Metal Gear (video game)
Japanese MSX2 cover art
Metal Gear[a] is an overhead military action-adventure stealth video game originally released in 1987 by Konami for the MSX2 computer in Japan and parts of Europe. Considered to be the progenitor of the stealth game genre, it was the first video game designed by Hideo Kojima, who would go on to direct most of its sequels. A reworked port of the game was released for the Famicom a few months later, which later saw release in international markets for the NES over the following two years; this version was developed without Kojima's involvement and features drastically altered level designs, among other changes. A more faithful port of the MSX2 version was later included in Metal Gear Solid 3: Subsistence for the PlayStation 2, as well as in the HD Edition of the same game released for the PlayStation 3, Xbox 360 and PlayStation Vita, with these newer ports featuring a revised translation and additional gameplay features.
The game revolves around Solid Snake, an operative of the special forces unit FOXHOUND, who goes on a solo infiltration mission into the fortified state of Outer Heaven to destroy "Metal Gear", a bipedal walking tank capable of launching nuclear missiles from anywhere in the world, as well as rescue a number of fellow agents who have been captured by the enemy.
The player must navigate the main character, a military operative codenamed Solid Snake, through hostile territory, while avoiding visual contact and direct confrontation with patrolling guards. If the player is seen, the game enters the "Alert Mode." In this situation, Snake must escape from enemy's sight in order to resume infiltration. The method of escaping varies depending on the circumstances behind discovery:
- If Snake is seen and only a single exclamation mark appears over an enemy's head, only the enemies in the player's present screen will attack and Snake can escape by simply moving to an adjacent screen.
- However, if two exclamation marks appear over the enemy (or the player triggers an alarm by being spotted by a camera, infrared sensor or by creating a loud noise through an explosion or an unsuppressed gunshot), reinforcements from off-screen will appear as well. Snake can only escape by eliminating all incoming enemies, going outdoors, or by entering an elevator.
Snake starts his mission unarmed, but can arm himself with numerous firearms and explosives that can be obtained throughout the enemy's stronghold. Each weapon has limited ammunition or supplies and can only be replenished by obtaining ammunition caches or additional supplies. A suppressor can also be obtained that allows the player to fire the handgun and submachine gun without making a noise. Some weapons can also be used to clear obstacles such as hollow walls and electrified floors. Snake can also use his fists to punch and defeat patrolling enemies. Occasionally, if the player defeats a guard with punches without alerting anyone, the defeated guard will yield a single unit of rations or an ammo box that can be picked up. In addition to enemy guards, the player will also be confronted by mercenaries who will challenge the player to combat, serving as the boss characters.
The enemy base consists of three different buildings, with multiple floors (including basement levels) within them. The player uses key cards and other items to unlock doors and explore new areas. Each door will only open to its corresponding key cards. Information can be obtained by rescuing hostages being held within the buildings. After rescuing five hostages, the player's rank will increase by one star (with the maximum rank being four stars), allowing for increased carrying capacity and maximum health. However, if a hostage is killed, the player is demoted to the previous rank.
A transceiver is available for Snake to keep in touch with his commanding officer, Big Boss, or one of the resistance members operating covertly near Outer Heaven (Schneider, Diane, and Jennifer). Each of Snake's allies specializes in a specific subject and will usually provide information or advice based on the player's current area, although a reply is not always guaranteed. The player must keep track of each character's frequency number in order to remain in contact with them throughout the game.
The MSX2 version requires the use of a tape recorder (such as the Sony Bitcorder) in order to save and load game progress. A Game Master II cartridge can also be used to enable save states via floppy disks. Versions on later platforms eliminated these complicated requirements thanks to standardized storage devices such as memory cards and internal disk drives.
The player's character is Solid Snake, a rookie member of the special forces group FOXHOUND sent on his first mission. He is assisted via radio by his commanding officer Big Boss, who offers information about mission objectives and items; as well as a local Resistance movement composed of Schneider, who provides the locations of important items; Diane, who provides information on how to defeat enemy bosses; and Jennifer, who assists Snake as an inside agent. Among the prisoners Snake rescues includes Grey Fox (Gray Fox in the later versions), a FOXHOUND agent who was captured during a previous mission; Dr. Pettrovich (Dr. Drago Pettrovich Madnar in later releases), the scientist who designed the Metal Gear weapon; and the doctor's daughter, Elen, who was kidnapped by the enemy to force her father into it.
