Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller
|Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller|
Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller in 1919
|Born||Meta Vaux Warrick
June 9, 1877
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
|Died||March 18, 1968
Framingham, Massachusetts, U.S.
|Spouse(s)||Solomon Carter Fuller (1909–1953)|
Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller (/ / MEE-tə VOW; June 9, 1877 – 18 March 1968) was an African-American artist, notable for her art celebrating Afrocentric themes. She was known as a multi-talented artist who wrote poetry, painted, and sculpted. At the turn of the twentieth century, she was a well-known sculptor in Paris before her return to the United States. She was a protege of Auguste Rodin, and has been described as "one of the most imaginative Black artists of her generation. Fuller created work with strong social commentary and became a forerunner of the HarlemRenaissance, a movement promoting African-American art.
Meta Vaux Warrick was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Her parents were Emma Jones Warrick, a beautician, and William H. Warrick, a barber. She was named after Meta Vaux, the daughter of Senator Richard Vaux, one of her mother's customers.
Philadelphia's black community was socially and intellectually active and she trained in art, music, dance and horseback riding. The city's fast-growing black population along with increasing numbers of black organizations and institutions and rich cultural resources made it possible for middle-class black society to prosper. Education, cultural enrichment, and social activity were encouraged and expected in her family. She was among the few selected from the Philadelphia public schools to attend J. Liberty Tadd's art school.
Her art education and art influences began at home, her father was interested in sculpture and painting. Her older sister, who later became a beautician like her mother, had an interest in art and kept clay that Meta was able to play with. Her brother and grandfather entertained and fascinated her with endless horror stories. These influences partly shaped her sculpture as she eventually progressed into an internationally trained artist known as "the sculptor of horrors."
Her career as an artist began after one of her high-school projects was chosen to be included in the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition. Based upon this work, she won a scholarship to the Pennsylvania Museum and School of Industrial Art (PMSIA) (now The University of the Arts College of Art and Design) in 1894, where her gift for sculpture emerged. Unwilling to limit herself to traditionally "feminine" themes, she occasionally adopted the gruesome imagery of fin de siecle Symbolist literature and painting — a choice that represented a rare act of independence on the part of a woman artist. In 1898, she received her diploma and teacher's certificate.
Upon graduation in 1899, she traveled to Paris, France, where she studied with Raphaël Collin, sculpture at the Académie Colarossi and drawing at the École des Beaux-Arts. There, Warrick experienced racial discrimination at the American Women's Club, where she was refused lodging regardless of her having made reservations. Painter Henry Ossawa Tanner, a family friend, found lodging for her and introduced her to his circle of friends. Fuller's work grew stronger in Paris, where she studied until 1902. Influenced by the conceptual realism of Auguste Rodin, she became so adept at depicting sensitively the spirituality of human suffering that the French press named her "the delicate sculptor of horrors." In 1902, Fuller became the protege of Rodin. Of her plaster sketch entitled Man Eating His Heart, Rodin remarked, "My child, you are a sculptor; you have the sense of form in your fingers."
The Danforth Museum, that has a large collection of her works, states that Fuller is "generally considered one of the first African-American female sculptors of importance. She created work of the African-American experience that were revolutionary. The represented art, nature, religion and nation. She was also considered a member of the Harlem Renaissance.
In Paris, she met W.E.B. DuBois who became a lifelong friend and confidant. He encouraged Warrick to utilize African and African-American themes in her work. By the end of her career in Paris, she was widely known and had her works exhibited in many galleries. Samuel Bing, patron of Aubrey Beardsley, Mary Cassatt, and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, also recognized her abilities by sponsoring a one-woman exhibition including Siegfried Bing's Salon de l'Art Nouveau (Maison de l'Art Nouveau). In 1903, just before Warrick returned to the United States, two of her works, The Wretched and The Impenitent Thief, exhibited at the Paris Salon.
Returning to Philadelphia in 1903, she was shunned by members of the Philadelphia art scene because of her race and because, they said, it was "domestic." However, this treatment did not prevent Fuller from becoming the first African-American woman to receive a U.S. government commission in which she created several dioramas depicting African-American historical events for the Jamestown Tercentennial Exposition and she exhibited at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in 1906. The display included fourteen dioramas and 130 plaster figures depicting scenes such as slaves arriving in Virginia in 1617 and the home lives of black peoples.
Fuller again exhibited at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in 1908. In 1910, a fire at a warehouse in Philadelphia destroyed her tools and the paintings and sculptures she had created over the previous sixteen years, which was emotionally devastating for her. Meta Fuller built a studio in the back of her house, something Dr. Fuller was totally against, and in between domestic duties sculpted less powerful, traditional religious scenes. She retained her interest in religious works even though she and her family had been subject to racial discrimination from her neighbors and church parishioners, for which she left the church. Even though she was busy raising three sons, Fuller also worked steadily on her sculptures.
