Mesopic vision, sometimes also called twilight vision, is a combination of photopic and scotopic vision under low-light (but not necessarily dark) conditions. Mesopic levels range approximately from 0.01 to 3.0 cd/m2 in luminance. Most nighttime outdoor and street lighting conditions are in the mesopic range.
Human eyes respond to certain light levels differently. This is because under high light levels typical during daytime (photopic vision), the eye uses cones to process light. Under very low light levels, corresponding to moonless nights without artificial lighting (scotopic vision), the eye uses rods to process light. At many nighttime levels, a combination of both cones and rods supports vision. Photopic vision facilitates excellent color perception, whereas colors are barely perceptible under scotopic vision. Mesopic vision falls between these two extremes. In most nighttime environments, enough ambient light prevents true scotopic vision.
In the words of Duco Schreuder:
There is not one single luminescence value where photopic vision and scotopic vision meet. [Rather,] there is a wide zone of transition between them. Because it is between photopic and scotopic vision, it is usually called the zone of mesopic vision. The reason that the zone of mesopic vision exists is because the activities of neither cones nor rods is simply switched 'on' or 'off'. There are reasons to believe that the cones and the rods both operate in all luminescence conditions.
The effect of switching from cones to rods in processing light is called the "Purkinje shift". In photopic vision, people are most sensitive to light that is greenish yellow. In scotopic vision, people are more sensitive to light that would appear greenish blue.
The traditional method of measuring light assumes photopic vision and is often a poor predictor of how a person sees at night. Typically research in this area has focused on improving street and outdoor lighting as well as aviation lighting.
Prior to 1951, there was no standard for scotopic photometry (light measurement); all measurements were based on the photopic spectral sensitivity function V(λ) which was defined in 1924. In 1951, the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) established the scotopic luminous efficiency function, V'(λ). However, there was still no system of mesopic photometry. This lack of a proper measurement system can lead to difficulties in relating light measurements under mesopic luminances  to visibility. Due to this deficiency, the CIE established a special technical committee (TC 1-58) for collecting the results of mesopic visual performance research.
Two very similar measurement systems were created to bridge the scotopic and photopic luminous efficiency functions, creating a unified system of photometry. This new measurement has been well-received because the reliance on V(λ) alone for characterizing night-time light illumination can result in the use of more electric energy than might otherwise be needed. The energy-savings potential of using a new way to measure mesopic lighting scenarios is significant; superior performance could in certain cases be achieved with as much as 30 to 50% reduction in the energy use comparing to the high pressure sodium lights.
Mesopic luminosity function
where is the standard photopic luminosity function (peaking at 683 lm/W at 555 nm) and is the scotopic luminosity function (peaking at approx. 1700 lm/W at 507 nm), and standardized by CIE and ISO.  The parameter is a function of the photopic luminance . Various weighting functions are in use, for blue-heavy and red-heavy light sources, as proposed by two organizations, MOVE and Lighting Research Center (LRC).
Note that the Lp–x curves defined by the two organizations have very different shapes. The weighted function is intended to define "visual effectiveness", i.e. how helpful a light source is in helping human spot an object, rather than any perceived level of luminance. Variation in how this "effectiveness" is rated causes variation of weights.
- Stockman, A.; Sharpe, L. T. (2006). "Into the twilight zone: the complexities of mesopic vision and luminous efficiency". Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26 (3): 225–39. doi:10.1111/j.1475-1313.2006.00325.x. PMID 16684149. S2CID 6184209.
- CIE Publication No. 41. Light as a true visual quantity: principles of measurement. 1978.
- Schreuder, D. (2008). Outdoor Lighting: Physics, Vision and Perception. Berlin & New York: Springer. p. 237. ISBN 9781402086021.
- "Mesopic Vision and Photometry" (PDF). Retrieved 9 June 2011.
- CIE Publication No. 81. Mesopic photometry: history, special problems and practical solutions. 1989.
- Yandan Lin, Dahua Chen, Wencheng Chen. "The significance of mesopic visual performance and its use in developing a mesopic photometry system", Building and Environment, Volume 41, Issue 2, February 2006, Pages 117–125.
- Rea M, Bullough J, Freyssinier-Nova J, Bierman A. A proposed unified system of photometry. Lighting Research & Technology 2004; 36(2):85.
- Goodman T, Forbes A, Walkey H, Eloholma M, Halonen L, Alferdinck J, Freiding A, Bodrogi P, Varady G, Szalmas A. Mesopic visual efficiency IV: a model with relevance to nighttime driving and other applications. Lighting Research & Technology 2007; 39(4):365.
- "Driver Response to Peripheral Moving Targets under Mesopic Light Levels" (PDF). Retrieved 9 June 2011.
- Morante, Peter. "Mesopic Street Lighting Demonstration and Evaluation Final Report for Groton Utilities Groton, Connecticut" (PDF). Lighting Research Center Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
- Photopic and Scotopic lumens - 4: When the photopic lumen fails us
- ISO/CIE 23539:2023 CIE TC 2-93 Photometry — The CIE system of physical photometry. ISO/CIE. 2023.