Conservation and restoration of metals

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Derveni krater, bronze, 350 BC, height: 90.5 cm (35 ½ in.), Inv. B1, Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki, after cleaning and conservation.

Conservation and restoration of metals is the activity devoted to the protection and preservation of historical (religious, artistic, technical and ethnographic) and archaeological objects made partly or entirely of metal. In it are included all activities aimed at preventing or slowing deterioration of items, as well as improving accessibility and readability of them as objects of cultural heritage. Despite the fact that metals are generally considered as the relatively permanent and stable materials, in contact with the environment they deteriorate gradually, some faster and some much slower. This applies especially to archaeological finds.

It is very important that a conservator of metals has knowledge of basic metalworking techniques, history of metalwork, history of art, archaeology, corrosion of metals, scientific research methods, theory and ethics of conservation-restoration.

Contents

Metals and alloys commonly used for cultural heritage objects[edit]

The bronze apoxyomenos, dated to between the 1st and 2nd century BC, found and recovered from Adriatic sea near the small island Vele Oryule, near island Loshiny, Croatia; example of archaeological metals conservation.

Metals and alloys less commonly used for cultural heritage objects[edit]

Metalworking techniques[edit]

Basic metalworking techniques timeline cold hot hand machine earliest use special remarks
Casting X X X more than 5700 years old process[1]
Forging X X X X more than 7000 years old process
Cutting X X X antique works up to 1500 chisel, knife or scissors
Filling X X X 1200-1000 BC first bronze files
Piercing X X X goldsmiths piercing saw not known in antique world, earliest examples not before 1500
Drilling X X
Rolling X X X X first rolling mills, late 16th and 17th century
Wire drawing X X X X twisted strip method, drawplate after 600-800

Basic techniques[edit]

Joining techniques[edit]

Some supplementary techniques[edit]

Surface decoration techniques[edit]

Some contemporary techniques[edit]

Deterioration of metals[edit]

Perseus with the Head of Medusa in the Loggia dei Lanzi gallery on the edge of the Piazza della Signoria in Florence; picture taken after the statue's cleaning and restoration.

An essential cause of deterioration is corrosion of metal objects or object deterioration by interaction with the environment. As the most influential factors of deterioration of historical objects should be pointed out as the relative humidity and air pollution while in archaeological objects a crucial role has composition, depth, humidity and amount of gasses in the soil. In cases of marine or fresh water finds the most important factors of decay are the amount and composition of soluble salts, water depth, amount of dissolved gases, the direction of water currents and the role of both microscopic and macroscopic living organisms.[2]

Deterioration of materials associated with metals[edit]

Associated materials deteriorate depending on the origin whether they are organic or inorganic materials. Organic materials usually fail in a relatively short period of time, primarily due to biodegradation. With inorganic materials are these processes considerably longer and more complex. Amount of gases, humidity, depth and composition of soil are very important. In case of salty and sweet water finds essential are amount of gases dissolved in water, depth of water, direction of currents, and microscopic and macroscopic living organisms.

Organic materials[edit]

Inorganic materials[edit]

Metals conservation planning[edit]

Basics[edit]

As with the conservation and restoration works on any other material, here are the basic tenets of conservation-restoration based on the quality of execution and the best possible preservation of cultural, historical and technological identity and integrity of objects. Minimal intervention, reversibility and repeatability of preferred treatment are essential, as well as the possibility of easy identification of restored parts.[3] Recently non-toxic nature of used materials and procedures becomes important too, both in relation to objects and conservator-restorer as a performer, but also in relation to the environment.

Research[edit]

Nowadays scientific research is an integral part of the metals conservation treatment, at least in highly developed countries.

Identification of metals and alloys[edit]

Identification of corrosion processes and products[edit]

  • Simple method - visual examination, spot tests
  • The Oddy test - for copper, silver, and lead
  • Scientific methods - xrd, SEM, metallography

Identification of materials associated with metals[edit]

  • Simple methods - visual examination, spot tests, specific gravity
  • Scientific methods - xrf, chromatography,

Raman spectroscopy

Identification of technology used to produce objects[edit]

Decision making[edit]

In preparing the strategy of the metals conservation project interdisciplinary approach to the same is essential. It implies the participation of as many experts as is possible, as a minimum, we can take curator (archaeologist, historian, art historian), scientists specialized for corrosion of metallic objects of cultural heritage and the conservator - restorer.

Documentation[edit]

Systematic and well-managed documentation is today an essential prerequisite for quality executed conservation and restoration treatments, including documentation of the state of objects before, during and after treatment. Identification of materials and procedures used to produce object and the results of any scientific research must be part of documentation too. Last but not least- an integral part of the documentation must be a recommendation for further care of object.

Ethics and ethical problems in metals conservation[edit]

The ethical concept of conservation of metal objects in principle is the same as those in other fields of conservation-restoration of cultural heritage.

But there are several specific problems that can only be found in the conservation of metals - problem of heat treatment of archaeological objects, and the problem of radical restoration of historic, mostly technical, but also architectonic objects too.

While in the first case problem is primarily in the destruction of valuable scientific data, in case of the technical, the architectural, and somewhat less often, historical objects problem is that a radically restored items just simulate the original appearance of the object, and so in some ways that objects can be considered even as, more or less successful fakes, which only superficially simulate long-lost or never existing state of object.

According to the above-mentioned, whenever it is possible real historical substance must be preserved. Thoroughly documented and technically professionally executed restoration of objects, must be avoided because such objects must be seen only as freshly painted surrogates of authentic historic substance.

Ethical problems connected with conservation of sacred metallic heritage objects can be included too.[4]

Conservation[edit]

Preventive conservation[edit]

Main article: Collections care

Metallic heritage objects are sensitive to environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, air pollution and exposure to light and ultraviolet light. They must be protected in a controlled environment where such variables are maintained within a range of damage-limiting levels.

Preventive conservation, also known as collections care, is an important element of museum policy. It is an essential responsibility of members of the museum profession to create and maintain a protective environment for the collections in their care, whether in store, on display, or in transit. A museum should carefully monitor the condition of collections to determine when an artifact requires conservation work and the services of a qualified conservator.

Interventive conservation[edit]

Cleaning[edit]

Conservation of gilt bronze Horses of Saint Mark, (Venice).

