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Messianic Judaism

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Messianic Judaism (Hebrew: יַהֲדוּת מְשִׁיחִית or יהדות משיחית, Yahadút Mešiḥít) is a syncretic[1] Abrahamist new religious movement or sect[2] that considers itself Jewish (despite the claims to the contrary of all major Jewish groups).[3][4][5][6] Many Jews and Jewish authority figures,[7] both in the United States and Israel,[7] consider it a part of Evangelical Christianity.[7]

It emerged in the 1960s and 1970s from the earlier Hebrew Christian movement,[8][9] and was most prominently propelled through the non-profit organization "Jews for Jesus"[7][10][11] founded in 1973 by Martin "Moishe" Rosen, an American minister under the Conservative Baptist Association.[12][13]

Evangelical Protestants who identify as Messianic Jews adhere to conventional Christian beliefs, including the concept of salvation through faith in Jesus (referred to by the Hebrew-language name Yeshua among adherents) as the Jewish Messiah and Savior from sin, and the spiritual authority of the Bible (including the Old and New Testaments).[14][15][11][16][17] Belief in Jesus as a messianic figure and as divine (i.e., God the Son) is considered by Jews to be one of the most defining distinctions between Judaism and Christianity.[18][19][20]

Among other evangelical Christian groups, Messianic Judaism is usually accepted as a form of Christianity.[21] However, adherents of Messianic Judaism claim that the movement is instead a form of Judaism.[22] In the Hebrew language, they tend to identify themselves with the terms maaminim (מאמינים, lit.'believers') and yehudim (יְהוּדִים‬‎, lit.'Jews') in opposition to being identified as notzrim (נוצרים, lit.'Christians').[a][23] Jewish organizations inside and outside of Israel reject this framing; the Supreme Court of Israel has also rejected this claim in cases related to the Israeli Law of Return, and Messianic Judaism is recognized only as a Christian movement in the country.[18][24] In this context, there is some discourse among scholars as to whether Messianic Judaism should be labeled a Jewish or Christian religious sect, though the typical consensus identifies it as a stream of the Christian religion.[25]

From 2003 to 2007, the movement grew from 150 Messianic houses of worship in the United States to as many as 438, with over 100 in Israel and more worldwide; congregations are often affiliated with larger Messianic organizations or alliances.[26][27] As of 2012, Messianic population estimates were between 175,000 and 250,000 members in the United States, between 10,000 and 20,000 members in Israel, and an estimated total worldwide membership of 350,000.[28][needs update]


Pre-19th century

Efforts by Jewish Christians to proselytize to Jews began in the 1st century, when Paul the Apostle preached at the synagogues in each city that he visited.[29] However, by the 4th century CE, non-biblical accounts of missions to the Jews[b] do not mention converted Jews playing any leading role in proselytization.[30] Notable converts from Judaism who attempted to convert other Jews are more visible in historical sources beginning around the 13th century, when Jewish convert Pablo Christiani attempted to convert other Jews. This activity, however, typically lacked any independent Jewish-Christian congregations, and was often imposed through force by organized Christian churches.[31]

19th and early 20th centuries

In the 19th century, some groups attempted to create congregations and societies of Jewish converts to Christianity, though most of these early organizations were short-lived.[32] Early formal organizations run by converted Jews include: the Anglican London Society for promoting Christianity among the Jews of Joseph Frey (1809),[33] which published the first Yiddish New Testament in 1821;[34][verification needed] the "Beni Abraham" association, established by Frey in 1813 with a group of 41 Jewish Christians who started meeting at Jews' Chapel, London for prayers Friday night and Sunday morning;[35] and the London Hebrew Christian Alliance of Great Britain founded by Dr. Carl Schwartz in 1866.[36]

The September 1813 meeting of Frey's "Beni Abraham" congregation at the rented "Jews' Chapel" in Spitalfields is sometimes pointed to as the birth of the semi-autonomous Hebrew Christian movement within Anglican and other established churches in Britain.[37] However, the minister of the chapel at Spitalfields evicted Frey and his congregation three years later, and Frey severed his connections with the society.[38] A new location was found and the Episcopal Jew's Chapel Abrahamic Society registered in 1835.[39]

In Eastern Europe, Joseph Rabinowitz established a Hebrew Christian mission and congregation called "Israelites of the New Covenant" in Kishinev, Bessarabia, in 1884.[40][41][42] In 1865, Rabinowitz created a sample order of worship for Sabbath morning service based on a mixture of Jewish and Christian elements. Mark John Levy pressed the Church of England to allow members to embrace Jewish customs.[41]

In the United States, a congregation of Jewish converts to Christianity was established in New York City in 1885.[43] In the 1890s, immigrant Jewish converts to Christianity worshiped at the Methodist "Hope of Israel" mission on New York's Lower East Side while retaining some Jewish rites and customs.[44] In 1895, the 9th edition of Hope of Israel's Our Hope magazine carried the subtitle "A Monthly Devoted to the Study of Prophecy and to Messianic Judaism", the first use of the term "Messianic Judaism".[45][46] In 1894, Christian missionary Leopold Cohn, a convert from Judaism, founded the Brownsville Mission to the Jews in the Brownsville section of Brooklyn, New York as a Christian mission to Jews. After several changes in name, structure, and focus, the organization is now called Chosen People Ministries.[47]

In the early 1900s there was a community of Messianic Jews in South Africa representing themselves as "Christian Jews" whose goal was to create a "true and genuine Christ-loving Jewish Christian Synogogue".[48]

Missions to the Jews saw a period of growth between the 1920s and the 1960s.[5][49] In the 1940s and 1950s, missionaries in Israel, including the Southern Baptists, adopted the term meshichyim (משיחיים, "messianics") to counter negative connotations of the word notsrim (נוצרים, "Christians"). The term was used to designate all Jews who had converted to Protestant Evangelical Christianity.[11]

Modern-day Messianic Judaism movement, 1960s onwards

The Messianic Jewish movement emerged in the United States in the 1960s.[10][50] Prior to this time, Jewish converts assimilated into gentile Christianity, as the church required abandoning their Jewishness and assuming gentile ways to receive baptism. Peter Hocken postulates that the Jesus movement which swept the nation in the 1960s triggered a change from Hebrew Christians to Messianic Jews, and was a distinctly charismatic movement. These Jews wanted to "stay Jewish while believing in Jesus". This impulse was amplified by the results of the Six-Day War and the restoration of Jerusalem to Jewish control.[51][52][53]

Foundational organizations

In 2004, there were 300 Messianic congregations in the United States, with roughly half of all attendants being gentiles, and roughly one third of all congregations consisting of 30 or fewer members.[54] Many of these congregations belong to the International Association of Messianic Congregations and Synagogues (IAMCS), the Union of Messianic Congregations (UMJC), or Tikkun International.[citation needed]

The Messianic Jewish Alliance of America (MJAA) began in 1915 as the Hebrew Christian Alliance of America (HCAA).[55] As the idea of maintaining Jewish identity spread in the late 1960s, the Hebrew Christian Alliance of America (HCAA) changed its name to the Messianic Jewish Alliance of America (MJAA).[56] David Rausch writes that the change "signified far more than a semantical expression—it represented an evolution in the thought processes and religious and philosophical outlook toward a more fervent expression of Jewish identity."[57] As of 2005, the MJAA was an organization of Jewish members who welcome non-Jews as "honored associates".[58] In 1986, the MJAA formed a congregational branch called the International Alliance of Messianic Congregations and Synagogues (IAMCS).[59]

In June 1979, 19 congregations in North America met at Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania and formed the Union of Messianic Jewish Congregations (UMJC).[60] In 2022, it would have 75 congregations in 8 countries.[61] In 2016, Douglas Hamp founded The Way Congregation near Denver, CO. with the concept of recognizing fundamentalist Christian beliefs[62] and yet embracing One Law Theology, Two House Theology (see sections below), and Commonwealth Theology. Their website states the fellowship was founded "to serve as a bridge between the Jews and the gentile Church."[63] Non-Jewish congregants are not encouraged to convert to Judaism and Jewish attendants are encouraged to celebrate their Jewish heritage. Hamp blames the heretic Marcion for mainstream Christianity's juxtaposition of Law and Grace.[64] On the other hand, the Congregation meets on the Sabbath, celebrates the Feasts, and teaches conformance to the Dietary Laws given through Moses.

Messianic Seal of Jerusalem

A blue symbol on a white background. At the top is Menorah, connected to the Star of David at its base, which itself is connected to an Ichthys fish pointed down below it.
The Messianic Seal

The Messianic Seal of Jerusalem is a symbol used by Messianic Judaism. The symbol is a depiction of the Temple Menorah, an ancient Jewish symbol, together with the Ichthys, an ancient depictive representation of Christian faith and the community of Jesus followers, creating a Star of David at the intersection.[65] The Messianic Seal is not the only symbol of Messianic Judaism, which has other symbols such as the cross in the Star of David, and the dolphin.[66]

There is an ongoing dispute as to whether or not the seal dates from the 1st century CE,[67] or if it is a 20th-century invention.[66]

Theology and core doctrines

As with many religious faiths, the exact tenets held vary from congregation to congregation. In general, essential doctrines of Messianic Judaism include views on:[citation needed]

  • God is omnipotent, omnipresent, eternal, outside creation, infinitely significant and benevolent; viewpoints vary on the Trinity
  • Jesus is the Messiah; views on his divinity vary
  • Messianic Jews believe, with a few exceptions, that Jesus taught and reaffirmed the Torah and that it remains fully in force
  • The Children of Israel are central to God's plan; replacement theology is opposed
  • The Tanakh and the New Testament are usually considered the divinely inspired scripture, although Messianic Judaism is more open to criticism of the New Testament canon than is gentile Christianity.
  • Eschatology is similar to many Protestant views
  • Observance of the Oral law varies, but most deem these traditions subservient to the written Torah

Certain additional doctrines are more open to differences in interpretation, including those on sin and atonement and on faith and works.

