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Messier 98

Coordinates: Sky map 12h 13m 48.3s, +14° 54′ 01″
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Messier 98
Galaxy Messier 98 by ESO New Technology Telescope
Observation data (J2000 epoch)
ConstellationComa Berenices
Right ascension12h 13m 48.292s[1]
Declination+14° 54′ 01.69″[1]
Heliocentric radial velocity−142 ± 4 km/s[2]
Distance44.4 million light years (13.6 Mpc)[3]
Apparent magnitude (V)10.1[4]
Apparent size (V)9′.8 × 2′.8[5]
Other designations
NGC 4192, UGC 7231, PGC 39028[2]

Messier 98, M98 or NGC 4192, is an intermediate spiral galaxy about 44.4[3] million light-years away in slightly northerly Coma Berenices, about 6° to the east of the bright star Denebola (Beta Leonis). It was discovered by French astronomer Pierre Méchain on 1781,[a] along with nearby M99 and M100, and was catalogued by compatriot Charles Messier 29 days later in his Catalogue des Nébuleuses & des amas d'Étoiles.[5] It has a blueshift, denoting ignoring of its fast other movement (vectors of proper motion), it is approaching at about 140 km/s.[2]

The morphological classification of this galaxy is SAB(s)ab,[3] which indicates it is a spiral galaxy that displays mixed barred and non-barred features with intermediate to tightly wound arms and no ring.[6] It is highly inclined to the line of sight at an angle of 74°[7] and has a maximum rotation velocity of 236 km/s.[8] The combined mass of the stars in this galaxy is an estimated 76 billion (7.6 × 1010) times the mass of the Sun. It contains about 4.3 billion solar masses of neutral hydrogen and 85 million solar masses in dust.[9] The nucleus is active, displaying characteristics of a "transition" type object. That is, it shows properties of a LINER-type galaxy intermixed with an H II region around the nucleus.[10]

Messier 98 is a member of the Virgo Cluster, which is a large cluster of galaxies, part of the local supercluster.[11]

About 750 million years ago, it may have interacted with the large spiral galaxy Messier 99. These are now separated by 1,300,000 ly (400,000 pc).[8]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Skrutskie, Michael F.; Cutri, Roc M.; Stiening, Rae; Weinberg, Martin D.; Schneider, Stephen E.; Carpenter, John M.; Beichman, Charles A.; Capps, Richard W.; Chester, Thomas; Elias, Jonathan H.; Huchra, John P.; Liebert, James W.; Lonsdale, Carol J.; Monet, David G.; Price, Stephan; Seitzer, Patrick; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gizis, John E.; Howard, Elizabeth V.; Evans, Tracey E.; Fowler, John W.; Fullmer, Linda; Hurt, Robert L.; Light, Robert M.; Kopan, Eugene L.; Marsh, Kenneth A.; McCallon, Howard L.; Tam, Robert; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Wheelock, Sherry L. (1 February 2006). "The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS)". The Astronomical Journal. 131 (2): 1163–1183. Bibcode:2006AJ....131.1163S. doi:10.1086/498708. ISSN 0004-6256. S2CID 18913331.
  2. ^ a b c d "NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database". Results for Messier 98. Retrieved 18 November 2006.
  3. ^ a b c d Erwin, Peter; Debattista, Victor P. (May 2013), "Peanuts at an angle: detecting and measuring the three-dimensional structure of bars in moderately inclined galaxies", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 431 (4): 3060–3086, arXiv:1301.0638, Bibcode:2013MNRAS.431.3060E, doi:10.1093/mnras/stt385, S2CID 54653263.
  4. ^ "Messier 98". SEDS Messier Catalog. Retrieved 30 April 2022.
  5. ^ a b Thompson, Robert; Thompson, Barbara (2007), Illustrated Guide to Astronomical Wonders: From Novice to Master Observer, Diy Science, O'Reilly Media, Inc., p. 196, ISBN 978-0596526856.
  6. ^ Buta, Ronald J.; et al. (2007), Atlas of Galaxies, Cambridge University Press, pp. 13–17, ISBN 978-0521820486.
  7. ^ Schoeniger, F.; Sofue, Y. (July 1997), "The CO Tully-Fisher relation for the Virgo cluster", Astronomy and Astrophysics, 90: 1681–1759, Bibcode:1997A&A...323...14S.
  8. ^ a b Duc, Pierre-Alain; Bournaud, Frederic (February 2008), "Tidal Debris from High-Velocity Collisions as Fake Dark Galaxies: A Numerical Model of VIRGOHI 21", The Astrophysical Journal, 673 (2): 787–797, arXiv:0710.3867, Bibcode:2008ApJ...673..787D, doi:10.1086/524868, S2CID 15348867.
  9. ^ Davies, J. I.; et al. (February 2012), "Studies of the Virgo Cluster. II – A catalog of 2096 galaxies in the Virgo Cluster area", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 419 (4): 3505–3520, arXiv:1110.2869, Bibcode:2012MNRAS.419.3505D, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.19993.x, S2CID 56474905.
  10. ^ Terashima, Yuichi; et al. (1985), "ASCA Observations of "Type 2" LINERs: Evidence for a Stellar Source of Ionization", The Astrophysical Journal, 533 (2): 729–743, arXiv:astro-ph/9911340, Bibcode:2000ApJ...533..729T, doi:10.1086/308690, S2CID 14130773.
  11. ^ Binggeli, B.; Sandage, A.; Tammann, G. A. (1985), "Studies of the Virgo Cluster. II – A catalog of 2096 galaxies in the Virgo Cluster area", Astronomical Journal, 90: 1681–1759, Bibcode:1985AJ.....90.1681B, doi:10.1086/113874.
  1. ^ 15 March

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