic. 
Many factors are responsible for a given organism's optimal temperature range, but evidence suggests that the expression of particular genetic elements (alleles) can alter the temperature-sensitive phenotype of the organism. A recently published study demonstrated that mesophilic bacteria could be genetically engineered to express certain alleles from psychrophilic bacteria, consequently shifting the restrictive temperature range of the mesophilic bacteria to closely match that of the psychrophilic bacteria.
- Willey, Joanne M., Linda Sherwood, Christopher J. Woolverton, and Lansing M. Prescott. Prescott, Harley, and Klein's Microbiology. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2008. Print.
- Hao Zheng and Hongwei Wu. Gene-centric association analysis for the correlation between the guanine-cytosine content levels and temperature range conditions of prokaryotic species. BMC Bioinformatics 2010, 11(Suppl 11):S7.
- Pankowski, Jarosław A.; Puckett, Stephanie M.; Nano, Francis E. (15 March 2016). "Temperature Sensitivity Conferred by ligA Alleles from Psychrophilic Bacteria upon Substitution in Mesophilic Bacteria and a Yeast Species". Applied and Environmental Microbiology 82 (6): 1924–1932. doi:10.1128/AEM.03890-15. ISSN 0099-2240.
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