The Trinity

Many Messianic Jews affirm the doctrine of the Trinity: God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit as three representations of the same divinity.[15][68][69]

  1. God the Father: Messianic Jews believe in God, and that he is all-powerful, omnipresent, eternally existent outside of creation, and infinitely significant and benevolent. Some Messianic Jews affirm both the Shema and the Trinity, understanding the phrase "the LORD is One" to be referring to "a differentiated but singular deity",[70] and "eternally existent in plural oneness".[68]
  2. God the Son: Most Messianic Jews consider Jesus to be the Messiah and divine as God the Son, in line with mainstream Christianity,[15][68] and will even pray directly to him.[71] Many also consider Jesus to be their "chief teacher and rabbi" whose life should be copied.[72]
  3. God the Holy Spirit: According to some Messianic Jews, the Spirit is introduced in the Old Testament, is the inspirer of prophets, and is the spirit of truth described in the New Testament.[68]

God, Jesus, and the Holy Spirit

  1. God the Father: Some Messianic Jews profess only a strict view of monotheism, rejecting Trinitarian doctrine[73] and Arian doctrine.
  2. Jesus the Son of God: Some Messianic Jews, who reject Trinitarian doctrine and Arian doctrine, believe that the Jewish Messiah is the son of God in the general sense (Jewish people are children of God) and that the Jewish Messiah is a mere human, the promised Prophet. Some Messianic Jews believe Jewish Messiah is the pre-existent Word of God, the mighty God, and the only begotten God. Some congregations do not directly ascribe divinity to Jesus, considering him a man, yet not just a man, fathered by the Holy Spirit, who became the Messiah.[74] Even others consider him "Word made flesh" and the "human expression of Divinity".[75]
  3. The Holy Spirit (Hebrew: רוח הקודש, ruach ha-kodesh) refers to the divine force, or to the word or spirit of God.[76]

Scriptures and writings

The Bible

Both the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament[c] are usually considered to be the established and divinely inspired biblical scriptures by Messianic Jews.[77] With a few exceptions, Messianic believers generally consider the written Torah, the five books of Moses, to remain in force as a continuing covenant, revised by Jesus and the Apostles in the New Testament, that is to be observed both morally and ritually. Jesus did not annul the Torah, but its interpretation is revised through the Apostolic scriptures.[69]

Jewish oral tradition

There is no unanimity among Messianic congregations on the issue of the Talmud and the Oral Torah. There are congregations which believe that adherence to the Oral Law, as encompassed by the Talmud, is against Messianic beliefs.[78] Similarly, there are congregations which deny the authority of the Pharisees, believing that they were superseded, and their teachings contradicted, by Messianism.[79] There are adherents which call rabbinic commentaries such as the Mishnah and the Talmud "dangerous",[79] and state that followers of rabbinic and halakhic explanations and commentaries are not believers in Jesus as the Messiah.[79][80] Other congregations are selective in their applications of Talmudic law, and may believe that the rabbinic commentaries such as the Mishnah and the Talmud, while historically informative and useful in understanding tradition, are not normative and may not be followed where they differ from the New Testament.[81][82][83] Still others encourage a serious observance of Jewish halakha.[84]

Messianic Bible translations

Messianic Jews generally consider the entire Christian Bible to be sacred scripture. Theologian David H. Stern in his "Jewish New Testament Commentary" argues that the writings and teachings of Paul the Apostle are fully congruent with Messianic Judaism, and that the New Testament is to be taken by Messianic Jews as the inspired Word of God.[citation needed]

Messianic publications

There are a number of Messianic commentaries on various books of the Bible, both Tanakh and New Testament texts, such as Matthew, Acts, Romans, Galatians, and Hebrews. David H. Stern has released a one-volume Jewish New Testament Commentary, providing explanatory notes from a Messianic Jewish point of view. Other New Testament commentary authors include Arnold Fruchtenbaum of Ariel Ministries, who has written commentaries on the Epistles, Judges and Ruth, Genesis, and 7 systematic doctrinal studies.

Sin and atonement

Some Messianic believers define sin as transgression of the Law of God and include the concept of original sin. Some adherents atone for their sins through prayer and repentance – the acknowledgment of the wrongdoing and seeking forgiveness for their sins (especially on Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement). Disagreeing with these rites and practices, other Messianics hold to a belief that all sin (whether committed yet or not) is already atoned for because of Jesus's death and resurrection.[85]

Evangelism and attitudes toward Jews and Israel

Messianic Jews believe God's people have a responsibility to spread his name and fame to all nations. It is believed that the Children of Israel were, remain, and will continue to be the chosen people of the God, and are central to his plans for existence. Most Messianic believers, whether Jewish or non-Jewish, can be said to oppose supersessionism (popularly referred to as replacement theology), the view that the Church has replaced Israel in the mind and plans of God.[69]

According to certain branches of Messianic Judaism, Jews are individuals who have one or more Jewish parents, or who have undergone halakhic conversion to Judaism.[86][87][non-primary source needed]

One Law theology

One Law theology (also known as "One Torah for All") teaches that anyone who is a part of Israel is obligated to observe the Covenant and its provisions as outlined in the Torah. Dan Juster of Tikkun, and Russ Resnik of the UMJC, have argued against the One Law movement's insistence on gentiles being required to observe the entirety of Torah in the same way as Jews.[88] Tim Hegg[who?] responded to their article defending what he believes to be the biblical teaching of "One Law" theology and its implications concerning the obligations of Torah obedience by new Messianic believers from the nations.[89] The Coalition of Torah Observant Messianic Congregations (CTOMC) likewise rejects bi-lateral Ecclesiology in favor of the One Torah for All (One Law) position.[90]

Two House theology

Proponents of Two House theology espouse their belief that the phrase "House of Judah" in scripture refers to Jews, while "the House of Israel" refers to the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel, or Ephraim. Where scripture states the House of Israel and Judah will again be "one stick" (Ezekiel 37:15–23), it is believed to be referring to the End Times, immediately prior to the Second Coming, when many of those descended from Israel will come back to Israel. Advocates of this theology postulate that the reason so many gentiles convert to Messianic Judaism is that the vast majority of them are truly Israelites. Like One Law groups, the Two House movement has many superficial similarities to Messianic Judaism, such as their belief in the ongoing validity of the Mosaic Covenant. While much of the Two House teaching is based on interpretations of Biblical prophecy, the biggest disagreements are due to inability to identify the genealogy of the Lost Tribes. Organizations such as the Messianic Jewish Alliance of America and Union of Messianic Jewish Congregations have explicitly opposed the Two House teaching.[91]


Historically, Christianity has taught supersessionism (replacement theology), which implies or outright states that Christianity has superseded Judaism,[citation needed] and that the Mosaic Covenant of the Hebrew Bible has been superseded by the New Covenant of Jesus, wherein salvation is brought about by the grace of God, and not by obedience to the Torah.[92] This is generally complemented with the concept of God having transferred the status of "God's people" from the Jews to the Christian Church. Messianic Jews, in varying degrees, challenge both thoughts,[93] and instead believing that although Israel has rejected Jesus, it has not forfeited its status as God's chosen people. Often cited is Romans 11:29: "for God's gifts and his call are irrevocable". The core of supersessionism, in which the Mosaic Covenant is canceled, is less agreed upon. Though the mitzvot may or may not be seen as necessary, most are still followed, especially the keeping of Shabbat and other holy days.


All Messianic Jews hold to certain eschatological beliefs such as the End of Days, the Second Coming of Jesus as the conquering Messiah, the re-gathering of Israel, a rebuilt Third Temple, a resurrection of the dead, and many believe in the Millennial Sabbath, although some are Amillenialist. Some Messianic Jews believe that all of the Jewish holidays, and indeed the entire Torah, intrinsically hint at the Messiah, and thus no study of the End Times is complete without understanding the major Jewish Festivals in their larger prophetic context. To certain believers, the feasts of Pesach and Shavuot were fulfilled in Jesus's first coming, and Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur, and Sukkot will be at his second. Some also believe in a literal 7000-year period for the human history of the world, with a Millennial Messianic kingdom prior to a final judgment.[94]

Religious practices

Baruch Hashem Messianic Synagogue in Dallas, Texas

Torah observance

There is a variety of practice within Messianic Judaism regarding the strictness of Torah observance. Generally, Torah observant congregations observe Jewish prayers, biblical feasts, and the Sabbath.[90] While most traditional Christians deny that the ritual laws and specific civil laws of the Torah apply to gentiles, certain passages regarding Torah observance in the New Testament are cited by some Messianic believers as proof that the Torah was not abolished for Jews. They point out that in Acts 21:17–36, Jewish believers in Jerusalem are described as "zealous for the Law".

