Meta-organization is defined as organizations who are formed of other organizations, rather than by individuals. This concept was developed in the scope of management studies in 2005 by Göran Ahrne and Nils Brunsson. Meta-organization design is suggested to differ from organization design in that intra-firm design may have less of an authority in the former.
- Ahrne, Göran; Brunsson, Nils (2005). "Organizations and meta-organizations". Scandinavian Journal of Management. 21: 429–449. doi:10.1016/j.scaman.2005.09.005.
- Berkowitz, Héloïse; Dumez, Hervé (2016). "The Concept of Meta-Organization: Issues for Management Studies". European Management Review. doi:10.1111/emre.12076.
- Gulati, Ranjay; Puranam, Phanish; Tushman, Michael (2012). "Meta-organization design: Rethinking design in interorganizational and community contexts". Strategic Management Journal. 33 (6): 571–586. doi:10.1002/smj.1975. ISSN 0143-2095.