The most common procedure in conservation and restoration of metals is the cleaning process. This process can be distinguish between mechanical, chemical, electrochemical, ultrasonic, plasma and laser cleaning. In principle, it is aimed at removing dirt and corrosion products from the surface of a metal object. In many cases archaeology objects only can be cleaned mechanically.

Metal Mechanical cleaning Chemical cleaning Electrochemical cleaning Ultrasonic cleaning Laser cleaning Plasma cleaning
Gold X Acidified thiourea solution 8-10% (carcinogenic compound.)

Sodium thiosulphate 30%

EDTA 10 %[5]

X X X
Silver X Sodium thiosulphate 30%[6]

Ammonium thiosulphate 15%

Acidified thiourea solution 8-10% (carcinogenic compound.)[7]

EDTA 10 %[8]

X X X X
Copper/copper alloy X Ammonium citrate 5%/pH 9[9]

Potassium sodium tartarate 25%[10]

EDTA 4%/pH 10[11]

NaOH 12o g/40 g glycerol/1 l water[12]

X X X X
Iron/steel X Ammonium citrate 5%/pH 3,5[13]

Phosphoric acid 10-20%[14]

X X X X
Tin/pewter X Hydrochloric acid 5%[15]

Trisodium phosphate 15%[16]

X
Lead X? EDTA 4%/pH 5,5[17]

HCl 5% + ammonium acetate 10%[18]

X X
Zinc X Sulphuric acid 5%[19]

EDTA pH 7[20] Ammonium chloride 10%[21]

X
Aluminum X? Ammonium citrate 5%/pH 7[22] X X X
Titanium Citric acid 10-25%/ 90 °C[23]
Magnesium 30 g sodium carbonate /30 g trisodium phosphate /1 g synthetic soap /1 l water /80-95 °C temp.,3–20 minutes, pH 11[24] X
Chromium-plated X? 47,5 g citric acid/47,5 g sodium gluconate/4,9 g tartaric acid/0.1 g non ionic surfacant/1-10 l water[25]
Nickel-plated X? 47,5 g citric acid/47,5 g sodium gluconate/4,9 g tartaric acid/0,1 g non ionic surfacant/1-10 l water[26]

Structural consolidation[edit]

Aimed at strengthening of the physical structure of the object, and correcting the shape of the object.

  • Mechanical joining - riveting / tab and slot / overlapping / screws
  • Soldering - soft / hard
  • Welding - oxyacetilene / electric arc / TIG / tack / laser
  • Gluing/Cementing
  • Reconstructions -in original material - in polymers - *3D printing[27]

Reconstruction of missing parts or surface decoration[edit]

In certain cases, metals conservator must re-create the lost parts of objects or restore original surface decoration. This approach is accurate only if we have an exact documentation or photographs of items in a complete, currently non-existent state that we want to return.

New parts must be clearly and visibly marked and at least they must be minimally different from the original historic material.

If needed, those parts must be easily and completely removable from the object, and with methods which will not harm it.

Plating Paste Immersion Electroplating/Brushplating Leaf/powder
Gold X* X* X* X
Silver X* X* X* X
Tin X* X* X* X
Zinc X* X* X* X
Nickel X* X* X* Special paint ( MirraChrome [28]) or special metal foil ( Bare-Metal Foil [29])
Chrome X* Special paint ( MirraChrome [30]) or special metal foil ( Bare-Metal Foil [31])

Only cyanide or hexchromate free processes must be used.

Only worn-out spots can be replated.

Replating of entire object must be avoided.

Stabilization[edit]

Focused on slowing of deterioration of objects - in case of archaeology objects the thorough removal or blocking of chloride salts. In case of the historical objects it is focused on the use of corrosion inhibitors, conversion coatings, rust converters or eventually oxygen free storage.

Metal Chloride removal Stabilization
Silver benzotriazole[32]

2 mercaptobenzotiazole[33]

Copper/copper alloys Sodium sesquicarbonate[34]

Electrochemical

benzotriazole[35]

4 methyl imidazole[36]

ammonium sulphide[37]

tannin[38][39]

Iron/steel alkaline sulphite[40]

NaOH/diethylamine[41]

electrochemical

tannin[42]

phosphating[43]

Lead carboxylates[44][45]
Zinc benzotriazole[46]

tannin[47]

phosphating

Aluminum amonnia-ammonium sulphate[48]

electrochemical

tannin[49][50]

phosphating[51]

Protective Coatings[edit]

Still mainly focused on use of clear coats and waxes, in case of technology objects oil coatings can be used too. In general it supports the stabilization process.[52]

  • Clear coats:

Paraloid B-72

For Additional information on Paraloid B-72, see Paraloid B-72.

durable and non yellowing acrylic resin, chemically an ethyl methacrylate copolymer. It can be used for conservation of metals. Soluble in acetone, toluene, xylene, Shell Cyclo Sol® 100/Shell Cyclo Sol® 53, Arcosolv® PM/1-Methoxy-2-propanol.[53]

Paraloid B 67

is acrylic resin, chemically it is an isobutyl methacrylate polymer. Soluble in toluene, xylene, acetone, Shell Cyclo Sol® 100/Shell Cyclo Sol® 53, Arcosolv® PM/1-Methoxy-2-propanol and white spirit acetone mixture (90 parts white spirit/10 parts acetone).[54]

Paraloid B 44

is acrylic resin, chemically it is composed of methyl methacrylate and ethyl acrylate copolymer. Soluble in toluene, xylene, acetone. It is used for paints and clear coating for metals. It is ingredient in Incralac metal coating.[55]

Paraloid B 48 N

is acrylic resin, chemically it is copolymer of methyl methacrylate and butyl acrylate. It is used as a clear coating for metals - copper, brass, bronze, and zinc. Soluble in toluene, xylene, methyl ethyl ketone, and acetone[56]

Incralac

is special proprietary clear coat for copper and its alloys. It is based on Paraloid B 44 acryilic resin dissolved in toluene. It contains benzotriazole as copper corrosion inhibitor too.[57]

Nitrocellulose lacquer

is solvent-based lacquer that contain nitrocellulose, a resin obtained from the nitration of cotton and other cellulostic materials.[58] Can be used on silver objects. Frigilene, Agateen No.27 and Perlitol RE 1260 are good brands.