Sabbath and holiday observances

Some Messianic Jews observe Shabbat on Saturdays.[23] Worship services are generally held on Friday evenings (Erev Shabbat) or Saturday mornings.[81] According to the Southern Baptist Messianic Fellowship (SBMF), services are held on Saturday to "open the doors to Jewish people who also wish to keep the Sabbath".[95] The liturgy used is similar to that of a Jewish siddur with some important differences including the omission of "salvation by works" as the Messianic belief is salvation through Jesus.[95] Other branches of the movement have attempted to "eliminate the elements of Christian worship [such as frequent communion[d]] that cannot be directly linked to their Jewish roots".[96] Almost all such congregations in Israel observe Jewish holidays, which they understand to have their fulfillment in Jesus."[23]

The Messianic Jewish Rabbinical Council recommends the observance of Jewish holidays.[97] Most larger Messianic Jewish congregations follow Jewish custom in celebrating the three biblical feasts (Pesach, Shavuot, and Sukkot), as well as Yom Kippur and Rosh Hashanah.[81]

Dietary laws

The observance of the kashrut dietary laws is a subject of continued debate among Messianic Jews.[98][99] Some Messianic believers keep kosher purely for the purposes of evangelism to Jewish people.[98] Most avoid pork and shellfish, but there is disagreement on more strict adherence to kosher dietary laws.

Conversion to Messianic Judaism

Large numbers of those calling themselves Messianic Jews are not of Jewish descent,[100] but join the movement as they "enjoy the Messianic Jewish style of worship".[101] Messianic perspectives on "Who is a Jew?" vary. The Messianic Jewish Rabbinical Council acknowledges a Jew as one born to a Jewish mother or who has converted to Judaism. Copying from the Reform stream of Judaism, the council also recognizes as a Jew one who was born to a Jewish father but not a Jewish mother on the condition that the family of the child, or the individual as an adult, has undertaken public and formal acts of identification of the individual with the Jewish faith and people.[86] The MJAA accepts gentiles into their congregations, but views gentiles and Jews as spiritually distinct and conversion as an "unbiblical practice".[102]


Messianic Jews practice baptism, calling it a mikveh ("cistern", from Leviticus 11:36) rather than the term tvila ("baptism" (טבילה) in the Hebrew New Testament).[103][104]


Some within the Ephraimite movement seek to convert themselves for identification with Israel, but most Messianic governing bodies acknowledge the presence of gentiles in the congregations, and do not see a need for them to convert to worship in the Messianic style and understanding. When conversion is sincerely desired by a gentile Messianic believer, Messianic Jewish halachic standards (including circumcision) are imposed to maintain integrity among the world Messianic Jewish community.[104][17]

Use of Hebrew names and vocabulary in English

The movement generally avoids common Christian terms, such as Jesus, Christ, or cross and prefers to use Hebrew or Aramaic terms.[105]



Messianic Jewish hymns differ from evangelical Christian ones in their focus on Israel's role in history and messianic hope. Other differences include reference to Jesus—usually using the name Yeshua—as the "Savior of Israel". Messianic hymnals often incorporate Israeli songs.[16] The movement has several recording artists who consider their music to be Messianic in message, such as Joel Chernoff of the duo Lamb,[106] Ted Pearce,[107] and Chuck King.[108]


Among mainstream Christianity

In the United States, the emergence of the Messianic Jewish movement created some stresses with other Jewish-Christian and missionary organization. In 1975, the Fellowship of Christian Testimonies to the Jews condemned several aspects[which?] of the Messianic Jewish movement.[109]

In Israel, the linguistic distinction between Messianic Jews and mainstream Christians is less clear, and the name meshihiy (משיחי, 'messianic') is commonly used by churches in lieu of notsri (נוצרי, 'Christian'). The Israel Trust of the Anglican Church, based at Christ Church, Jerusalem, an organization that is ecumenical in outlook and operates an interfaith school in Jerusalem, gives some social support to Messianic Jews in Israel.[110]

Among Jews

As in traditional Jewish objections to Christian theology, opponents of Messianic Judaism hold that Christian proof texts, such as prophecies in the Hebrew Bible purported to refer the Messiah's suffering and death, have been taken out of context and misinterpreted.[111] Jewish theology rejects the idea that the Messiah, or any human being, is a divinity. Belief in the Trinity is considered idolatrous by most rabbinic authorities. Even if considered shituf (literally, "partnership")—an association of other individuals with the God of Israel—this is only permitted for gentiles, and that only according to some rabbinic opinions. It is universally considered idolatrous for Jews.[19][112][113] Further, Judaism does not view the role of the Messiah to be the salvation of the world from its sins, an integral teaching of Christianity[114] and Messianic Judaism.[15]

Jewish opponents of Messianic Judaism often focus their criticism on the movement's radical ideological separation from traditional Jewish beliefs, stating that the acceptance of Jesus as Messiah creates an insuperable divide between the traditional messianic expectations of Judaism, and Christianity's theological claims.[115] They state that while Judaism is a messianic religion, its messiah is not Jesus,[116] and thus the term is misleading.[20] All denominations of Judaism, as well as national Jewish organizations, reject Messianic Judaism as a form of Judaism.[18][117] The Central Conference of American Rabbis states that ""Jewish Christians" or "Messianic Jews" have never been considered believers in Judaism."[118] Regarding this divide, Reconstructionist Rabbi Carol Harris-Shapiro observed: "To embrace the radioactive core of goyishness—Jesus—violates the final taboo of Jewishness.[...] Belief in Jesus as Messiah is not simply a heretical belief, as it may have been in the first century; it has become the equivalent to an act of ethno-cultural suicide."[119]

B'nai Brith Canada considers Messianic activities as antisemitic incidents.[120] Rabbi Tovia Singer, founder of the anti-missionary organization Outreach Judaism, noted of a Messianic religious leader in Toledo: "He's not running a Jewish synagogue.[...] It's a church designed to appear as if it were a synagogue and I'm there to expose him. What these irresponsible extremist Christians do is a form of consumer fraud. They blur the distinctions between Judaism and Christianity in order to lure Jewish people who would otherwise resist a straightforward message."[121]

Association by a Jewish politician with a Messianic religious leader, inviting him to pray at a public meeting, even though made in error, resulted in nearly universal condemnation by Jewish congregations in Detroit in 2018,[122][123] as the majority opinion in both Israeli and American Jewish circles is to consider Messianic Judaism as Christianity and its followers as Christians.[124]

Response of Israeli government

Messianic Jews are considered eligible for the State of Israel's Law of Return only if they can also claim Jewish descent.[24] An assistant to one of the two lawyers involved with an April 2008 Supreme Court of Israel case explained to the Jerusalem Post that Messianic Jews who are not Jewish according to Jewish rabbinic law, but who had sufficient Jewish descent to qualify under the Law of Return, could claim automatic new immigrant status and citizenship despite being Messianic.[125] The state of Israel grants Aliyah (right of return) and citizenship to Jews, and to those with Jewish parents or grandparents who are not considered Jews according to halakha, such as people who have a Jewish father but a non-Jewish mother. The old law had excluded any "person who has been a Jew and has voluntarily changed his religion", and an Israeli Supreme Court decision in 1989 had ruled that Messianic Judaism constituted another religion.[126] However, on April 16, 2008, the Supreme Court of Israel ruled in a case brought by a number of Messianic Jews with Jewish fathers and grandfathers. Their applications for Aliyah had been rejected on the grounds that they were Messianic Jews. The argument was made by the applicants that they had never been Jews according to halakha, and were not therefore excluded by the conversion clause. This argument was upheld in the ruling.[125][127][128]

The International Religious Freedom Report 2008, released by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor in the US, stated that discrimination against Messianic Jews in Israel was increasing.[129] Some acts of violence have also occurred; in one incident on March 20, 2008, a bomb concealed as a Purim gift basket was delivered to the house of a prominent Messianic Jewish family in Ariel, in the West Bank, which severely wounded the son.[130] Eventually, Yaakov Teitel was arrested for the attempted murder.[131]

This antagonism has led to harassment and some violence, especially in Israel, where there is a large and militant Orthodox community. Several Orthodox organizations, including Yad L'Achim and Lehava, are dedicated to rooting out missionary activity in Israel, including the Messianic Jewish congregations. One tactic is to plaster posters asking Israelis to boycott shops where Messianic Jews are owners or employees; another is to report Messianic Jews to the Interior ministry, which is charged with enforcing an Israeli law forbidding proselytizing.[132] In another incident, the mayor of Or Yehuda, a suburb of Tel Aviv, held a public book-burning of literature passed out to Ethiopian immigrants. He later apologized for the action.[133] On other occasions, Lehava activists attempted to interrupt Messianic Jewish and violently harass the participants.[134][135]

Response of US governments

The US Navy made a decision that Messianic Jewish chaplains must wear as their insignia the Christian cross, and not the tablets of the law, the insignia of Jewish chaplains. According to Yeshiva World News, the Navy Uniform Board commanded that Michael Hiles, a candidate for chaplaincy, wear the Christian insignia. Hiles resigned from the program, rather than wear the cross.[136] Eric Tokajer, a spokesman for the Messianic Jewish movement, responded that "This decision essentially bars Messianic Jews from serving as chaplains within the U.S. Navy because it would require them to wear an insignia inconsistent with their faith and belief system."[137]

A Birmingham, Alabama, police employee's religious discrimination case was settled in her favor after she filed suit over having to work on the Jewish Sabbath.[138]

Messianic organizations

See also


  1. ^ Followers are called either יְהוּדִים מְשִׁיחִיִּים y'hudím mešiḥiyim; Yehudim Meshikiyim or simply נוֹצְרִים nocirim (Christians).
  2. ^ Such as Epiphanius of Salamis' record of the conversion of Count Joseph of Tiberias and Sozomen's accounts of other Jewish conversions.
  3. ^ The name of the New Testament is often translated back into Hebrew as "Brit Chadasha". This directly means "New Covenant", however it must be noted "Testament" is traditionally taken from the Latin translation of Chadasha ("testamentum"), and therefore can mean both English words.
  4. ^ Communion in Messianic Judaism is often celebrated as a fully reenacted Passover Seder meal, in accordance with its description in the Synoptic Gospels, making it slightly more difficult to setup and more lengthy.


