Messier 98

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Messier 98
Messier 98
Observation data (J2000 epoch)
Constellation Coma Berenices
Right ascension 12h 13m 48.292s[1]
Declination +14° 54′ 01.69″[1]
Redshift −0.000474[2]
Helio radial velocity −142 ± 4 km/s[2]
Distance 44.4 million light years (13.6 Mpc)[3]
Apparent magnitude (V) 11.0[4]
Type SAB(s)ab[3]
Apparent size (V) 9′.8 × 2′.8[4]
Other designations
NGC 4192, UGC 7231, PGC 39028[2]
See also: Galaxy, List of galaxies

Messier 98, also known as M98 or NGC 4192, is an intermediate spiral galaxy located about 44.4[3] million light-years away in the constellation Coma Berenices, about 6° to the east of the bright star Denebola. It was discovered by French astronomer Pierre Méchain on 15 March 1781, along with nearby M99 and M100, and was cataloged by French astronomer Charles Messier on 13 April 1781 in his Catalogue des Nébuleuses & des amas d'Étoiles.[4] Messier 98 has a blue shift and is approaching us at about 140 km/s.[2]

The morphological classification of this galaxy is SAB(s)ab,[3] which indicates it is a spiral galaxy that displays mixed barred and non-barred features with intermediate to tightly-wound arms and no ring.[5] It is highly inclined to the line of sight at an angle of 74°[6] and has a maximum rotation velocity of 236 km/s.[7] The combined mass of the stars in this galaxy is an estimated 76 billion (7.6 × 1010) times the mass of the Sun. It contains about 4.3 billion solar masses of neutral hydrogen and 85 million solar masses in dust.[8] The nucleus is active, displaying characteristics of a "transition" type object. That is, it shows properties of a LINER-type galaxy intermixed with an H II region around the nucleus.[9]

NGC 4192 is a member of the Virgo Cluster, which is a large, relatively nearby cluster of galaxies.[10] About 750 million years ago, NGC 4192 may have interacted with the large spiral galaxy NGC 4254. The two are now separated by a distance of 1,300,000 ly (400,000 pc).[7]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Skrutskie, M. F.; et al. (February 2006), "The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS)", Astronomical Journal, 131 (2): 1163–1183, Bibcode:2006AJ....131.1163S, doi:10.1086/498708. 
  2. ^ a b c d "NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database". Results for Messier 98. Retrieved 2006-11-18. 
  3. ^ a b c d Erwin, Peter; Debattista, Victor P. (May 2013), "Peanuts at an angle: detecting and measuring the three-dimensional structure of bars in moderately inclined galaxies", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 431 (4): 3060–3086, arXiv:1301.0638Freely accessible, Bibcode:2013MNRAS.431.3060E, doi:10.1093/mnras/stt385. 
  4. ^ a b c Thompson, Robert; Thompson, Barbara (2007), Illustrated Guide to Astronomical Wonders: From Novice to Master Observer, Diy Science, O'Reilly Media, Inc., p. 196, ISBN 0596526857. 
  5. ^ Buta, Ronald J.; et al. (2007), Atlas of Galaxies, Cambridge University Press, pp. 13–17, ISBN 0521820480. 
  6. ^ Schoeniger, F.; Sofue, Y. (July 1997), "The CO Tully-Fisher relation for the Virgo cluster", Astronomy and Astrophysics, 90: 1681–1759, Bibcode:1997A&A...323...14S. 
  7. ^ a b Duc, Pierre-Alain; Bournaud, Frederic (February 2008), "Tidal Debris from High-Velocity Collisions as Fake Dark Galaxies: A Numerical Model of VIRGOHI 21", The Astrophysical Journal, 673 (2): 787–797, arXiv:0710.3867Freely accessible, Bibcode:2008ApJ...673..787D, doi:10.1086/524868. 
  8. ^ Davies, J. I.; et al. (February 2012), "Studies of the Virgo Cluster. II – A catalog of 2096 galaxies in the Virgo Cluster area", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 419 (4): 3505–3520, arXiv:1110.2869Freely accessible, Bibcode:2012MNRAS.419.3505D, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.19993.x. 
  9. ^ Terashima, Yuichi; et al. (1985), "ASCA Observations of "Type 2" LINERs: Evidence for a Stellar Source of Ionization", The Astrophysical Journal, 533 (2): 729–743, arXiv:astro-ph/9911340Freely accessible, Bibcode:2000ApJ...533..729T, doi:10.1086/308690. 
  10. ^ Binggeli, B.; Sandage, A.; Tammann, G. A. (1985), "Studies of the Virgo Cluster. II – A catalog of 2096 galaxies in the Virgo Cluster area", Astronomical Journal, 90: 1681–1759, Bibcode:1985AJ.....90.1681B, doi:10.1086/113874. 
  11. ^ "Why So Blue?". Retrieved 5 September 2016. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: Sky map 12h 13m 48.3s, +14° 54′ 01″