ORMOCER

Organically modified ceramic, also known as ORMOCER (ORganically MOdified CERamic) is a type of coating used in the conservation of metals. ORMOCER was originally developed by the Fraunhofer Society for the Advancement of Applied Research in Munich. While it is still in research phase, ORMOCER is essentially a heteropolysiloxane-based clear coat.[59]

Other used varnishes or lacquers that would be worthwhile to examine:

Pantarol A (German product) – the use of it is mentioned in German literature; according to the manufacturer it is a special acrylic coating for metal [60][61]

Everbrite ProtectaClear Coating, Everbrite Coating (US products) - worthwhile to be tested, according to manufacturer product is easily removable from treated objects [62] [63]

Permalac(US product) [64]

  • Waxes:

Renaissance Wax

Main article: Renaissance Wax

is a brand of microcrystalline wax polish that is widely encountered in antique restoration and museum curation. Although not appropriate for all materials, it is known to and used by almost every collection. It is also used as a primary finish for cabinetry and furniture. Renaissance wax is also used by reenactors of historic swordsmanship to protect armour and weapons. It is widely recognised that this substance is more protective and longer lasting than oil, especially for swords and helmets that are frequently touched by human hands.

To quote a typical commercial supplier of conservation materials, it is used, to revive and protect valuable furniture, leather, paintings, metals, marble, onyx, ivory etc. Freshens colours and imparts a soft sheen[65]

Cosmolloid 80 H

is refined white microcrystalline wax. It can be used on historical and archaeological metals. Melting point 60–94 °C. Soluble in benzol, ether, chloroform, carbon disulfide, carbon tetrachloride, turpentine, petroleum distillates, and fixed oils; partially soluble in acetone, diacetone alcohol. Main ingredient in Renaissance Wax.

TeCero Wachs 30410

is a German brand of microcrystalline wax.[66]

Dinitrol 4010

is a long-term engine protection proprietary product with heat resistance up to 200 °C. It leaves a firm transparent film with short drying time and good adhesion and flexibility on all metal surfaces, rubber and plastic parts. Dinitrol 4010 is resistant to alkali and acidic solutions. According to some research articles it can be used on metallic heritage objects too[67]

Poligen ES 91 009

is patented wax emulsion (BASF), according to some sources better than Paraloid B 72[68]

  • Oils

-WD 40 / Ballistol / 80 parts white spirit+20 parts fish oil

  • Combinations

-base coat Paraloid B 72 / topcoat Renaissance Wax etc.

Conservation of materials associated with metals[edit]

Precious and semi precious stones[edit]

In principle do not use any solvent, but only distilled water, or a 10% solution of soapwort plant (Saponaria officinalis). You must be Especially careful when working on porous gemstones like malachite, opal, chalcedony, chrysoprase, agate, carnelian, lapis lazuli, jade and turquoise. Special attention requires gemstones combined with colored metal foils, in this case, the liquid does not come into contact with the foil. Do not use ultrasonic cleaning.

Enamels[edit]

Niello[edit]

Nielloed items can be cleaned only mechanically, never try to use chemical cleaning. Black pigment mixed with Paraloid B 72 can be used for reconnstruction of missing parts. Concentrated solution of Paraloid B 72 or B 67 (soluble in white spirit) can be used as reversible glue.

Amber[edit]

Do not clean with solvents, do not use ultrasound, you can use only distilled water, or a mixture of water and ethanol (add up to 0.5% crosslinker).[69] Variety of waxy resin mixtures can be used as glue, depending on the color of amber. You can use 10% solution of Canada balsam in toluene[70] Archaeological material can be cleaned only mechanically. Soaking in liquid paraffin can be used to consolidate and improve color of amber.[71] According to one Korean article for consolidation can be used Paraloid B 67 dissolved in xylene (proved more stable than white spirit, usual solvent for B 67)[72] Artifacts must be Protected from strong light and high temperatures, low humidity and oscillations in humidity, in the case of metal/amber objects do not to use corrosion inhibitors.[73]

Oriental lacquer - urushi[edit]

Requires a completely different approach than western lacquers. May be found on the Japanese arms and armour. The best approach – leave it to expert for oriental lacquer.[74][75][76] Mixture of 6-8% polyvinyl alcohol and chalk can be used as filling material(Rhoplex WS 24 can be used too).[77] Japanese conservators use traditional techniques, but as Urushi causes allergic reactions, these methods are not recommended. Clean it with an aliphatic hydrocarbon such as white or mineral spirits. Distilled water or saliva (moistened cottonwool swabs) can caused discoloration and should be avoided by the inexperienced: pH is crucial. Keep objects in rooms with controlled humidity and temperature, preferably about 50% RH, and protect them from UV radiation.

Coral[edit]

Can be cleaned with cotton wool swabs soaked in distilled water, or with a mixture of distilled water and ethanol.[78] Do not use ultrasound. Avoid any contact with acids.

Pearls[edit]

Historical objects can be cleaned using a mixture of 70% ethanol and 30% weak ammonia water (1%). To remove the surface layer that has lost luster you can use 3-5% EDTA, after that step rinse with distilled water, and then with 80% ethanol, then with 90% ethanol, and finally with pure ethanol.[79] Do not use ultrasound. Archaeological finds must be treated as soon as possible, preferably after excavation, you can clean them only mechanically, then consolidate with 2% Paraloid B 72, in the case of dry findings (first saturate with solvent in which it is dissolved), in case of damp or wet findings use Rhoplex WS 24 (acrylic dispersion).[80] Somewhat More recent Russian literature recommends use of bleached beeswax dissolved in white spirit or medical benzine as protective coating. Fish glue mixed with water and alcohol (7/3), with addition of 1% katamine AB as biocide can be used as glue. Nonionogenic detergent 2-3% in a mixture of water and alcohol can be used for cleaning.[81] Avoid prolonged contact with water, sudden changes in temperature and relative humidity, including strong light or contact with acidic or alkaline solutions (soap water too).