  1. ^ Kessler 2005, p. 292: "[Messianic Judaism's] syncretism confuses Christians and Jews…"
  2. ^ Ariel 2013, pp. 35–57.
  3. ^ Ariel 2000, p. 223.
  4. ^ Cohn-Sherbok 2000, p. 179.
  5. ^ a b Ariel 2006, p. 191: "In the late 1960s and 1970s, both Jews and Christians in the United States were surprised to see the rise of a vigorous movement of Jewish Christians or Christian Jews. For many observers, such a combination seemed like an oxymoron, because they saw the two faiths as completely separate from each other. While Christianity started in the first century of the Common Era as a Jewish group, it quickly separated from Judaism and claimed to replace it; ever since the relationship between the two traditions has often been strained. But in the twentieth century, groups of young Jews claimed that they had overcome the historical differences between the two religions and amalgamated Jewish traditions and customs with the Christian faith. Attempting to overcome the historical difference between the two religious traditions, these Jewish converts to Christianity define themselves as Messianic Jews, thus pointing to the movements ideology of returning to the roots of the Christian faith."
  6. ^ Melton 2005, p. 373: "Messianic Judaism is a Protestant movement that emerged in the last half of the 20th century among believers who were ethnically Jewish but had adopted an Evangelical Christian faith.…By the 1960s, a new effort to create a culturally Jewish Protestant Christianity emerged among individuals who began to call themselves Messianic Jews.
  7. ^ a b c d Ben Barka, Mokhtar (December 2012). "The New Christian Right's relations with Israel and with the American Jews: the mid-1970s onward". E-Rea. 10 (1). Aix-en-Provence and Marseille: Centre pour l'Édition Électronique Ouverte on behalf of Aix-Marseille University. doi:10.4000/erea.2753. ISSN 1638-1718. S2CID 191364375. The Jews have cause to worry because Evangelicals are active on both fronts, promoting support for the State of Israel, and evangelizing the Jews at the same time. While the Israeli government eagerly accepts public support of Evangelicals and courts the leaders of the New Christian Right, many Jews bitterly condemn Christian proselytism and try their best to restrict the activities of missionaries in Israel. "Jews for Jesus" and other Christian Jewish groups in Israel have become especially effective in evangelizing, often with the support of foreign Evangelicals. It is not surprising that Jewish leaders, both in the United States and Israel, react strongly to "Jews for Jesus" and the whole "Messianic Jewish" movement, whose concern is to promote awareness among the Jews as to God's real plans for humanity and the need to accept Jesus as a Savior. In this respect, Gershom Gorenberg lamented the fact that "people who see Israel through the lens of Endtimes prophecy are questionable allies, whose support should be elicited only in the last resort. In the long run, their apocalyptic agenda has no room for Israel as a normal country."
  8. ^ Cohn-Sherbok 2010, p. 100: "In the 1970s a number of American Jewish converts to Christianity, known as Hebrew Christians, were committed to a church-based conception of Hebrew Christianity. Yet, at the same time, there emerged a growing segment of the Hebrew Christian community that sought a more Jewish lifestyle. Eventually, a division emerged between those who wished to identify as Jews and those who sought to pursue Hebrew Christian goals.[…] In time, the name of the movement was changed to Messianic Judaism."
  9. ^ Lewis 2001, p. 179: "The origins of Messianic Judaism date to the 1960s when it began among American Jews who converted to Christianity."
  10. ^ a b Feher 1998, p. 140: "This interest in developing a Jewish ethnic identity may not be surprising when we consider the 1960s, when Messianic Judaism arose."
  11. ^ a b c Ariel 2006, p. 194: "But the generation that came of age in the 1960s and 1970s thought differently about these matters. They wanted to make their own choices and did not feel constrained by old boundaries and taboos. Judaism and Christianity could go hand in hand.…In the first phase of the movement, during the early and mid-1970s, Jewish converts to Christianity established several congregations at their own initiative.…The term Messianic Judaism came into public use in America in the early 1970s.…The term, however was not entirely new. It was used in the internal debates in the community of converts as early as the beginning of the century.…Missionaries, such as the Southern Baptist Robert Lindsey noted that for Israeli Jews, the term notzrim, "Christians" in Hebrew, meant, almost automatically, an alien hostile religion. Because such a term made it nearly impossible to convince Jews that Christianity was their religion, missionaries sought a more neutral term.…They chose Meshychim, Messianic, to overcome the suspicion and antagonism of the term notzrim.…It conveyed the sense of a new, innovative religion rather that [sic] an old, unfavorable one. The term was used in reference to those Jews who accepted Jesus as their personal savior, and did not apply to Jews accepting Roman Catholicism who in Israel have called themselves Hebrew Christians.
  12. ^ Brown, Emma (May 21, 2010). "Moishe Rosen, 78; founded evangelistic group Jews for Jesus". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 3, 2023.
  13. ^ Burton, Tara Isabella (October 31, 2018). "Messianic Jews and Jews for Jesus, explained". Vox. Retrieved January 3, 2023.
  14. ^ Cohn-Sherbok 2000, p. 170.
  15. ^ a b c d "Statement of Faith". Union of Messianic Jewish Congregations. July 19, 2012. Retrieved September 10, 2015. There is one God, who has revealed Himself as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. Every divine action in the world is accomplished by the Father working through the Son and in the power of the Spirit. This God has revealed Himself in creation and in the history of Israel as transmitted in Scripture.…In the fullness of time, the Divine Son became a human being—Yeshua the Messiah, born of a Jewish virgin, a true and perfect Israelite, a fitting representative and one-man embodiment of the entire nation. He lived as a holy tzaddik, fulfilling without blemish the mitzvot of the Torah. He brings to perfection the human expression of the divine image.…Yeshua died as an atonement for the sins of Israel and of the entire world. He was raised bodily from the dead, as the firstfruits of the resurrection promised to Israel as its glorification. He ascended to heaven and was there enthroned at God's right hand as Israel's Messiah, with authority extending to the ends of creation.…Forgiveness of sins, spiritual renewal, union with Messiah, the empowering and sanctifying presence of the indwelling Ruach Ha Kodesh, and the confident hope of eternal life and a glorious resurrection are now available to all, Jews and Gentiles, who put their faith in Yeshua, the Risen Lord, and in obedience to His word are joined to Him and His Body through immersion and sustained in that union through Messiah's remembrance meal. Yeshua is the Mediator between God and all creation, and no one can come to the Father except through Him.…Messiah Yeshua will return to Jerusalem in glory at the end of this age, to rule forever on David's throne. He will effect the restoration of Israel in fullness, raise the dead, save all who belong to Him, judge the wicked not written in the Book of Life who are separated from His presence, and accomplish the final Tikkun Olam in which Israel and the nations will be united under Messiah's rule forever.…The writings of Tanakh and Brit Hadasha are divinely inspired and fully trustworthy (true), a gift given by God to His people, provided to impart life and to form, nurture, and guide them in the ways of truth. They are of supreme and final authority in all matters of faith and practice.
  16. ^ a b Ariel 2006, p. 208
  17. ^ a b Israel b. Betzalel (February 10, 2009). "Do I need to be Circumcised?". JerusalemCouncil.org. Archived from the original on August 6, 2010. Retrieved January 3, 2023. To convert to the Jewish sect of HaDerech, accepting Yeshua as your King is the first act after one's heart turns toward HaShem and His Torah – as one can not obey a commandment of God if they first do not love God, and we love God by following his Messiah. Without first accepting Yeshua as the King and thus obeying Him, then getting circumcised for the purpose of Jewish conversion only gains you access to the Jewish community. It means nothing when it comes to inheriting a place in the World to Come.... Getting circumcised apart from desiring to be obedient to HaShem, and apart from accepting Yeshua as your King, is nothing but a surgical procedure, or worse, could lead to you believe that Jewish identity grants you a portion in the World to Come – at which point, what good is Messiah Yeshua, the Word of HaShem to you? He would have died for nothing!... As a convert from the nations, part of your obligation in keeping the Covenant, if you are a male, is to get circumcised in fulfillment of the commandment regarding circumcision. Circumcision is not an absolute requirement of being a Covenant member (that is, being made righteous before HaShem, and thus obtaining eternal life), but it is a requirement of obedience to God's commandments, because circumcision is commanded for those who are of the seed of Abraham, whether born into the family, adopted, or converted.... If after reading all of this you understand what circumcision is, and that is an act of obedience, rather than an act of gaining favor before HaShem for the purpose of receiving eternal life, then if you are male believer in Yeshua the Messiah for the redemption from death, the consequence of your sin of rebellion against Him, then pursue circumcision, and thus conversion into Judaism, as an act of obedience to the Messiah.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  18. ^ a b c
    Simmons 2004: Jews do not accept Jesus as the messiah because: 1. Jesus did not fulfill the messianic prophecies. 2. Jesus did not embody the personal qualifications of the Messiah. 3. Biblical verses "referring" to Jesus are mistranslations. 4. Jewish belief is based on national revelation