The bosses include Shoot Gunner (renamed Shotmaker in later versions), a former Spetsnaz agent specializing in the riot gun; Machinegun Kid, a former SAS operative armed with a machine gun; Fire Trooper, a former GSG 9 operative who uses a flamethrower; Coward Duck (Dirty Duck in later releases), a boomerang throwing terrorist who shields himself with hostages; Arnold (Bloody Brad in later releases), two TX-11 class androids designed by Dr. Pettrovich; and the legendary mercenary who founded Outer Heaven, whose true identity is unknown until the end.
|Metal Gear fictional chronology|
Near the end of the 20th century,[b] the West discovers that a weapon of mass destruction is being constructed inside Outer Heaven, a fortified state founded by a "legendary mercenary" 200 km north of Galzburg, South Africa. The special forces unit FOXHOUND sends top agent Gray Fox to infiltrate the fortress, assess the situation and neutralize the threat. FOXHOUND loses contact with Gray Fox a few days later, with his last transmission being "METAL GEAR..." To discover what happened to Gray Fox, FOXHOUND commander Big Boss sends his newest recruit, Solid Snake, into the area in an operation codenamed Intrude N313.
Upon insertion into Outer Heaven, Snake makes contact with local resistance members Schneider, Diane, and Jennifer. Using all of his skills and the equipment he procures on site, he manages to rescue Fox. Fox explains that Metal Gear is the codename of a nuclear-equipped bipedal walking tank, which can engage in all forms of combat and launch nuclear weapons from any location. Outer Heaven plans to use Metal Gear to impose itself as the new world superpower.
To destroy Metal Gear and topple the Outer Heaven mercenaries, Snake rescues lead Metal Gear engineer Dr. Pettrovich and his daughter Elen. The scientist explains how Metal Gear can be destroyed, and Snake takes on Outer Heaven's troops. However, he begins to notice that the traps put in his way are too precise and wonders how information on his activities are being tracked. Big Boss begins to act strangely, giving misleading advice that leads Snake into several traps, and eventually ordering him to abort the mission (breaking the fourth wall by telling the player to turn off the system). Moreover, Schneider is ambushed by hostiles and is presumed dead after losing contact with Snake.
Snake penetrates Outer Heaven's main base and takes out Metal Gear before it reaches completion. As he safely escapes the compound's basement, he is confronted by the mercenary leader of Outer Heaven, who turns out to be Big Boss. The corrupt leader reveals that he had been using his connections to steal military intelligence, establish his own mercenary force, and fund his activities. It was his aim to have Outer Heaven become the world's greatest superpower, able to bring even the West to its knees. He had the rookie Snake sent in, hoping to have him captured and feed misinformation to authorities but had quite obviously underestimated Snake's capabilities.
Having lost Metal Gear and much of his force, Big Boss seemingly starts the self-destruct sequence for the compound, and promises he will not die alone; Snake will join him. Snake defeats Big Boss in the last battle and escapes the Outer Heaven compound as it crumbles in flames behind him.[c] After the end credits, a message from Big Boss is displayed saying that he will meet Solid Snake again.
Kojima was asked to take over a project from a senior associate. Metal Gear was intended to be an action game that featured modern military combat. However, the MSX2's hardware limited the number of on-screen bullets and enemies, which Kojima felt impeded the combat aspect. Inspired by The Great Escape, he reversed the focus of the gameplay from shooting down the enemy to avoiding the capture. The game was titled Intruder during the early planning stages.
The packaging illustration used for the retail releases of the game, which depicts the protagonist Solid Snake holding a gun, was traced over a publicity still of Michael Biehn posing as his character Kyle Reese from the 1984 film The Terminator. Kojima, who was still newly employed at Konami at the time, had no involvement with the production of this illustration.
Metal Gear was originally released on the MSX2 home computer in Japan on July 13, 1987, with an English version released in Europe during the same year. Due to memory constraints, the Japanese version was written entirely in katakana (with character names presented in roman letters), while the English version is written entirely in uppercase, has numerous instances of erroneous grammar and misspellings, and features fewer radio calls than the Japanese version (with only 56% of the calls kept) and shortened messages.
The MSX2 Metal Gear would be released as a Virtual Console download for the Wii in Japan on December 8, 2009. The ROM used for this emulated re-release has been modified to bring it more in-line with the later versions of the game released for other platforms.
Famicom / NES
A port of Metal Gear for the Family Computer (or Famicom) was released in Japan on December 22, 1987. This was followed by an English localization for the Nintendo Entertainment System (or NES) released in North America in June 1988 (published by Konami's Ultra Games division) and in Europe and Australia sometime in 1989. This was notably the first version of Metal Gear that was released in North America since the MSX2 platform was not commercialized in that market. The Famicom version was given a limited re-release for the GameCube as a bonus disc included in a limited edition console bundle of Metal Gear Solid: The Twin Snakes released exclusively in Japan, making it the only re-release of the Famicom version on a newer platform.