Mother of pearl[edit]

Ivory, bone and antler[edit]

Tortoiseshell[edit]

Jet[edit]

You can clean it with cottonwool swabs soaked in distilled water or soapwort extract (Saponaria officinalis, 100 grams of dried root per 1 liter of boiling water). Archaeological material can be cleaned only mechanically. Wax/resin mixtures or concentrated solution of Paraloid B 72 (or B 67) can used as glue for archaeology objects.[82]

Wood[edit]

Textile[edit]

Main article: Textile preservation

Paper[edit]

Glass[edit]

Main article Conservation and restoration of glass objects

Ceramics and porcelain[edit]

Leather[edit]

Plastics[edit]

Wax[edit]

Plaster[edit]

Unsealed plaster can be cleaned with soft brush only; never try to use water or water-based cleaning solutions. Sealed plaster can be cleaned with a swab dampened with water or white spirit.[83]

Replicas and Copies[edit]

Storage of metallic heritage objects[edit]

The items should be stored in rooms that are protected from polluted air, dust, ultraviolet radiation, and excessive relative humidity - ideal values are temperature of 16-20 °C and up to 40% (35-55% according to recent Canadian Conservation Institute recommendations) relative humidity, noting that if metal is combined with organic materials, relative humidity should not be below 45%. Archaeological objects must be stored in rooms (or plastic boxes) with very low relative humidity, or in the case of particularly valuable items in the chambers with nitrogen or argon. Copper or copper alloy objects with active corrosion up to 35% RH. Iron objects with active corrosion 12-15% RH. Shelves in the storerooms must be of stainless steel or chlorine and acetate free plastic or powder coated steel. Wood and wood-based products (Particle board, plywood) must be avoided. Also do not use rubber, felt or wool. When you are handling metal objects, always wear clean cotton gloves. Lighting levels must be kept below 300 lux (up to 150 lux in case of lacquered or painted objects, up to 50 lux in case of objects with light sensitive materials)[85]

History of metals conservation[edit]

Important persons[edit]

Specializations within the profession[edit]

  • Conservation of Historical Metal Objects
  • Conservation of Archaeological Metal Objects
  • Conservation of Technological Metal Objects
  • Conservation of Ethnographic Metal Objects
  • Conservation of Architectural Metal Objects
  • Conservation of Metal Sculpture
  • Conservation of Gold and Silversmiths Works
  • Conservation of Arms and Armour

Training[edit]

US[edit]

  • Buffalo State College, Art Conservation Department, objects specialization
  • UCLA/Getty Masters Program - Conservation of Archaeological and Ethnographic Materials
  • Winterthur/University of Delaware Program in Art Conservation, objects specialization
  • New York University, Institute of Fine Arts, Conservation Center, objects specialization.

Canada[edit]

  • Queens University, Art Conservation, objects specialization
  • Fleming College, Collections Conservation and Management

Mexico[edit]

  • Escuela nacional de conservacion, restauracion y museografia, Ciudad de Mexico, Diplomado de Especialización en Patrimonio Metálico

South America[edit]

  • Chile
    • Centro Nacional de Conservacion y Restauracion, Santiago de Chile, objetos arqueológicos, etnográficos e históricos
  • Perú
    • Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Escuela academico profesional de Conservación y Restauración
  • Brasil
    • Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Instituto de Ciências Humanas, Laboratório Multidisciplinar de Investigação Arqueológica (LÂMINA)

Africa[edit]

  • Egypt
    • Conservation Department, Faculty of Archaeology, Cairo University
    • Conservation Department, Faculty of Archaeology, Fayoum University
  • South Africa
    • The South African Institute for Objects Conservation, Joubertina, Eastern Cape, metals conservation

Australia[edit]

  • The University of Melbourne, Centre for Cultural Materials Conservation

Europe[edit]

  • Austria
    • Universitaet fuer Angewandte Kunst, Wien, Konservierung/Restaurierung von Objekten
  • Belgium
    • Koninklijke Academie voor schone kunsten, Antwerpen, metalen conservatie
  • Croatia
    • Sveučilište u Dubrovniku, konzervacija restauracija metala (BA+MA)
    • Umjetnička akademija u Splitu, Konzervacija restauracija metala (BA+MA)
  • Denmark
    • The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Conservation
  • Czech Republic
    • Konzervování-restaurování uměleckořemeslných děl z kovů, Turnov
  • France
    • Université Panthéon-Sorbonne Paris I, Paris, Conservation and restoration department
    • Institut de Formation des Restaurateurs d’Oeuvres d'Art, Institut National du Patrimoine, Saint-Denis-la-Plaine, Metals conservation
  • Finland
    • Metropolia University of Applied Sciences, Helsinki, objects conservation
  • Germany
    • Roemisch Germanisches Zentralmuseum, Mainz, Ausbildung zum Restaurator des Fachbereischs Archeologie
    • Hochschule fuer Technik und Wirtschaft, Berlin, schwerpunkt Archaeologisch-Historisches Kulturgut
    • Staatlische Akademie der Bildende Kuenste, Stuttgart, Objekt Restaurierung
    • Fachhochschule Potsdam, Metallkonservierung
    • University of Applied Sciences Erfurt, Archäologisches Kulturgut und kunsthandwerkliche Objekte
  • Greece
    • Technological Educational Institution (TEI), Athens
  • Hungary
    • Hungarian Academy of Fine Arts, Budapest, conservation of metalwork and goldsmiths works
  • Italy
    • Instituto Superiore per la Conservazione e il Restauro, Roma
    • Opificio delle Pietre Dure, Firenze
  • Netherlands
    • Universiteit van Amsterdam, Amsterdam, MA metaalrestauratie
  • Poland
    • Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Institute of Fine Art, Department of Conservation and Restoration of Historic and Artistic Works, graduate program, metal conservation
  • Portugal
    • Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova, Lisboa
  • United Kingdom
    • West Dean College, metalwork conservation
    • University of Sussex, metalwork conservation
  • Spain
    • Universidad de Granada, Grado en conservación y restauración de bienes culturales
    • Escuela Superior de Conservación y Restauración de Bienes Culturales, Madrid, Especialidad de bienes arqueológicos
    • Escuela Superior de Conservación y Restauración de Bienes Culturales, Barcelona, Especialidad de bienes arqueológicos
    • Escuela Superior de Conservación y Restauración de Bienes Culturales, Pontevedra, Especialidad de bienes arqueológicos
  • Switzerland
    • La Chaux de Fonds, Haute Ecole de Conservation-restauration Arc, objects conservation