    Waxman, Jonathan (2006). "Messianic Jews Are Not Jews". United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved December 13, 2016. Hebrew Christian, Jewish Christian, Jew for Jesus, Messianic Jew, Fulfilled Jew. The name may have changed over the course of time, but all of the names reflect the same phenomenon: one who asserts that s/he is straddling the theological fence between Judaism and Christianity, but in truth is firmly on the Christian side ... we must affirm as did the Israeli Supreme Court in the well-known Brother Daniel case that to adopt Christianity is to have crossed the line out of the Jewish community.
    "Missionary Impossible". Hebrew Union College. August 2, 1999. Retrieved December 13, 2016. Missionary Impossible, an imaginative video and curriculum guide for teachers, educators, and rabbis to teach Jewish youth how to recognize and respond to "Jews-for-Jesus", "Messianic Jews", and other Christian proselytizers, has been produced by six rabbinic students at Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion's Cincinnati School. The students created the video as a tool for teaching why Jewish college and high school youth and Jews in intermarried couples are primary targets of Christian missionaries.
    Glazier, James Scott (2012-09-06). "What are the main differences between a Jew and a Christian?". ReformJudaism.org. Retrieved 2019-04-02. The essential difference between Jews and Christians is that Christians accept Jesus as messiah and personal savior. Jesus is not part of Jewish theology. Amongst Jews, Jesus is not considered a divine being.
    "FAQ's About Jewish Renewal". aleph.org. 2007. Archived from the original on October 23, 2014. Retrieved December 20, 2007. What is ALEPH's position on so called messianic Judaism? ALEPH has a policy of respect for other spiritual traditions, but objects to deceptive practices and will not collaborate with denominations which actively target Jews for recruitment. Our position on so-called "Messianic Judaism" is that it is Christianity and its proponents would be more honest to call it that.
  19. ^ a b "Why Jews Don't Believe in Jesus". Ask the Rabbi. Jerusalem: Ohr Somayach. 2000. Retrieved January 2, 2023. The Christian idea of a trinity contradicts the most basic tenet of Judaism – that G-d is One. Jews have declared their belief in a single unified G-d twice daily ever since the giving of the Torah at Sinai – almost two thousand years before Christianity. The trinity suggests a three part deity: The Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost (Matthew 28:19). In Jewish law, worship of a three-part god is considered idolatry; one of the three cardinal sins for which a person should rather give up his life than transgress. The idea of the trinity is absolutely incompatible with Judaism.
  20. ^ a b Lotker 2004, p. 35: "It should now be clear to you why Jews have such a problem with 'Jews for Jesus' or other presentations of Messianic Judaism. I have no difficulty with Christianity. I even accept those Christians who would want me to convert to Christianity so long as they don't use coercion or duplicity and are willing to listen in good faith to my reasons for being Jewish. I do have a major problem with those Christians who would try to mislead me and other Jews into believing that one can be both Jewish and Christian.
  21. ^
    • Harries 2003, p. 119: "Thirdly, there is Jews for Jesus or, more generally, Messianic Judaism. This is a movement of people often of Jewish background who have come to believe Jesus is the expected Jewish messiah.…They often have congregations independent of other churches and specifically target Jews for conversion to their form of Christianity."
    • Harris-Shapiro 1999, p. 3: "And while many evangelical Churches are openly supportive of Messianic Judaism, they treat it as an ethnic church squarely within evangelical Christianity, rather than as a separate entity.
  22. ^ *"Jewish Conversion". JerusalemCouncil.org. 2009. Retrieved 2019-04-03. Many people ask how to convert to Judaism through the Jewish sect of HaDerech, also known as The Way, or Messianic Judaism.
    • "Our History". Messianic Jewish Alliance of America. 2017. Archived from the original on 2020-09-24. Retrieved 2019-04-03. These factors lead many Jewish people to assume that to follow Yeshua is to leave the faith of their fathers and become non-Jewish. The MJAA has worked to combat this misperception for almost a century.
    • "Defining Messianic Judaism". Union. Union of Messianic Jewish Congregations. July 20, 2005. Retrieved December 30, 2022. The Union of Messianic Jewish Congregations (UMJC) envisions Messianic Judaism as a movement of Jewish congregations and groups committed to Yeshua the Messiah that embrace the covenantal responsibility of Jewish life and identity rooted in Torah, expressed in tradition, and renewed and applied in the context of the New Covenant. Messianic Jewish groups may also include those from non-Jewish backgrounds who have a confirmed call to participate fully in the life and destiny of the Jewish people. We are committed to embodying this definition in our constituent congregations and in our shared institutions.
  23. ^ a b c Spector 2008, p. 116
  24. ^ a b Berman, Daphna (June 10, 2006). "Aliyah with a cat, a dog and Jesus". Haaretz. Archived from the original on July 30, 2018. Retrieved January 3, 2023. In rejecting their petition, Supreme Court Justice Menachem Elon cited their belief in Jesus. 'In the last two thousand years of history…the Jewish people have decided that messianic Jews do not belong to the Jewish nation…and have no right to force themselves on it,' he wrote, concluding that 'those who believe in Jesus, are, in fact Christians.'
  25. ^ Foreman 2006, p. 399.
  26. ^ Schoeman 2003, p. 351: "By the mid 1970s, Time magazine placed the number of Messianic Jews in the US at over 50,000; by 1993 this number had grown to 160,000 in the US and about 350,000 worldwide (1989 estimate).[…] There are currently over 400 Messianic synagogues worldwide, with at least 150 in the US."
  27. ^ Yeoman, Barry (November 15, 2007). "Evangelical movement on the rise". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Retrieved January 2, 2023.
  28. ^ Posner, Sarah (November 29, 2012). "Kosher Jesus: Messianic Jews in the Holy Land". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on December 1, 2012. Retrieved September 10, 2015.
  29. ^ Barnett 2002, p. 367.
  30. ^ Stemberger, Günter (2000). Jews and Christians in the Holy Land: Palestine in the Fourth Century. Continuum. p. 81. ISBN 978-0-567-08699-0.
  31. ^ Flannery 1985, p. 129.
  32. ^ Ariel 2006, p. 192.
  33. ^ Moscrop 2000, p. 15: ...the perspective of the Holy Land the most important of these societies was the London Jews' Society. Founded in 1809 during the high point of evangelical endeavour, the London Jews' Society was the work of Joseph Samuel Frederick Frey...
  34. ^ Greenspoon 1998: The first Yiddish New Testament distributed by the BFBS was published by the London Jews Society in 1821; the translator was Benjamin Nehemiah Solomon, "a convert from Judaism, who [had come] over to England from Poland."
  35. ^ Cohn-Sherbok 2000, p. 16: "On 9 September 1813 a group of 41 Jewish Christians established the Beni Abraham association at Jews' Chapel. These Jewish Christians met for prayer every Sunday morning and Friday evening."
  36. ^ Schwartz, Carl (1870). "An Answer to Friends and Foes". The Scattered Nation. No. V. London. p. 16. Retrieved January 3, 2023. What does the Hebrew-Christian Alliance signify? is asked by well-wishers and opponents. True, its objects have been clearly stated.... Let me try briefly to state the nature and objects of the Hebrew-Christian Alliance.
  37. ^ Sobel 1968, pp. 241–250: "Hebrew Christianity was born in England at the beginning of the nineteenth century through the efforts of a group of converts calling themselves the Beni Abraham, or Sons of Abraham. It was on 9 September 1813 that a group of forty-one Jewish converts to Christianity met in London setting forth their purposes as being 'to attend divine worship at the chapel and to visit daily two by two in rotation any sick member, to pray with him and read the Bible to him; and on Sunday all who could were to visit the sick one'."
  38. ^ Gidney 1908, p. 57: "The Jews' Chapel, Spitalfields, had to be given up in 1816, as the minister refused his consent to its being licensed as a place of worship of the Church of England. Frey's connexion with the Society ceased in the same year, and he left for America."
  39. ^ Cohn-Sherbok 2003.
  40. ^ Kessler 2005, p. 180.
  41. ^ a b Cohn-Sherbok 2000, pp. 18, 19, 24.
  42. ^ Ariel 2000, p. 19.
  43. ^ "The Only One In America; A Hebrew-Christian Church Dedicated Yesterday". The New York Times. October 12, 1885. p. 2. Archived from the original on January 2, 2023. Retrieved January 2, 2023.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  44. ^ Ariel 2000, p. 9.
  45. ^ a b Rausch 1982b.
  46. ^ Harris-Shapiro 1999, p. 27.
  47. ^ Balmer 2004, pp. 154–155.
  48. ^ TMJ 1910, p. 2
  49. ^ Ariel 2000, p. 191.
  50. ^ Juster & Hocken 2004, p. 15.
  51. ^ Hocken 2009, pp. 97-100.
  52. ^ Kinzer 2005, p. 286: "The cultural ferment of the 1960s threw Hebrew Christians in America and their institutions into the same turmoil that characterized the rest of American society. Three factors played an especially important part in turning their world upside down: a social movement (i.e., the youth counterculture), a cultural trend (i.e., ethnic self-assertion and pride), and a political-military event (i.e., the Six-Day War)."
  53. ^ Harris-Shapiro 1999, p. 286.
  54. ^ Juster & Hocken 2004, p. 10.
  56. ^ Juster 1995, pp. 152–153: "In 1975, the Alliance changed its name to the Messianic Jewish Alliance, reflecting the growing Jewish identity of Jewish followers of Yeshua.[…] Hebrew-Christianity, at times, saw Jewishness as merely an ethnic identity, whereas Messianic Judaism saw its Jewish life and identity as a continued call of God."
