Mesori

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Mesori (Coptic: Ⲙⲉⲥⲱⲣⲓ, Mesōri) is the twelfth month of the Egyptian and Coptic calendars. It is identical to Nahase (Amharic: ነሐሴ?, Nähase) in the Ethiopian calendar.

Name[edit]

N11
Z1 Z1 Z1 Z1
N37 N35A N5
Fourth Month of Low Water
IV Šmw[a]
in hieroglyphs
F15
Opening of the Year[b]
Wpt Rnpt
in hieroglyphs
F31 S29 G43 X1 B3 N5
Z1
Birth of the Sun
Mswt Rꜥ
in hieroglyphs

The ancient and Coptic month is also known as Mesore[2] (Greek: Μεσορή, Mesorḗ).

In ancient Egypt, the months were variously described. Usually, the months of the lunar calendar were listed by their placement in the seasons related to the flooding of the Nile, so that Mesori is most commonly described as the fourth month of the season of the Harvest (4 Šmw),[3][4] variously transliterated as IV Shemu or Shomu. These lunar months were also named after their most important feasts,[3][5] so that Mesori was also known as the "Opening" or "Opener of the Year"[6] (Wp Rnpt) or Wep Renpet.[c] The month was also personified as the deity of its festival,[9] which in late sources is given as Ra-Horakhty (Rꜥ Ḥr Ꜣḫty, "RaHorus of the Horizons").[4][10]

The solar civil calendar borrowed the festivals of the earlier lunar calendar, though sometimes under other names.[9] These festival names are increasingly attested after Egypt's Persian occupation.[3] The most common name continued to be the "Opening of the Year", although its little-attested synonym "Birth of the Sun" (Mswt Rꜥ) or Masut Ra became the namesake of the Ptolemaic Greek and Coptic month.[11][12][d]

In Egyptian Arabic, the Coptic month is known as Misra[14] or Mesra[15] (Arabic: مسرا‎‎, Masrá).

The Ethiopian month is sometimes also transliterated Nehase,[16] Nehasa,[17] or Nehasie.[18][19]

Egyptian calendars[edit]

Ancient[edit]

Until the 4th century BC, the beginning of the months of the lunar calendar were based on observation,[20] beginning at dawn on the morning when a waning crescent moon could no longer be seen.[21] The intercalary month was added every few years as needed to maintain the heliacal rising of Sirius within the month.[22] According to the civil calendar, the month fell in order with the rest regardless of the state of the moon. It always consisted of 30 days, each individually named and devoted to a particular patron deity, and was always followed by an intercalary month, although it slowly cycled relative to the solar year and Gregorian date owing to the lack of leap days until the Ptolemaic and Roman eras.

Torches were ritually carried on the 28th day of the month in preparation for the spiritual danger of the intercalary month that followed.[23]

New Year's Eve (Msy or Msyt) was observed on the 30th day of the month.[13]

Once the holidays were transferred to the civil calendar, Wep Renpet proper was celebrated on the first day of Thoth[6] by at least the Middle Kingdom,[24] though the last month of the year continued to bear its name. The holiday honored the birth and youth of the personification of the sun and its fight against evil. Royal artisans were freed from work,[6][e] temples lit torches to banish darkness and its demons, spells concerning the crushing of enemies were cast, and ritual combat occurred during a "water procession" on temple lakes.[10] People threw ink into water, cleansed themselves, and painted their eyes green.[23] It was a common occasion for pharaonic coronations during the Middle Kingdom and the occasion of ceremonies of renewed kingship in other eras, occasioning his officials to present him with new year's gifts.[10] This practice extended to commoners presenting gifts—such as rings, scarabs, and bottles inscribed "Happy New Year's" (Wpt Rnpt Nfrt)—to one another during the Saite Period.[27]

In Ptolemaic Egypt, the festivities began on the last day of Mesori and ran through the first nine days of Thoth.[24]

Coptic[edit]

In the present-day Coptic calendar, Mesori has fallen between August 7 and September 5[14] since AD 1900 (AM 1616)[28] and will continue to do so until AD 2100 (AM 1816).[29] In that year, the Gregorian calendar's lack of a leap day will cause the Coptic month to advance another day relative to it[30] and it will run from August 8 to September 6. The Coptic liturgical calendar of the month consists of:[31]

Coptic Julian Gregorian Commemorations
Mesori

1

July

25

August

7

  • Martyrdom of St. Apoli, Son of Justus.
  • Departure of St. Cyril V, the 112th Pope of Alexandria.
2 26 8
  • Departure of St. Pa'esa (Athanasia) of Minuf
  • Martyrdom of St. Menas
3 27 9
4 28 10
  • Departure of Hezekiah the King.
  • Consecration of the Church of St. Anthony the Great.
5 29 11
  • Departure of St. John the Soldier.
6 30 12
  • Martyrdom of St. Julietta.
  • St. Besa, disciple of St. Shenute
7 31 13
8 August