Ukraine[edit]

  • Lvov Academy of Arts, metals conservation

Russian Federation[edit]

  • Conservation Chair of Saint Petersburg State University, St Petersburg, Russian Federation. Conservation of applied arts, archaeological conservation, scientific examination.
  • Факультет искусства реставрации Московской государственной художественно-промышленной академии им.С. Г. Строганова, Moscow-katedra"Restavraciya hudozhestvennogo metalla" (Conservation of artistic metalwork)

India[edit]

  • National Museum Institute of History of Art, Conservation and Museology (deemed to be university) Ministry of Culture, Government of India, New Delhi

Iran[edit]

  • Art University of Isfahan, Faculty of Conservation, Department for Conservation of Art Objects
  • Tabriz Islamic Art University, Conservation Department
  • Art University of tehran, Faculty of Conservation, Department for Conservation of Art Objects

Pakistan[edit]

  • Hazara University, Mansehra

Quatar[edit]

  • University College London, in partnership with Qatar Foundation and Qatar Museums Authority, Doha, objects conservation

Turkey[edit]

  • Gazi University, Faculty of Fine Arts, Ankara, conservation department

Jordan[edit]

  • Faculty of Archaeology and Anthropology, Yarmouk University

Further reading[edit]

Essential literature[edit]

  1. Corrosion and metal artifacts : a dialogue between conservators and archaeologists and corrosion scientists, Washington 1977.(online)
  2. Conservation & restoration of metals : proceedings of the symposium held in Edinburgh, 30–31 March 1979., Edinburgh 1979.
  3. Stambolov, T. The corrosion and conservation of metallic antiquities and works of art - a preliminary survey, Amsterdam 1985.
  4. Corrosion inhibitors in conservation: The Proceedings of the conference held by UKIC in association with the Museum of London, London 1985.
  5. Pearson, C. Conservation of Marine Archaeological Objects, London 1987.
  6. Conservation of metal statuary and architectural decoration in open-air exposure : symposium, Paris, 6. - 8. X. 1986 = Conservation des oeuvres d'art et décorations en métal exposées en plein air, Rome 1987.
  7. Townsend, J.H.; Child, R.E. Modern metals in museums, Cardiff 1988.
  8. Metals Conservation: 7th International Restorer Seminar, Veszprem, Veszprem 1989.
  9. Brown, B. ; Burnett, H. ; Chase, W. T. ; Goodway, M., Corrosion and metal artifacts : A dialogue between conservators and archaeologists and corrosion scientists, Houston 1991
  10. METAL 95, Proceedings of International Conference on Metal Conservation, London 1997.
  11. METAL 98, Proceedings of International Conference on Metal Conservation, London 1999.
  12. METAL 01, Proceedings of International Conference on Metal Conservation, Perth 2002.
  13. METAL 04, Proceedings of International Conference on Metal Conservation, Canberra 2005.(online)
  14. METAL 07, Proceedings of International Conference on Metal Conservation, Amsterdam 2007.
  15. METAL 2010, Proceedings of International Conference on Metal Conservation, Charleston 2011.
  16. METAL 2013. Proceedings of Internationsl Conference on Metal Conservation, Edinburgh 2013.
  17. Scott, D.A. Metallography and Microstructure of Ancient and Historic Metals, Santa Monica 1991.(online)
  18. Scott, D.A. Ancient and Historic Metals-Conservation and Scientific Research, Santa Monica 1994.(online)
  19. Scott, D.A. Copper and Bronze in Art-Corrosion, Colorants, Conservation, Los Angeles 2002.
  20. Scott, D.A. Iron and Steel in Art-Corrosion, Colorants, Conservation, London 2009.
  21. Scott, D. A. Ancient Metals: Microstructure and Metallurgy Volume I, Los Angeles 2011.
  22. Scott, D. A. Gold and Platinum Metallurgy of Ancient Colombia and Ecuador.: Ancient Metals: Microstructure and Metallurgy Volume II, Los Angeles 2012.
  23. Scott, D. A. ANCIENT METALS: MICROSTRUCTURE ANDMETALLURGY Volume III CATALOGUE OF ANCIENT COLOMBIAN DATA., Los Angeles 2012.
  24. Scott, D. A. Ancient Metals: Microstructure and Metallurgy Vol. IV: Iron and Steel., Los Angeles 2013.
  25. JAIN KAMAL K., NARAIN Shyam, Iron artifacts history, metallurgy, corrosion and conservation, Delhi, Agam Kala Prakashan, 2009, XXII-165 p.
  26. Selwyn, L. Metals and Corrosion-A Handbook for Conservation Professional, Ottawa 2004.
  27. Draymann-Weiser, T. Gilded Metals-History, Technology, Conservation, London 2000.
  28. Draymann-Weiser, T. Dialogue/89 - The conservation of bronze sculpture in the outdoor environment : a dialogue among conservators, curators, environmental scientists, and corrosion engineers, Houston 1992.
  29. Dillman, P.; Beranger, G.; Piccardo, P.; Matthiesen, H. Corrosion of metallic heritage artefacts-Investigation, Conservation and Prediction of long term behaviour, Cambridge 2007.
  30. Cronyn, J.M. The Elements of Archaeological Conservation, London 1990.
  31. Turner-Walker, G. A Practical Guide to the Care and Conservation of Metals, Taipei 2008.
  32. Rodgers, B. The Archaeologist Manual for Conservation-A Guide to Non-toxic, Minimal Intervention Artifact Stabilization, New York 2004.
  33. Stuart, B. Analytical Techniques in Materials Conservation, Chichester 2007.
  34. May, E.; Jones, M. Conservation Science-Heritage Materials, Cambridge 2006.
  35. Untracht, O. Metal Techniques for Craftsmen, New York 1968.
  36. La Niece, S.; Craddock, P. Metal Plating and Patination: Cultural, Technical and Historical Developments, Boston 1993.
  37. Anheuser, K.; Werner, C. (Eds.) Medieval Reliquary Shrines and Precious Metalwork / Châsses-reliquaires et Orfèvrerie Médiévales, London 2006.
  38. Horie, C.V. Materials for Conservation, Oxford 2010.
  39. Smith, R.D. Make all sure : the conservation and restoration of arms and armour, Leeds 2006.
  40. Appelbaum, B. Conservation Treatment Methodology, New York 2007.
  41. Practical Building Conservation!Metals and Glass, Farnham 2012.
  42. Dillmann, P., Watkinson, D., Angelini, E., Adriaens, A., (Ed.) Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts, Cambridge 2013.
  43. Risser, E.; Saunders, D. The Restoration of Ancient Bronzes - Naples and Beyond, Los Angeles 2013.(online)
  44. Ghoniem, M.A. Corrosion Inhibitors For Archaeological Copper – Conception, Mechanism and Testing, Saarbrücken 2012.
  45. Yu.J.;Lee.H.;Go.I. Conservation of metal objects,Daejeon 2012.