  57. ^ Rausch 1982a, p. 77.
  58. ^ Robinson 2005, p. 42.
  59. ^ a b "Home". IAMCS. Archived from the original on 2019-04-03. Retrieved 2019-04-03. As more and more congregations were formed, many within the MJAA had a desire to form a fellowship of Messianic congregations or synagogues under the auspices of the MJAA.…As a result, in the spring of 1986, The International Alliance of Messianic Congregations and Synagogues (IAMCS) was formed.
  60. ^ Juster 1995, p. 155.
  61. ^ Union of Messianic Jewish Congregations, OUR HISTORY, umjc.org, USA, retrieved October 22, 2022
  62. ^ "The Way Congregation - What We Believe". thewaycongregation.com. Retrieved 2022-09-10.
  63. ^ "The Way Congregation - Our Story". thewaycongregation.com. Retrieved 2022-09-10.
  64. ^ "Haunted Theology". The Way Congregation. Retrieved 2022-09-10.
  65. ^ "The Discovery of the Messianic Seal". Evangelical Press News Service. July 6, 1999. Retrieved January 2, 2023 – via tsiyon.org.
  66. ^ a b Nerel, Gershon (2001). "Symbols used by Messianic Judaism in Israel Today". International Messianic Jewish Alliance. Archived from the original on June 7, 2008. Retrieved January 2, 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  67. ^ Schmalz, Reuven Efraim; Fischer, Raymond Robert (1999). The Messianic seal of the Jerusalem church. Tiberias, Israel: Olim Publications. ISBN 978-965-222-962-5. OCLC 48454022.
  68. ^ a b c d "Belief". IAMCS. Havertown, Pennsylvania: International Alliance of Messianic Congregations & Synagogues. Archived from the original on 2019-04-03. Retrieved 2019-04-03.
  69. ^ a b c "Our Beliefs". The Harvest. Retrieved 2019-04-02. We aim to influence every realm of society, in this generation and for generations to come, for the glory of Messiah and His Kingdom until He returns to judge the living and the dead.... We believe that the Torah (five books of Moses) is a comprehensive summary of God's foundational laws and ways, as found in both the Tanakh and Apostolic Scriptures. Additionally, the Bible teaches that without holiness no man can see God. We believe in the Doctrine of Sanctification as a definite, yet progressive work of grace, commencing at the time of regeneration and continuing until the consummation of salvation. Therefore we encourage all believers, both Jews and Gentiles, to affirm, embrace, and practice these foundational laws and ways as clarified through the teachings of Messiah Yeshua.... We believe Gentiles who place their faith and trust in Yeshua the Messiah as Lord and Savior, are grafted into Israel through a born again experience. This new birth results in a new identity. This new identity is a child of the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. As a result, this new child is adopted into the family and ethnos of Israel and becomes a full member and fellow heir of the covenants of promise and blessings made to Israel. The Gentiles who are grafted into Israel do not replace her. Rather, they participate with her as the chosen ones from among the nations who are also called to be a part of His treasured people Israel. In terms of their adoption into the household of God, these newly adopted Gentile children are to be treated as if they were native-born descendants of Jacob. As adopted Gentiles, they shall be accorded all the rights, privileges, and responsibilities of being full members of the commonwealth of Israel and fellow heirs of the covenants of promise made to her. They do not replace Israel but neither are they excluded. Like the mystery of the unity of God, the two groups are one in Messiah and yet distinct.
  70. ^ Kinzer 2010: Paul likely uses the term Kyrios here as a Greek substitute for both the tetragram- maton and the Hebrew word Adonai ("My lord"), which in Jewish practice acts as its surrogate. In this way he builds upon the most fundamental biblical confession of faith, the Shema, highlighting the two primary divine names (Theos/Elohim and Kyrios/Adonai) and the word 'one'. Paul thus expands the Shema to include Yeshua within a differentiated but singular deity. The nicene Creed adopts Paul's language ('one God, the Father…one Lord, Yeshua the Messiah…'), and thereby affirms its own continuity with the Shema. Paul's short confession is a Yeshua-faith interpretation of the Shema, and the nicene Creed is an expanded interpretation of Paul's confession.
  71. ^ Berkley 1997, p. 129: "A more rapidly growing organization [than Jews for Jesus] is the Messianic Jewish Alliance of America which seeks to incorporate many of the trappings of Judaism with the tenets of Christianity. Its congregants assemble on Friday evening and Saturday morning, recite Hebrew prayers, and sometimes even wear talliot (prayer shawls). But they worship not just God but Jesus, whom they call Yeshua."
  72. ^ "Our Mission and Message". First Fruits of Zion. 2010. p. 14. Archived from the original on September 23, 2010. Retrieved September 9, 2010.
  73. ^ Kerstetter, Adam Yisroel (2007). "Who Do You Say That I Am? An introduction to the true Messiah from a non-Trinitarian view". Archived from the original on March 30, 2008. Retrieved August 11, 2010. The material presented below has been researched to great lengths and is based totally on the Scriptures. I have examined both sides of the subject and can assure you that I have no ax to grind, but have found that the information on the Trinity is without any foundation, nor is it supported by the language of the Scripture. Let me state that I believe in our Heavenly Father and in his Son Y'shua (Jesus) and that the Father sent Y'shua to be a way back to Him and a means for our salvation, but I do not believe the Scripture supports the idea of the Moshiach (Messiah) being G-d of very G-d. When wrong ideas of the Mashiach are espoused they put us on the course of misinterpretations and a misconception of who our Mashiach and his Heavenly Father are. These misconceptions and misinterpretations lead us further away from the truth and ultimately further away from the Father who is the only true G-d.
  74. ^ Israel b. Betzalel (March 9, 2009). "Is Yeshua G-d?". JerusalemCouncil.org. Archived from the original on April 27, 2009. Retrieved December 29, 2022. This then is who Yeshua is: He is not just a man, and as a man, he is not from Adam, but from G-d. He is the Word of HaShem, the Memra, the Davar, the Righteous One, he didn't become righteous, he is righteous. He is called G-d's Son, he is the agent of HaShem called HaShem, and he is "HaShem" who we interact with and not die.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  75. ^ "Doctrinal Statement". Lev HaShem Messianic Jewish Synagogue. Archived from the original on 2019-04-03. Retrieved 2019-04-03.
  76. ^ Israel b. Betzalel (March 9, 2009). "Trinitarianism". JerusalemCouncil.org. Archived from the original on April 27, 2009. Retrieved December 29, 2022. Yes I believe in the Spirit of God, the Ruach HaKodesh. Yet, to trinitarians wishing to stop there, I could ask, "Who filled the temple at its dedication? What is the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Spirit?" As we read on, we clearly read that it was the Glory that filled the tabernacle, the temple, etc. So what is the Glory? Where does the Glory fit into the trinitarian model? So then, as a chasid, I simply just agree with scripture and with what scripture says concerning the matter and leave it at that and thank HaShem.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  77. ^ "Our Beliefs". n.d. Retrieved March 28, 2023. To study the whole and authoritative Word of God, including the Tanakh (Hebrew Scriptures) and the Brit Chadasha (New Covenant) under the leading of the Holy Spirit
  78. ^ Brown, Michael (October 29, 2009). "Rabbinic Objections". Chosen People Ministries. Retrieved December 29, 2022. ... I will present some foundational truths from the Scriptures, and as you continue to research the matter for yourself, these truths will lead to one inescapable conclusion: It is the Tanakh rather than the Talmud and the rabbinic traditions that must be followed if we are to be totally faithful to the Lord....Which, then, will you follow? The written Word or the traditions of men? When you stand before God, what will you say?
  79. ^ a b c "So, What Exactly is a Messianic Congregation?". RabbiYeshua.com. Kehilat Sar Shalom. 2001. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-02-20. When we begin to study and observe Torah to become like Messiah, there are pitfalls we must avoid. One such pitfall is the study of Mishnah and Talmud (Rabbinic traditional Law). There are many people and congregations that place a great emphasis on rabbinic legal works, such as the Mishnah and the Talmud in search of their Hebrew roots. People are looking to the rabbis for answers on how to keep God's commands, but if one looks into the Mishnah and does what it says, he or she is not a follower of the Messiah. Or, if one looks into the Talmud and does what it says, he or she is not a follower of the Messiah – he or she is a follower of the rabbis because Rabbi Yeshua, the Messiah, is not quoted there.... Rabbinic Judaism is not Messianic Judaism. Rabbinic Judaism is not founded in Messiah. Rabbinic Judaism, for the most part, is founded in the yeast – the teachings of the Pharisees. Yeshua's teachings and the discipleship that He brought His students through was not Rabbinic Judaism. There is a real danger in Rabbinics. There is a real danger in Mishnah and Talmud. No one involved in Rabbinics has ever come out on the other side more righteous than when he or she entered. He or she may look "holier than thou" – but they do not have the life changing experience clearly represented in the lives of the believers of the Messianic communities of the first century.