According to Kojima's account, the port was developed by another Konami division at Tokyo which was given the source code from the MSX2 version without the consent of the original team. Many changes were made during the porting process that later led to this version being publicly disowned by Kojima himself. Masahiro Ueno, who worked as a programmer for the NES version, has stated that the staff who worked on the port were given a three-month deadline and were ordered to make the port as different as possible from the MSX2 version by Konami executives. Due to hardware limitations with the mapper used, the Metal Gear boss ended up being replaced by a Supercomputer guarded by four enemy soldiers.
Another big change made to the game was in the level designs. Instead of the underwater infiltration from the original version, the game starts with Solid Snake parachuting into the middle of a jungle alongside three other soldiers (who are never seen nor mentioned outside of the intro). After landing in the jungle, the player must reach a transport truck at the end that will take Snake to the entrance of the first building. The player can also use other transport trucks to reach the entrances of the other buildings quicker since they travel in a cyclical pattern. The basement floors of Building 1 and 2 in the MSX2 version were made into separate buildings, Building 4 and 5 respectively, which are only reachable by going through one of two jungle mazes located in the outdoor areas between the other three buildings. The correct path to take in the jungle maze is never revealed in the game. In addition to the removal of the Metal Gear tank, the Hind D boss on the rooftop of Building 1 was also replaced by a pair of armed turret gunners called "Twin Shot". The NES version also lacks the higher alert phase from the MSX2 version and the jetpack-wearing soldiers on the rooftops of Building 1 and 2 lost their ability to fly (making them act more like regular guards). On the other hand, enemies no longer drop ammo nor rations when punched to death. Much like the MSX2 version, the English localization of the NES versions contains numerous instances of erroneous grammar, such as "Contact missing our Grey Fox", "Uh-Oh! The truck have started to move!", and "I feel asleep!!"
Passcodes are used in this version to save progress. When Snake is killed by the enemy, the player is given a choice to continue the game from the last checkpoint or quit and resume later with the given passcode. The passcode keeps track of Snake's rank (which also determines his checkpoint in this version), inventory, hostages rescued, bosses defeated and certain event flags. One particular passcode featured in the Japanese and North American version, in which the player types the expletive "fuck me" and fills the remaining spaces with "1", will transport the player to the final battle with no equipment. This resulted in the passcode system being altered for the European versions of the game, with all of the vowels being removed.
MS-DOS and Commodore 64
In 1990, Ultra Games released ports of the original Metal Gear for home computer platforms in North America, with these ports being based on the NES version, rather than the MSX2 original. The MS-DOS conversion (developed by Banana Development) contains many changes, such as a faster-depleting health bar, while the Commodore 64 conversion (handled by Unlimited Software) only has small audio and visual changes. An Amiga version was also announced, with mock-up screenshots shown on the packaging of the other versions, but was never actually produced.
On August 18, 2004, Konami released a port of the MSX2 Metal Gear for feature phones through their Konami Net DX service in Japan as a promotional tie-in for Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater. This updated port served as the basis for the version included in Metal Gear Solid 3: Subsistence (an expanded edition of MGS3) for the PlayStation 2 released in 2005, and later in the HD Edition released for the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 in 2011 and for PlayStation Vita in 2012.
The inclusion of the original Metal Gear in Subsistence marked the first time the MSX2 game was released in North America, with several changes from the original European release:
- An updated and revised translation.
- Two difficulty settings: "Original" and "Easy". The Easy setting increases maximum capacity for items and ammunition.
- Name changes for some of the characters.
- Item descriptions in the weapon and equipment menus.
- A "Boss Survival" mode that is available after clearing the main game once.
- A hidden bandana item unlocked after completing the game once that gives the player infinite ammo when equipped.
- Enemy bosses that now flash red and white when they sustain damage.
- Snake's cigarettes drain his life gauge when equipped.
- A message is now displayed when the player attempts to pick more rations or ammunition after reaching maximum capacity.
- A result screen was added to the end of the game that evaluates the player's performance.
The MSX2 version of Metal Gear was ranked on MSX Magazine's top 20 best selling MSX games in Japan for five months, debuting at no. 4 on the October 1987 issue and peaking at no. 3 the following month. The Games Machine gave a positive review of this version, giving the game a 79% global note. They praised the graphics and the size of the game area, underlining the fact that it ensured "that the action and suspense never wanes". They also wrote that the game was rapidly addictive, and that "the urge to get further into the game is quite strong". They concluded positively on the quality of the game, saying that "If this standard of Konami software is maintained then maybe more people will think hard about joining the other 200,000 MSX owners".