Some important books on metal conservation in languages other than English[edit]

  1. Mourey, W. La conservation des antiquités métalliques, du chantier de fouilles au musée, Draguignan 1987.
  2. Stambolov, T.; Bleck, R.D.; Eichelmann, N. Korrosion und Konservierung von Kunst und Kulturgut aus Metall, Weimar I/1987. (online), II/1988. (online)
  3. Шемаханская, М.С. РЕСТАВРАЦИЯ МЕТАЛЛА. Методические рекомендации (1989), Moscow 1989. (online)
  4. Никитин, М.К., Мельникова,Е.П. ХИМИЯ В РЕСТАВРАЦИИ. СПРАВОЧНОЕ ПОСОБИЕ.; Leningrad 1990 (chapter on metals conservation) (online)
  5. Born, H. Restaurierung Antike Bronzewaffen, Mainz 1993.
  6. Heinrich, P. (Hrsg.) Metallrestaurierung, Munich 1994.
  7. Catello, C. Argenti antichi : tecnologia restauro conservazione : rifacimenti e falsificazioni, Naples 1994.
  8. Marabelli, M. Conservazione e restauro dei metalli d`arte, Rome 1995.
  9. Krause, J. Sarkofagi cynowe : problematyka technologiczna warsztatowa i konserwatorska, Torun 1995.
  10. Dolcini, L. Il restauro delle oreficerie: aggiornamenti, Milan 1996.
  11. Mach, M. Metallrestaurierung/Metal Restoration, Munich 1997.(online)
  12. Fischer, A. Reste von organischen Materialien an Bodenfunden aus Metall – Identifizierung und Erhaltung für die archäologische Forschung, Munich 1997.
  13. Minzhulin, O.I. Restavraciya tvoriv z metalu, Kiev 1998.
  14. Anheuser, K. Im Feuer Vergoldet, AdR-Schriftenreihe zur Restaurierung und Grabungstechnik, Band 4 / 1998.
  15. Mach, M.; Moetnner, P. Zinkguß, die Konservierung von Denkmälern aus Zink, Munich 1999.
  16. Barrandon, J.N.; Meyer-Roudet, H. A la recherche du métal perdu : nouvelles technologies dans la restauration des métaux archéologiques, Paris 1999.
  17. Meissner, B.; Doktor, A.; Mach, M. Bronze und Galvanoplastik-Geschichte-Materialanalyse-Restaurierung, Dresden 2000. (online)
  18. Volfovsky, C.; Philippon, J. La Conservation des metaux, Paris 2001.
  19. Brueggerhoff, S.; Koenigfeld, P. Farbige Eisengitter der Barockzeit: Beiträge zu Geschichte und Funktion, Korrosion und Konservierung, Bochum 2002.
  20. Melucca Vaccaro, A.; De Palma, G. I Bronzi di Riace : restauro come conoscenza : 1: archeologia, restauro, conservazione/vol.1, Roma 2003.
  21. Gaomez Moral, F. Conservacion De Metales De Interes Cultural, Quito 2004.
  22. Letardi, P.; Trentin, I.; Cutugno, G. Monumenti in bronzo all'aperto. Esperienze di conservazione e confronto., Genova 2004.
  23. Ronald Gobiet (Ed.), Die Salzburger Mariensäule - Zur Konservierung monumentaler Bleiplastiken / Sulla conservazione dei monumenti in piombo, Salzburg 2006.
  24. Salvi, A. Meteo e metalli. Conservazione e restauro delle sculture al aperto. Dal Perseo all arte contemporanea, Florence 2007.
  25. Catello, D Il restauro delle opere in argento. Restoration of silver artifacts, Naples 2008.
  26. Schlaepfer, B.R. Metais: Restauracao e conservacao, Rio de Janeiro 2009.
  27. Barrio, J.; Cano, E. (Editores). MetalEspaña ’08. Congreso de Conservación y Restauración del Patrimonio Metálico. UAM-CSIC, Madrid 2009.
  28. Krist, G. Metallrestaurierung-Metallkonservierung: Geschichte, Methode und Praxis, Vienna 2009.
  29. Safarzynski, S.; Weker, W. Wprowadzenie do sztuki konserwacji metalu, Warsaw 2010.
  30. Schmidt-Ott, K. Das Plasma in der Metallkonservierung-Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen, Zurich 2010.(online)
  31. Bruecke, D. Die Konservierung pigmentierter Altbeschichtungen auf Stahlbauten, Saarbrücken 2011.
  32. Diaz Martinez, S.; Garcia Alonso, E. Tecnicas metodologicas applicadas a conservacion-restauracion del patrimonio metalico, Madrid 2011. (online)
  33. Barrio Martin, J.; Chamon Frenandez, J. Proyecto Dorados: tecnología, conservación y restauración de los metales dorados medievales, Madrid 2011.
  34. La técnica radiográafica en los metales históricos (English translation included), Madrid 2011. (online)
  35. Konzervování a restaurování kovů. Ochrana předmětů kulturního dědictví z kovů a jejich slitin, Brno 2011.
  36. Knaut, M.; Jeberien, A. (Hrsg.): Adel verpflichtet - Forschungen und Ergebnisse zur Konservierung und Restaurierung der barockzeitlichen Särge vom Schlossplatz Berlin-Mitte, Berlin 2012.
  37. Conservation of Metal Objects, National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, Daejeon (S. Korea)2012.
  38. Schmutzler, B. Rettung vor dem Rost, Rahden 2012.
  39. Landesamt f. Denkmalpfl. u. Archäologie Sachsen-Anhalt (Hrsg.):Die Merseburger Fürstengruft Geschichte, Zeremoniell, Restaurierung, Halle 2013.
  40. Kuhn, H.; Emerling, E. Werke aus Kupfer, Bronze und Messing, Muenchen 2014.
  41. Projecto Coremans :Criterios de intervención

en materiales metálicos/Intervention criteria for metallic materials, Madrid 2015.(online)