One of her most famous works, Ethiopia, was a sculpture that she created for America's Making Exhibition in 1921. This event was meant to highlight immigrant’s contributions to US artistic society and culture. This sculpture was featured in the exhibition’s “colored section” and it symbolized a new black identity that was emerging through the Harlem Renaissance. It represented a pridefulness in African and black heritage and identity.
Fuller exhibited at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in 1920. In 1922, she showed at the Boston Public Library, and her work was included in an exhibition for the Tanner League held in the studios of Dunbar High School in Washington, D.C. The federal commissions kept her employed, but she was neither encouraged nor nurtured, as she had been in Paris where her artistic genius was exalted. Moreover, a suspicious fire in 1910 destroyed the warehouse in which was housed most of the work she had created for 16 years. Fuller was, at that point in her life, financially dependent upon her family, socially detached from African-American contacts, and desolate about her career.
Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller died on March 13, 1968, at Cardinal Cushing Hospital in Framingham.
Warrick Fuller viewed sculpture as a way to personally express oneself. Her work was featured in 1988 in a traveling exhibition in Crocker Art Museum, along with artists Aaron Douglas, Palmer C. Hayden and James Van Der Zee. Her work was also featured in a traveling exhibition called “Three Generations of African American Women Sculptors: A Study in Paradox,” in Georgia in 1998.
Departure, printed in Now is Your Time! the African-American struggle for freedom, is one of her poems:
- The time is near (reluctance laid aside)
- I see the barque afloat upon the ebbing tide
- While on the shores my friends and loved ones stand.
- I wave to them a cheerful parting hand,
- Then take my place with Charon at the helm,
- And turn and wave again to them.
- Oh, may the voyage not be arduous nor long,
- But echoing with chant and joyful song,
- May I behold with reverence and grace,
- The wondrous vision of the Master's face.
Marriage and family
In 1907, Warrick married a prominent physician, Dr. Solomon Carter Fuller. Of Liberian birth, Dr. Fuller was one of the first black psychiatrists in the United States. When they married, he was on staff in the pathology department at Westborough State Hospital in Westborough, Massachusetts. The couple settled in Framingham, Massachusetts, in 1910 and had three sons.
White neighbors resented the presence of the black family. They tried to remove them via petition and isolated them from neighborhood affairs. She left her church having been subject to racial bigotry of the parishioners. Dr. Fuller died in 1953. Her son Robert Fuller has worked as a teacher at Framingham High School.
- Bacchante, painted plaster sculpture, 1930
- Ethiopia, bronze sculpture, greenish-black patina, c. 1930
- Ethiopia Awakening, bronze sculpture, 1914
- Henry Gilbert, painted plaster sculpture, 1928
- Jason, painted plaster sculpture, Danfort Museum
- Les Miserables, bronze sculpture, Maryhill Museum of Art, Goldendale, Washington
- Lazy Bones in the Shade, sculpture, c. 1937
- Man Eating Out His Heart, painted plaster sculpture, 1905-1906. It represents a kneeling male nude eating his heart.
- Mary Turner (A Silent Protest Against Mob Violence), painted plaster sculpture, 1919, Museum of Afro-American History, Boston, Massachusetts
- Mother and Child, cast bronze sculpture, 1962, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
- Phyllis Wheatley (c. 1753-1784), painted plaster sculpture, c. 1925. It was made based upon an engraving published in 1773
- Refugee, sculpture, c. 1940. Hunched male figure with a cane in his hand
- Talking Skull, bronze sculpture, 1937, Museum of Afro-American History, Boston, Massachusetts. Kneeling male figure facing a skull
- The Good Shepherd, painted plaster sculpture, c. 1926-1927
- Waterboy, sculpture, 1930
A woman of deep religious faith, she created at least one piece of religious art a year. At various times, she was a literary sculptor, at others a creator of portrait art - which she studied under Charles Grafly at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. Although she declared that she could not specialize in African-American types, Fuller became one of the most effective chroniclers of the black experience within the context of the American experience.
Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller is known for sculpture that depicts the horrors and sadness of African-American life. These include: Ethiopia Awakening (1914), Mary Turner: A Silent Protest Against Mob Violence (1919), and Talking Skull (1937). Ethiopia Awakening, drawn from Egyptian sculptural concepts, is an academic sculpture of an African woman emerging from mummy's bandages, like a chrysalis from a cocoon, represented her statement on black consciousness in Africa and in the United States. Mary Turner was her response to the lynching of a black woman from Valdosta, Georgia; There were other artistic tributes to Mary Turner's violent death, including a literary work by Warrick FUller's contemporary Angelina Weld Grimké. Talking Skull explored issues of life and death within the context of an African folktale.