Computer Gaming World called the NES version's graphics "acceptable", but criticized the control system and the player's great vulnerability when unarmed at the start of the game. It nonetheless stated that Metal Gear "shows great promise for future Ultra Games entries. It attempts to move beyond the standard run/jump/shoot format" of most NES games, and concluded that the game was "a potential super-hit that, unfortunately, is sabotaged by its own weaknesses".
The NES version of Metal Gear was ranked the 104th best game made on a Nintendo System in Nintendo Power's Top 200 Games list. GamesRadar ranked it the sixth-best NES game ever made, and the staff felt that it popularized its genre.
The NES version sold 1 million units in the United States.
Its success led to the creation of two separately produced sequels; the first one, Snake's Revenge, was produced specifically for the NES in North America and Europe in 1990 and the other, Metal Gear 2: Solid Snake, was the sequel developed by Hideo Kojima and released in Japan for the MSX2 during the same year as a response to the former's creation. The latter was followed by Metal Gear Solid for the PlayStation in 1998, which was in turn followed by numerous sequels and spinoffs (see Metal Gear series).
The intro theme ("Operation Intrude N313"), main theme ("Theme of Tara") and game over theme ("Just Another Dead Soldier") from the MSX2 version were reused for the VR Training theme in Metal Gear Solid, which in turn was reused in Metal Gear: Ghost Babel and Metal Gear Solid 2: Substance. "Theme of Tara" is one of the tunes that can be heard in the "Shadow Moses Island" stage in Super Smash Bros. Brawl for the Wii, the music for the beginning section of the Battleship Halberd Interior stage of the Adventure mode, where Snake officially enters the storyline, and can also be selected as music with an iPod item in Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots.
In 1988, Konami published a gamebook adaptation of Metal Gear in Japan as the second installment in their Konami Gamebook Series. The gamebook is set two years after the events of the game, in which Solid Snake is called back into action after FOXHOUND receives intelligence on a terrorist group who have obtained the plans for Metal Gear and are now mass-producing the mech. The book portrays Solid Snake as an unsuccessful illustrator in his personal life outside his job as a FOXHOUND agent.
In 1990, a novelization of Metal Gear was published in the U.S. by Scholastic Books as part of their Worlds of Power series of novelizations based on third-party NES games. The Metal Gear book was written by Alexander Frost under the pen name F.X. Nine, the same pen name used for all the authors in the Worlds of Power series. This book adheres much more closely to the localized version of the backstory as presented in the North American packaging and manual, as opposed to the actual in-game plot which was not changed to reflect this difference. Big Boss is not featured in the book, but instead, two different characters, Commander South and Colonel Vermon CaTaffy, serve as Solid Snake's commanding officer and Outer Heaven's leader respectively. The book also gives Solid Snake the identity of Justin Halley and changes the name of his organization from FOX HOUND to the Snake Men. Because the book was targeted at young kids, the cover illustration was altered, with Snake's handgun being airbrushed out.
During a public Q&A event conducted at London with Geoff Keighley on March 13, 2014, series' creator Hideo Kojima expressed interest in developing remakes of the MSX2 Metal Gear games in order to reconcile plot discrepancies that have since been introduced into the series, but had no plans at the time due to the ongoing development of Metal Gear Solid V: The Phantom Pain (itself a prequel set before the events of the original Metal Gear). However, Kojima has since departed from Konami following the release of The Phantom Pain, leaving the possibility of such remakes in question.
A Metal Gear remake mod for Alien Swarm was in development that was granted permission by Konami to use copyrighted material with the agreement that they don't make a profit from the recreation or accept donations for the production. It was canceled on June 3, 2014. David Hayter was set to voice Solid Snake. A new fan remake is currently in development using Unreal Engine 4 titled Outer Heaven.
- In Japanese, メタルギア (Metarugia).
- The date is given as 19XX in the manual for the Japanese MSX2 version. Later established to be 1995 in Metal Gear Solid.
- The 2015 prequel Metal Gear Solid V: The Phantom Pain reveals that the commander Solid Snake defeats in Metal Gear is not the original Big Boss but a body double.
- "METAL GEAR 25th ANNIVERSARY 「メタルギアソリッドの真実」" (in Japanese). Konami Digital Entertainment.
- "メタルギア". Konami. Retrieved 2015-06-13.
- Jeremy Parish, "Metal Gear," Electronic Gaming Monthly 225 (January 2008): 93.
- Steven Kent. "Hideo Kojima: Game Guru, Movie Maniac". Archived from the original on 2007-09-27.