Important older books and articles[edit]

  1. Voss, A. Merkbuch, Altertümer auszugraben und auszibewahren. Eine Anleitung für das Verfahren bei Ausgrabungen, sowie zum Konserviren vor- und frühgeschicht Alterthümer. Greg. auf Veranlassung des Hrn. Ministers der geistl., Unterrichts- und Medizinal Angelegenbeiten. Berlin: Mittler und Sohn, 1888.
  2. Rathgen, F. “Über eine neue Anwendung des elektrischen Stromes zur Konservierung antiker Bronzen.” Prometheus1 (1889): pp. 196–198.
  3. Rathgen, F. “Über Konservierung antiker Bronzen.” Dingler's Polytechnisches Journal7 (1896): pp. 44–45.
  4. Rathgen, F. “Über Reinigung oxydirter antiker Kupfermünzen.” Dingler's Polytechnisches Journal7 (1896): pp. 45–46.
  5. Rathgen, F. “Zapon und seine Verwendung zur Konservierung von Sammlungsgegenständen (Hanschriften, Wachssiegel, Gipsabgüsse, Stein und Ton, Glas, Metall).” Prometheus15 (1903/1904): pp. 485–487, 499–502.
  6. Rathgen, F.“Über die Erhalting von Altertumsfunden aus Metall.” P, Mainz, 1904.
  7. Rhousopoloulos, O.A. “Über die Reinigung und Konservierung der Antiquitäten.” Chemische Zeitschrift2 (1903): pp. 202–204.
  8. Berthelot, M. “Sur l'altération lente des objets de cuivre, au sein de la terre et dans les musées.” Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Scéances de l'Académie des Sciences118 (Paris, 1894): pp. 768–770.
  9. Berthelot, M. “Étude sur les métaux qui composent les objets de cuivre de bronze, d'étain, d'or et d'argent, découverts par M. DeMorgan, dans les fouilles de Dahchour, or provenant du Musée de Gizeh.” Annales de Chimie et de Physique, series 7, 4 (1895): pp. 546–574.
  10. Berthelot, M. “Réaction des chlorures alcalins sur l'argent.” Annales de Chimie et de Physique, series 7, 14 (1898): pp. 205–206.
  11. Berthelot, M. “Sur l'altération lente des alliages métalliques contenant du cuivre, au contact simultané de l'air et des chlorures alcalins.” Annales de Chimie et de Physique, series 7, 22 (1901): p. 457–460.
  12. Applegren, H. “Krefting's Methode für Reinigung und Konservierung von Metalgegenständen.” Finska förnminnesföreningens Tidskrift17 (1897): pp. 333–347.
  13. Frazer, W. “Ulcerative Disease of Bronze, or 'Bronze Cancroid.'.” Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland8 (1898): pp. 61–62.
  14. Setlick, B. “Über natürliche und künstlicheunstliche Patina, sowie Reinigung und Konservierung von Altertümern.” Chemiker-Zeitung 27 (1903): pp. 454–455.
  15. Flinders Petrie, W. M.“The Treatment of Small Antiquities.” Archaeological Journal 65 (1888): pp. 85–89.
  16. Rathgen, F. Die Konservierung von Altertumsfunden, Berlin 1898 (chapter on metals conservation). (English edition online)
  17. Flinders Petrie, W.M. The Method and Aims in Archaeology, London 1904 (chapter on conservation) (online)
  18. Rosenberg, G. Antiquités en fer et en bronze : leur transformation dans la terre contenant de l'acide carbonique et des chlorures et leur conservation, Copenhagen 1917.
  19. Scott, A. The cleaning and restoration of museum exhibits (report upon investigation conducted at the British Museum, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research). London 1921.
  20. Scott, A. The cleaning and restoration of museum exhibits, 2d report. British Museum, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research. London 1923.
  21. Fink, C.G.; Eldridge, C.H. The restoration of ancient bronzes and other alloys, New York 1925.(online)
  22. Galnbek, I.A. Ochistka i sokhranenie metallicheskikh predmetov drevnosti, Leningrad 1925 (first book dedicated to metals conservation/not only bronze and iron)
  23. Scott, A. The cleaning and restoration of museum exhibits, 3d report. British Museum, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research. London 1926.(Russian edition online)
  24. Nichols, H. W. Restoration of ancient bronzes and cure of malignant patina. Chicago 1930. (online)
  25. Lucas, A. Antiques: Their restoration and preservation. London 1932. (online)
  26. Plenderleith, H.J. The preservation of Antiquities, London 1934 (Chapter on metals conservation)
  27. Ocherki po metodike tehnologicheskog issledovaniya restavracii i konservacii drevnih metalicheskih izdeliy, Moscow 1935. (online)
  28. Farmakovskiy, M.V. Konservaciya i restavraciya muzeinih kollekciy, Moscow 1946 (chapter on metals conservation) (online)
  29. Plenderleith, H.J. The Conservation of Antiquities and Works of Art, London 1956 (chapter on metals conservation)
  30. France-Lanord, A. La conservation des antiquites metalliques, Paris 1962.