  80. ^ Bernay, Adam J. (December 3, 2007). "Who we are". beit-tefillah.com]. Archived from the original on April 9, 2008. Retrieved 2007-12-20. "Orthodox Messianic" groups (they go by many names) teach that you must keep the commandments in order to be saved, and not just the commandments in the Scripture, but the traditional rules as coined by Judaism since the Temple was destroyed... essentially, they teach that we must keep Orthodox Judaism, but with the addition of Yeshua. We do NOT teach this in any way, shape, or form. Some of the traditions are right and good, and in keeping with the commandments. Others are not. Only by studying to show ourselves approved of God can we rightly divide the word of truth and discover how God calls us to live.
  81. ^ a b c Burgess 2006, p. 308.
  82. ^ "Points of Order (#4)". 2015. Archived from the original on 2017-09-12. Retrieved 2019-04-03. The Torah in our usage never refers to the Talmud but, while we do not consider the Talmud or any other commentary on the Scriptures as the Word of G-d, we believe that the writings of Oral Tradition, such as the Talmud, the Mishnah, and the Midrash Rabbah, also contain further insight into the character of G-d and His dealings with His people.
  83. ^ "Halakhic Approach". Messianic Jewish Rabbinical Council. n.d. Retrieved March 28, 2023. Our approach to halakhic decision-making is based on a recognition of the paramount importance and authority of Scripture (i.e., the Tanakh and the Apostolic Writings) in the development of Halakhah....As Messianic Jews, we affirm the special precedence given to scriptural law in traditional Halakhah, while likewise affirming the scriptural character of the Apostolic Writings (i.e., the New Testament) and the unique ways in which they contribute to halakhic development....In addressing matters of Halakhah, Scripture always has the highest halakhic authority and sanctity. Thus, when traditional Judaism distinguishes between laws that are d'oraita (i.e., ordained by the Tanakh) and those that are d'rabbanan (i.e., established by rabbinic authority), precedence is always given to those that are d'oraita.
  84. ^ "In Search of Messianic Jewish Thought". GoogleCache. 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-03-11. Retrieved 2008-01-07. John Fischer affirms that Yeshua himself supported the traditions of the Pharisees which were very close to what later became rabbinic halacha. Messianic Jews today should not only take note of rabbinic tradition but incorporate it into Messianic Jewish halachah. The biblical pattern for Fischer is that "Yeshua, the Apostles, and the early Messianic Jews all deeply respected the traditions and devoutly observed them, and in so doing, set a useful pattern for us to follow." Citing Fischer, John, "Would Yeshua Support Halacha?" in Kesher: A Journal of Messianic Judaism, Albuquerque, New Mexico: UMJC, 1997, pp. 51–81.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  85. ^ Goble 1974, pp. 4–6.
  86. ^ a b "Issues of Status". Messianic Jewish Rabbinical Council. n.d. Retrieved March 28, 2023. Following the consensus of Jewish tradition, we recognize as a Jew anyone who is born of a Jewish mother or who is a convert to Judaism. We also recognize as a Jew anyone who is born of a Jewish father and a non-Jewish mother if that person has undertaken public and formal acts of identification with the Jewish faith and people. In 1947 the Central Conference of American Rabbis (CCAR) of the Reform movement...
  87. ^ "Who Is A Jew? Messianic Style". Chaia Kravitz. MessianicJewishOnline.com. 2007. Archived from the original on August 11, 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-23. In Messianic Judaism, children are generally regarded as being Jewish with one Jewish parent. Since we are one in Messiah, both Jew and Gentile, there is not sharp division between the two groups. Therefore, if a Gentile has a heart for Israel and God's Torah, as well as being a Believer in Yeshua, and this person marries a Jewish Believer, it is not considered an "intermarriage" in the same way Rabbinic Judaism sees it, since both partners are on the same spiritual plane. Children born from this union are part of God's Chosen, just like the Gentile parent who has been grafted into the vine of Israel through His grace.
  88. ^ One Law Movements; a Challenge to the Messianic Jewish Community Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine January 28, 2005
  89. ^ "One Law Movements A Response to Russ Resnik & Daniel Juster" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-04-07. Retrieved 2007-09-12.
  90. ^ a b "Statement of Faith Of Coalition of Torah Observant Congregations". CTOMC. Archived from the original on 2019-04-03. Retrieved 2019-04-03.
  91. ^ MJAA position paper:The Ephraimite Error Archived July 22, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  92. ^ "Supersessionism". nabion.org. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  93. ^ Koziar, Pete. "Winds of Doctrine: Replacement Theology". messianicassociation.org. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  94. ^ Kinzer 2018: At the end, God will make Yeshua known to his brethren and to all of creation, not only as temple, priest, and sacrifice, but as Messianic King, the eschatological ruler of Israel and the nations. At that point the New Covenant will be realized in its final and definitive form.
  95. ^ a b Worshill, Ric (2008). "Why Messianic Jews Use Liturgy During Their Worship Services". Southern Baptist Messianic Fellowship. Retrieved 2019-04-03.
  96. ^ Feher 1998, p. 20: "The Messianic movement has eliminated the elements of Christian worship that cannot be directly linked to their Jewish roots. Communion is therefore associated with Passover, since the Eucharist originated during Ushua's Last Supper, held at Passover. In this way, Passover is given a new, Yshua-centered meaning."
  97. ^ "Holidays". Messianic Jewish Rabbinical Council. n.d. Retrieved March 28, 2023.
  98. ^ a b Reinckens, Rick (2002). "Frequently Asked Questions". MessianicJews.info. Archived from the original on 2019-02-17. Retrieved 2019-04-03.
  99. ^ "Kashrut". Messianic Jewish Rabbinical Council. n.d. Retrieved March 28, 2023.
  100. ^ Harris-Shapiro 1999, p. 15: "However, not all Messianic believers are Jews. Nothing is as problematic as the large numbers of Messianic Gentiles in the movement. To claim Jewish identity when one is not Jewish oneself adds another layer of struggle: "We are Jews!" "We are Messianic Jews!" "We are Messianic Gentiles/spiritual Jews!"
  101. ^ Brown 2000, p. 12.
  102. ^ Reason 2005: "The official stance is that Gentiles and Jews are spiritually equal but distinct, and that Jews should be proud of being Jews, and Gentiles proud of being Gentiles. Nevertheless, the Jewish identity is clearly valorized, causing many Gentiles to strive for greater Jewishness through Jewish observance and search for Jewish roots. Since conversion for Gentiles is deemed unbiblical within the MJAA, these are the main options for Gentiles seeking a more Jewish identity."
  103. ^ Cohn-Sherbok 2000, p. 161: "For Gentile Christians, baptism is perceived as a means of entering into the body of Christ. Within Messianic Judaism, however, immersion is understood as a religious act symbolizing the believer's commitment to Yeshua: the faithful are to immerse in a mikveh as a sign of their acceptance of Messiah Yeshuah and the coming of the Kingdom."
  104. ^ a b "Jewish Conversion Process". JerusalemCouncil.org. February 10, 2009. Archived from the original on February 11, 2009. Retrieved January 4, 2023. The process of Jewish Conversion is: 1. Repent by keeping the Covenant (Return to the Torah, get circumcised if male, and commit to the Torah). 2. Believe Yeshua is the Messiah, and that he is coming as the King (Obey everything He commands, which is the Torah). 3. Be immersed in the name of Yeshua, witnessed by others (Go through a mikveh in his name).{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  105. ^ Ariel 2006, p. 200.
  106. ^ "History of Lamb". Lamb Messianic Music. Messianic Records, Inc. 2014. Archived from the original on February 12, 2016. Retrieved September 11, 2015.
  107. ^ "Bio". Ted Pearce. 2014. Archived from the original on May 7, 2015. Retrieved September 11, 2015.
  108. ^ "The Feast of Tabernacles CD". Christianbook.com. Christian Book Distributors. 2009. Retrieved September 11, 2015.
  109. ^ Peter J. Tomson, Doris Lambers-Petry The image of the Judaeo-Christians in ancient Jewish and Christian ... 2003 p. 292 "From outside the movement hostile criticism of Messianic Judaism was voiced by such bodies as the Fellowship of Christian Testimonies to the Jews. At their annual conference from 16 to 19 October 1975 a resolution was passed condemning"
  110. ^ Kessler 2005, p. 97: "Messianic Jews in Israel who accept Yeshua (Hebrew for Jesus) as the Messiah are supported, when they meet with hostility, by CMJ/ITAC. In the 1980s CMJ gave some support to evangelistic campaigns by Jews for Jesus…"
  111. ^ Cohn-Sherbok 2000, p. 183.
  112. ^ Schochet, Jacob Immanuel (July 29, 1999). "Judaism has no place for those who betray their roots". Canadian Jewish News. Archived from the original on November 24, 2004. Retrieved January 3, 2023. For a Jew, however, any form of shituf is tantamount to idolatry in the fullest sense of the word. There is then no way that a Jew can ever accept Jesus as a deity, mediator or savior (messiah), or even as a prophet, without betraying Judaism.
  113. ^ Berger 2003: "Some asserted that the association (shittuf) of Jesus with this God is permissible for non-Jews. Virtually none regarded such association as anything other than avodah zarah if the worshipper was a Jew."
  114. ^ Grudem 1994, pp. 568–570.
  115. ^ Cohn-Sherbok 2000, p. 182.
  116. ^ Simmons 2004.
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    • Ariel 1996, p. 212
    • Ariel 2005, p. 343
    • Neusner 2000, pp. 3–4
    • Schoen 2004, p. 11: Jews do not believe, therefore, that the Messiah has come, and they do not recognize Jesus as their savior or as the Son of God.
    • Pelaia, Ariela (February 15, 2019). "Man or Messiah: The Role of Jesus in Judaism". Learn Religions. Dotdash Meredith. Retrieved January 2, 2023. Jews do not believe that Jesus was divine or the "son of God," or the Messiah prophesied in Jewish scripture. He is seen as a "false messiah," meaning someone who claimed (or whose followers claimed for him) the mantle of the Messiah but who ultimately did not meet the requirements laid out in Jewish belief.