HK: I really don't like saying this, but it really wasn't up to my standards. The care that I put in the original wasn't there. It [the Famicom version] was a more difficult game. In the very beginning, when you go from the entrance into the fortress, for example, there are dogs there. In the Famicom version, the dogs just come after you and you get killed. It was too difficult to get into the fortress. The fun stealth element was not there, and the actual Metal Gear, the robot, doesn't appear in the game.
- Metal Gear User's Manual (in Japanese). Konami. p. 4.
- Rezaee, Stan. "The Legacy of Metal Gear, 30 Years Later". 8Bit/Digi.
- Szczepaniak, John. "Before They Were Famous". Retro Gamer. Imagine Publishing (35): 74.
- "Before There Was Metal Gear, There Was "Intruder" -- Andriasang.com".
- Ledford, Jon (2016-03-08). "25 Stolen Images in Video Games". Arcade Sushi. Townsquare Media. Retrieved 2017-04-11.
- "小島秀夫 on Twitter: "MG1の時は新人でパッケージには全く関与出来ず不本意なものになったが、「スナッチャー」では開田裕次さんにMG2では高荷義之さんにMGSでは生頼範義さんにメインビジュアルやポスターをお願いできた。当時はゲーム自体のビジュアルが陳腐だったのでイラストでのメインビジュアルは重要だった。"" (in Japanese).
- "Nekura_Hoka's Metal Gear Code Site". Archived from the original on 2009-10-27.
- "Wii バーチャルコンソール タイトル一覧" (in Japanese). Nintendo. Archived from the original on 2008-01-12.
- "おきブログ 昔のゲームの想い出  「メタルギア」 [コナミ]  [MSX2]".
- "Metal Gear Solid: The Twin Snakes Premium Package details" (in Japanese).
- Konami Computer Entertainment Japan website staff. "Editorial about the Famicom version of Metal Gear" (in Japanese).
- Buchanan, Levi (2008-06-13). "Have You Really Played Metal Gear?". IGN. Retrieved March 31, 2009.
- Metal Gear Saga Vol. 1. Konami. 2005.
- "Interview with Masahiro Ueno, by John Szczepaniak". Videogames Website — Hardcore Gaming 101.
- Browning, Robert. "NES Metal Gear script FAQ". GameFAQs.
- Konami. Metal Gear. NES. Level/area: The first radio transmission with Big Boss at the start of the mission.
- Konami. Metal Gear. NES. Level/area: Whenever Snake enters a moving truck.
- Konami. Metal Gear. NES. Level/area: Whenever an enemy soldier wakes up from his sleep.
- Babcock, Doug. "Metal Gear Password Generator".
- John Szczepaniak (May 4, 2012). "Charles "Chuck" Ernst Interview". Hardcore Gaming 101.
- "The Metal Gear Solid HD Collection Explained". Retrieved 4 July 2012.
- "KONAMI MOBILE". Archived from the original on 2009-02-23.
- The Games Machine, December 1987 issue, page 61
- Worley, Joyce; Kunkel, Bill; Katz, Arnie (October 1988). "Video Gaming World". Computer Gaming World. No. 52. pp. 49–50. Retrieved 21 May 2016.
- "NP Top 200", Nintendo Power, 200, pp. 58–66, February 2006.
- "Best NES Games of all time". GamesRadar. 2012-04-16. Retrieved 2013-12-05.
- Hideo Kojima (Interviewee) (March 14, 2006). Metal Gear Saga, Vol. 1. Konami.
Konami decided to develop a NES version of Metal Gear, but I had absolutely nothing to do with this game. The game launched worldwide and became a huge hit, selling one million copies in the U.S.
- Metal Gear. Konami Gamebook Series (in Japanese). March 31, 1988. ISBN 4-87655-013-1.
- "ISBN 4-87655-013-1 on Webcat Plus" (in Japanese). Retrieved March 30, 2009.
- Frost, Alexander (July 1990). Metal Gear. Scholastic Books. ISBN 0-590-43777-1.
- "HIDEO KOJIMA interview with host Geoff Keighley - 13 March 2014". Retrieved January 29, 2016.
- Pitcher, Jenna (3 June 2014). "Metal Gear fan-made remake given the go ahead by Konami (update)". Polygon. Vox Media. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
- "Outer Heaven". Twitter. Twitter, Inc. 3 June 2014. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
- Phillips, Tom (18 August 2014). "Canned Metal Gear fan remake reveals David Hayter involvement". Eurogamer. Gamer Network. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- Matulef, Jeffrey (7 October 2015). "MGS fan is remaking the first Metal Gear in Unreal Engine 4". Eurogamer. Gamer Network. Retrieved 7 October 2015.
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