1

14
  • Martyrdom of the Sts. Lazarus, Salomi, His Wife and their Children.
  • Confession of St. Peter, the Apostle, that Christ is the Son of the Living God.
9 2 15
  • Martyrdom of St. Ari, the Priest of Shatanouf.
10 3 16
  • Martyrdom of St. Matra.
  • Martyrdom of St. Pigebs (Bekhebs).
  • Martyrdom of St. Yuhannis
11 4 17
  • Departure of St. Moisis, Bishop of Ouseem.
12 5 18
13 6 19
14 7 20
  • Commemoration of the great miracle, the Lord had manifested during the papacy of St. Theophilus, the 23rd Pope of Alexandria.
15 8 21
  • Departure of St. Mary known as Marina, the Ascetic.
  • Departure of St. Habib Girgis.
16 9 22
17 10 23
  • Martyrdom of St. James, the Soldier.
18 11 24
  • Departure of St. Alexander, Patriarch of Constantinople.
  • Martyrdom of St. Eudaemon, of Armant.
19 12 25
  • Translocation of the Body of St. Macarius to His Monastery in Scetis.
20 13 26
  • Martyrdom of the Seven Young Men of Ephesus.
21 14 27
22 15 28
  • Departure of Micah, the Prophet.
  • Martyrdom of St. Hadid of Giza.
23 16 29
  • Martyrdom of thirty thousand Christians in Alexandria.
  • Martyrdom of St. Damian in Antioch.
24 17 30
25 18 31
  • Departure of St. Bessarion, disciple of St. Anthony
  • Departure of St. Macarius III, the 114th Pope of Alexandria.
26 19 September

1

  • Martyrdom of St. Moses and his Sister Sarah.
  • Martyrdom of St. Agabius, the Soldier, and his Sister Thecla.
27 20 2
  • Martyrdom of Sts. Benjamin and his sister Eudexia.
  • Martyrdom of St. Mary, the Armenian.
28 21 3
29 22 4
  • Martyrdom of Saints Athanasius, the Bishop, Gerasimus (Jarasimus), and Theodotus.
  • Arrival of the Holy Relic of St. John the Short, to the Wilderness of Scetis.
30 23 5
  • Departure of Malachi, the Prophet.

Ethiopian calendar[edit]

In the present-day Ethiopian calendar, Nahase is identical to the Coptic month of Mesori, falling between August 7 and September 5.[17] It will also shift forward one day relative to the Gregorian calendar in AD 2100[32] (2092 EC).[29]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ For variant hieroglyphic spellings of Šmw, see Season of the Harvest.
  2. ^ Alternative representations of the Opening of the Year include
    F13
    Q3 X1
    M4 X1
    Z1
    ,
    F13
    X1 Z1
    M4 X1
    Z1
    ,
    F14 W3
    ,
    F14 W3
    N5
    ,
    F15 W3
    ,
    M4 F13
    N5
    ,
    M4 F13
    W3
    , and
    M4 F13
    X1
    .[1]
  3. ^ The confusion arising over the same name applying to the Egyptian New Year and the celebration of the king's birthday[7] is known as the "Brugsch Phenomenon" after its 1870 description by Heinrich Brugsch.[8]
  4. ^ Owing to its influence, the minimal attestation for Mswt Rꜥ in the hieroglyphic record is thought to be an accident of survival.[11] The "Birth of Ra–Horakhty" (Mswt Rꜥ Ḥr Ꜣḫty) is attested by the 20th Dynasty, but only as a synonym for the New Year's Day festival and not as a month name.[13] A single source from the 20th Dynasty refers to the fourth month of the season of the Harvest as the "Month of the Going Forth of Horus" (Pꜣ Šmt n Ḥr).[12]
  5. ^ This official vacation sometimes began as early as Mesori 25, 28,[25] or 29.[26]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Vygus, Mark (2015), Middle Egyptian Dictionary (PDF) .
  2. ^ Parker (1950), p. 41.
  3. ^ a b c Jauhiainen (2009), p. 67.
  4. ^ a b Parker (1950), p. 45.
  5. ^ Parker (1950), pp. 31 & 43.
  6. ^ a b c Jauhiainen (2009), p. 74.
  7. ^ Parker (1950), p. 33.
  8. ^ Depuydt (1997), p. 61.
  9. ^ a b Parker (1950), p. 43.
  10. ^ a b c Jauhiainen (2009), p. 76.
  11. ^ a b Depuydt (1997), p. 81.
  12. ^ a b Jauhiainen (2009), p. 83.
  13. ^ a b Jauhiainen (2009), p. 82.
  14. ^ a b Gabra (2008).
  15. ^ Wassef, Medhat R., "The Coptic Calendar of Martyrs", Coptic Orthodox Church Network, Jersey City: St Mark Coptic Church, retrieved 5 February 2017 .
  16. ^ "Ethiopian Calendar", Selamta, 2015 .
  17. ^ a b Shinn & al. (2013).
  18. ^ Molla, Aberra (1994), "History", The Ethiopic Calendar .
  19. ^ Mebratu, Belete K. (2009), "Ethiopian Calendar", Encyclopedia of Time: Science, Philosophy, Theology, & Culture, Vol. I, Los Angeles: Sage, p. 128 .
  20. ^ Parker (1950), p. 29.
  21. ^ Parker (1950), p. 23.
  22. ^ Parker (1950), p. 32.
  23. ^ a b Jauhiainen (2009), p. 78.
  24. ^ a b Jauhiainen (2009), p. 79.
  25. ^ Jauhiainen (2009), p. 80.
  26. ^ Jauhiainen (2009), p. 81.
  27. ^ Jauhiainen (2009), p. 77.
  28. ^ Reingold, Edward M.; et al. (2002), Calendrical Tabulations, 1900–2200, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 2 .
  29. ^ a b Reingold & al. (2002), p. 402.
  30. ^ Von Staufer, Maria Hubert (2002), "Christmas in Egypt", The Christmas Archives .
  31. ^ "12) Mesra Month", Coptic Synaxarium, Alexandria: St Takla Haymanout, retrieved 6 February 2017 .
  32. ^ "Ethiopian Calendar", Official site, Tesfa Community Treks, retrieved 6 February 2017 .

Bibliography[edit]

Preceded by
Epip
Coptic calendar
days: 30 days
Succeeded by
Intercalary Month