There is a middle school (Fuller Middle School) named after her and her husband located in Framingham, Massachusetts. That school was formerly Framingham South High School but was converted to its current use when Framingham South and North High Schools merged in 1991. The school's history reads:
"The Fuller Middle School was established in September of 1994. The school is named in honor of Dr. Solomon Fuller, a psychiatrist, and his wife Meta Fuller, a sculptor. The Fullers, a pioneering African-American family, lived on Warren Road near the current location of the Fuller Middle School during the early part of the twentieth century. Dr. and Mrs. Fuller were leaders in their professions and in the Framingham Community during their lives. The roles they played during their lifetimes serve as models for the students of the school named in their memory." 
Winning numerous awards for her work over her lifetime, Fuller continued to exhibit her work until her last show at Howard University (Washington, D.C.) in 1961. Her sculpture Emancipation is featured on the Boston Women's Heritage Trail.
- May Howard Jackson
- Lois Mailou Jones
- Sargent Claude Johnson
- Jacob Lawrence
- Archibald Motley
- Romare Bearden
- Arna Alexander Bontemps and Jacqueline Fonvielle-Bontemps (eds.), eds. (2001). "African-American Women Artists: An Historical Perspective". Black feminist cultural criticism. Keyworks in cultural studies. Malden, Mass: Blackwell. pp. 133–137. ISBN 0631222391. The editors compare Warrick with her contemporary, May Howard Jackson, another African-American sculptor from Philadelphia, who was also born in 1877.
- Kerr, Judith Nina (1 January 1986), God-Given Work: The Life and Times of Sculptor Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller, 1877-1968 Pennsylvania, Proquest, AAI8701179
- Sicherman, Barbara; Green, Carol Hurd (1980), Notable American Women: The Modern Period; a Biographical Dictionary, Harvard University Press, p. 255, ISBN 978-0-674-62733-8
- West, Sandra L. (2003), Fuller, Meta V. Warrick, Encyclopedia of the Harlem Renaissance, Facts On File, retrieved 28 March 2014
- Meta Warrick Fuller : Sculptures from the Studio. Danforth Museum of Art. 11 May 2014.
- Leininger-Miller, Theresa A. (2001), New Negro Artists in Paris: African American Painters and Sculptors in the City of Light, 1922-1934, Rutgers University Press, p. 9
- A Harlem Showcase for Black Art, New York Times, Associated Press, 1923, p. C25
- "Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller". Bridgewater State College Hall of Black Achievement. 2005-11-17. Retrieved 2008-03-30.
- Thorp, Nigel (2007-05-08). "Siegfried Bing, 1838-1905". The James McNeill Whistler project at the University of Glasgow. Archived from the original on 2008-01-02. Retrieved 2008-03-30.
- "Meta V.W. Fuller, sculptor of Black themes". The African-American Registry. 2005-06-09. Archived from the original on 2008-03-17. Retrieved 2008-03-29.
- Manning, Patrick (2009). The African Diaspora: A History Through Culture. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 211. ISBN 978-0-231-14471-1.
- "Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller (1877-1968)". Uncrowned Queens. Retrieved 2008-03-30.
- Ater, Renée (2003). "Making History: Meta Warrick Fuller's "Ethiopia".". American Art 17 (3): 12–31. Retrieved March 7, 2015.
- Van Proyen, Mark (1988). "Trail Blazers in Harlem". Artweek 19 (1).
- Wilson, H.W. (1998). "African American Women Sculptors". American Art Review 10: 162–165.
- Walter Dean Myers , Now Is Your Time! the African-American struggle for freedom, 1991
- Meta Warrick Fuller. SIRIS database search. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 11 May 2014.
- Crisis, XXXII, 6(October, 1926), 246.
- Armstrong, Julie Buckner (2008). "The People... Took Exception to Her Remarks': Meta Warrick Fuller, Angelina Weld Grimke, and the Lynching of Mary Turner". The Mississippi Quarterly.
- About Fuller Middle School, Framingham Public Schools
- "South End". Boston Women's Heritage Trail.
- 250 years of Afro-American Art: An Annotated Bibliography by Lynn Moody Igoe with James Igoe. New York: Bowker, 1981
- An Independent Woman: The Life and Art of Meta Warrick Fuller (1877-1968). Framingham, MA: Danforth Museum of Art. 1984. Exhibition catalogue.
- Renée Ater. Remaking Race and History: The Sculpture of Meta Warrick Fuller. Berkeley: University of California Press. 2011. ISBN 9780520262126
- Mary Schmidt Campbell, Harlem Renaissance: Art of Black America (1994)
- Kathy A. Perkins. "The Genius of Meta Warrick Fuller." Black American Literature Forum. 1990. 24:1. pp. 65–72. Focuses on Fuller's designs for theater.
- Richard J. Powell and David A. Bailey. Rhapsodies in Black: Art of the Harlem Renaissance (1997)