    • "Messianic Judaism: A Christian Missionary Movement". Messiah Truth Project. Archived from the original on 2007-02-12. Retrieved 2007-02-14.
    • Schiffman, Lawrence H. (1993). "Meeting the Challenge: Hebrew Christians and the Jewish Community" (PDF). Jewish Community Relations Council of New York. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 7, 2006. Retrieved 2007-02-14. Though Hebrew Christianity claims to be a form of Judaism, it is not. It is nothing more than a disguised effort to missionize Jews and convert them to Christianity. It deceptively uses the sacred symbols of Jewish observance ... as a cover to convert Jews to Christianity, a belief system antithetical to Judaism.... Hebrew Christianity is not a form of Judaism and its members, even if they are of Jewish birth, cannot be considered members of the Jewish community. Hebrew Christians are in radical conflict with the communal interests and the destiny of the Jewish people. They have crossed an unbreachable chasm by accepting another religion. Despite this separation, they continue to attempt to convert their former coreligionists.
    • Balmer 2004, pp. 448–449: "Messianic Jewish organizations, such as Jews for Jesus, often refer to their faith as fulfilled Judaism, in that they believe Jesus fulfilled the Messianic prophecies. Although Messianic Judaism claims to be Jewish, and many adherents observe Jewish holidays, most Jews regard Messianic Judaism as deceptive at best, fraudulent at worst. They charge that Messianic Judaism is actually Christianity presenting itself as Judaism. Jewish groups are particularly distressed at the aggressive evangelistic attempts on the part of Messianic Jews."
  118. ^ "Commentary on the Principles for Reform Judaism". Central Conference of American Rabbis. Retrieved 2023-09-16.
  119. ^ Harris-Shapiro 1999, p. 177.
  120. ^ "1998 Audit of Antisemitic Incidents". B'nai Brith Canada. 1998. Archived from the original on 2006-07-19. One of the more alarming trends in antisemitic activity in Canada in 1998 was the growing number of incidents involving messianic organizations posing as "synagogues". These missionizing organizations are in fact evangelical Christian proselytizing groups, whose purpose is specifically to target members of the Jewish community for conversion. They fraudulently represent themselves as Jews, and these so-called synagogues are elaborately disguised Christian churches.
  121. ^ Yonke, David (February 11, 2006). "Rabbi says Messianic Jews are Christians in disguise". The Blade. Toledo, Ohio. Retrieved 2019-04-03.
  122. ^ Nathan-Kazis, Josh (October 31, 2018). "A GOP Rising Star Asks Jews For Jesus 'Rabbi' To Pray For Pittsburgh. What Could Go Wrong?". The Forward. Retrieved 2019-04-03. I could see nothing more offensive or more poorly calculated than to make this decision," said David Kurzmann, executive director of the Jewish Community Relations Council/AJC, a local Jewish advocacy group in Detroit. "The reaction and the rage in the community right now is very significant.
  123. ^ Siemaszko, Corky (October 30, 2018). "Jews assail 'Christian rabbi' who appeared with Pence, and so does his own movement". NBC News. Retrieved 2019-04-03. The "Messianic rabbi" who outraged many Jews by invoking the name of Jesus while delivering a prayer in memory of the Pittsburgh synagogue massacre victims was also spurned Tuesday by the organization that ordained him. Loren Jacobs, who was invited onstage by Vice President Mike Pence to speak at a rally in Michigan for a GOP congressional candidate, was defrocked 15 years ago, according to a spokeswoman for the Union of Messianic Jewish Congregations. 'Loren Jacobs was stripped of his rabbinic ordination by the UMJC in 2003, after our judicial board found him guilty of libel,' Monique Brumbach said in an email. Brumbach did not say who Jacobs allegedly libeled, but it appears from his synagogue website he was involved in a theological battle with other leaders of the group, which believes that Jesus is the son of God — a belief that is anathema to the vast majority of the world's Jews. Jacobs seemed to be concerned that the group was insufficiently conservative on doctrinal matters. Meanwhile, mainstream Jewish leaders and experts on the faith said they could not fathom why GOP congressional candidate Lena Epstein, herself a longtime member of a Detroit–area synagogue, invited Jacobs at all to her rally Tuesday because in their eyes he's not even a real Jew, let alone a rabbi. 'We don't even recognize him as a rabbi,' Rabbi Marla Hornsten, past president of the Michigan Board of Rabbis, told NBC News. 'Even to call him a rabbi is offensive.'
  124. ^ Stanley-Becker, Isaac (October 30, 2018). "Honoring Pittsburgh synagogue victims, Pence appears with 'rabbi' who preaches 'Jesus is the Messiah'". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2019-04-03. But the man who shared a stage with Pence, Loren Jacobs, preaches Messianic Judaism, a tradition central to Jews for Jesus, a group condemned by Jewish leaders as faux Judaism that seeks to promote Christian evangelism. The major Jewish denominations join the state of Israel in viewing followers of Messianic Judaism as Christian, not Jewish.
  125. ^ a b Myers, Calev (April 16, 2008). "Justice in Israel". Jerusalem Institute of Justice, and organization supporting the rights of "Israeli Evangelical believers, Messianic Jews and families of mixed (Jewish-Christian) marriages". Retrieved 2008-04-24. In a landmark decision today, the Supreme Court of Israel ratified a settlement between twelve Messianic Jewish believers and the State of Israel, which states that being a Messianic Jew does not prevent one from receiving citizenship in Israel under the Law of Return or the Law of Citizenship, if one is a descendent of Jews on one's father's side (and thus not Jewish according to halacha). This Supreme Court decision brought an end to a legal battle that has carried on for two and a half years. The applicants were represented by Yuval Grayevsky and Calev Myers from the offices of Yehuda Raveh & Co., and their legal costs were subsidized by the Jerusalem Institute of Justice. There is a growing trend, today, to use the term Messianic Believers, which solves the objections of Jews and makes the movement more 'accessible' to Gentiles as well, who make up a significant proportion of those who attend Messianic fellowships. This is important because some fellowships under the heading Messianic Judaism, do not actually have any Jews as members and the title does not, therefore, reflect the reality on the ground.
  126. ^ "Israeli Court Rules Jews for Jesus Cannot Automatically Be Citizens". The New York Times. Associated Press. December 27, 1989. Retrieved August 13, 2010. Messianic Jews are not entitled to automatic Israeli citizenship, Israel's Supreme Court has ruled, concluding that their belief that Jesus was the Messiah makes them Christians instead of Jews. The ruling, published in Israeli newspapers today, supported Orthodox religious interpretations of the state's 1950 Law of Return. The law forms the basis of Jewish immigration to Israel. The law and its subsequent amendments define a Jew as a person born to a Jewish mother or who converts to Judaism and professes no other faith. Orthodox politicians have long sought a more precise definition, and the court's Christmas Day ruling has resolved one issue. The 100-page decision said that belief in Jesus made one a member of another faith and ineligible for automatic Israeli citizenship, The Jerusalem Post, Hadashot and Yediot Ahronot reported.... "Messianic Jews attempt to reverse the wheels of history by 2,000 years," Justice Elon wrote in a passage quoted by the Israeli newspapers. "But the Jewish people has decided during the 2,000 years of its history" that Messianic Jews "do not belong to the Jewish nation and have no right to force themselves on it. Those who believe in Jesus are, in fact, Christians."
  127. ^ Wagner, Matthew (June 26, 2008). "Messianic Jews to protest 'discrimination'". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved March 22, 2023. Since then the Supreme Court has ruled that Messianic Jews whose mothers are Jewish can be denied Israeli citizenship. In contrast, those who are Jewish solely through their fathers cannot be denied citizenship. This is based on an interpretation of a 1970 amendment to the Law of Return.
  128. ^ "Messianic Jews Claim Victory in Israeli Court". CBNnews.com. April 18, 2008. Retrieved March 12, 2012. The Supreme Court of Israel ruled Wednesday that being a Messianic Jew cannot prevent Israeli citizenship if the Jewish descent is from the person's father's side.
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  130. ^ Wagner, Matthew (September 23, 2008). "US report: Rise in violence against Messianic Jews and Christians". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 2019-04-03.
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  137. ^ Tokajer, Eric (December 29, 2008). "Messianic Jew Barred from Serving as Jewish Chaplain by US Navy". Pensacola, Florida: Messianic Daily News. Archived from the original on May 26, 2009. Retrieved August 10, 2010.
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  145. ^ "FAQs". Retrieved 2019-04-03. The MJRC is a growing community of ordained Messianic Jewish rabbis committed to the exciting concept of a Messianic Judaism which is both faithful to the teachings, example and person of Messiah Yeshua and to deep connection with the larger Jewish community. This connection demands our giving serious attention to Torah as practiced through the march of Jewish history. MJRC Rabbis endeavor to develop standards of Messianic Jewish practice so that our congregations worldwide can grow together as life-giving communities, filled with the Ruach and the joy of Jewish life renewed in Yeshua.
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Works cited

Further reading

External links