Online magazines[edit]

Metals conservation blogs[edit]

1.Armas protohistóricas con magnetita, by Jesús Alonso López

2.Conservation of metals - by Catia Viegas-Wesolowska

3.Staffordshire Hoard Blog

4.Cheapside Hoard Blog

Free software that can be used for metals conservation[edit]

  1. The Use of Expert Systems in Conservation
  2. The Modular Cleaning Program
  3. Download free conservators documentation software
  4. Freecorp-simple corrosion prediction software
  5. Online Cellular Automata-based corrosion simulation
  6. DiscoveryMat software

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Moorey, P. R. S., (1988). Early Metallurgy in Mesopotamia, in The Beginning of the Use of Metals and Alloys. Papers from the Second International Conference on the Beginning of the Use of Metals and Alloys, Zhengzhou, China, 21–26 October 1986., ed. R. Maddin Cambridge, Massachusetts & London, England: The MIT Press.
  2. ^ http://www.elsevierdirect.com/brochures/shreir/PDF/Shreirs_PreservationOfMetallicCulturalHeritage.pdf Accessed 16.01.2012.
  3. ^ http://www.elsevierdirect.com/brochures/shreir/PDF/Shreirs_PreservationOfMetallicCulturalHeritage.pdf Accessed 16.01.2012.
  4. ^ Thompson, J.C.: On restoring sacred objects http://cool.conservation-us.org/byauth/thompson/sacred/
  5. ^ Nikitin, M.K.; Melynikova, E.P. Himiya v restavracii, Leningrad 1990., p.176
  6. ^ Nikitin, M.K.; Melynikova, E.P. Himiya v restavracii, Leningrad 1990., p.176
  7. ^ Stambolov, T.; Eichelmann, N.; Bleck, R.D. Korrosion und Konservierung von Kunst und Kulturgut aus Metall/I Weimar 1987.
  8. ^ Nikitin, M.K.; Melynikova, E.P. Himiya v restavracii, Leningrad 1990., p.176
  9. ^ H. Brinch-Madsen, "Die reinigung von eisen mit ammoniakalischer Citronensaure", Arbeitsblatter fur Restauratoren 2/1974
  10. ^ Stambolov, T.; Eichelmann, N.; Bleck, R.D. Korrosion und Konservierung von Kunst und Kulturgut aus Metaall/I Weimar 1987.
  11. ^ Stambolov, T.; Eichelmann, N.; Bleck, R.D. Korrosion und Konservierung von Kunst und Kulturgut aus Metaall/I Weimar 1987.
  12. ^ Stambolov, T.; Eichelmann, N.; Bleck, R.D. Korrosion und Konservierung von Kunst und Kulturgut aus Metaall/I Weimar 1987.
  13. ^ H. Brinch-Madsen, "Die reinigung von eisen mit ammoniakalischer Citronensaure", Arbeitsblatter fur Restauratoren 2/1974
  14. ^ Stambolov, T.; Eichelmann, N.; Bleck, R.D. Korrosion und Konservierung von Kunst und Kulturgut aus Metaall/I Weimar 1987.
  15. ^ Stambolov, T.; Eichelmann, N.; Bleck, R.D. Korrosion und Konservierung von Kunst und Kulturgut aus Metaall/I Weimar 1987.
  16. ^ Baboian, R. (Ed.) Corrosion Tests and Standards, Baltimore 2005.
  17. ^ P. Mottner: Der Aktuell Wissensstand zur Korrosion und Restaurierung/Konservierung von Denkmaelern aus Blei, Zinn, Zink (eine dokumentation), Munich 1993.
  18. ^ Stambolov, T.; Eichelmann, N.; Bleck, R.D. Korrosion und Konservierung von Kunst und Kulturgut aus Metaall/I Weimar 1987.
  19. ^ P. Mottner: Der Aktuell Wissensstand zur Korrosion und Restaurierung/Konservierung von Denkmaelern aus Blei, Zinn, Zink (eine dokumentation), Munich 1993.
  20. ^ P. Mottner: Der Aktuell Wissensstand zur Korrosion und Restaurierung/Konservierung von Denkmaelern aus Blei, Zinn, Zink (eine dokumentation), Munich 1993.
  21. ^ Baboian, R. (Ed.) Corrosion Tests and Standards, Baltimore 2005.
  22. ^ A. Timar-Balazsy, D. Eastop, Chemical principles of textile conservation, Butterworth Heinemann, 1998.
  23. ^ "Surface treatment of titanium," The Titanium Information Group, Rotherham 1998.
  24. ^ Kunze, E. Korrosion und Korosionsschutz, Berlin 2001.
  25. ^ USPT 4,264,418
  26. ^ USPT 4,264,418
  27. ^ http://www.uva.nl/en/about-the-uva/organisation/faculties/content/faculteit-der-geesteswetenschappen/shared-content/events/workshops/2013/10/masterclass-3d.html Retrieved 13.12.2013.
  28. ^ http://www.alsacorp.com/products/mirrachrome/mirra_prodinfo.htm
  29. ^ http://www.bare-metal.com/bare-metal-foil.html
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  32. ^ Brinch Madsen, H. A preliminary note on the use of benzotriazole for stabilizing bronze objects, Studies in Conservation 12/4 1967.
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  34. ^ http://nautarch.tamu.edu/CRL/conservationmanual/File12.htm#Sodium
  35. ^ Brinch Madsen, H. A preliminary note on the use of benzotriazole for stabilizing bronze objects, Studies in Conservation 12/4 1967.
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  37. ^ Белкин А.П., Нацкий М.В. Метод-обработки очагов "бронзовой болезни" медных сплавов сульфидами аммония // Реставрация памятников истории и культуры / ГБЛ, Информкультура / Экспресс-ингформация. - М., 1987. Вып. 3. - С. 6-8.
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  39. ^ Affaizza Mohd Shah, Afidah Abdul Rahim, Shafida Abdul Hamid, Solhan Yahya, “Mangrove (Rhizophora apiculata) tannins as green corrosion inhibitors for copper in acidic medium”, Refereed Proceedings of ICORAFSS 2009, 2–4 June 2009, johor Bahru, Malaysia, 146-149. [ISBN 978-983-9805-73-4]
  40. ^ Gilberg, M.; Seeley, N. The Alkaline Sodium Sulphite Reduction Process for Archaeological Iron: A Closer Look, Studies in Conservation, London 1982.
  41. ^ http://www.viks.sk/chk/studcon_2_05_81_100.doc Selwyn, L.; Argyropoulos, V. Removal of Chloride and Iron Ions from Archaeological Wrought Iron with Sodium Hydroxide and Ethylenediamine Solutions Accessed 12.04.2012.
  42. ^ T. Stambolov, R.D. Bleck, N. Eichelmann, Korrosion und Konservierung von Kunst und Kulturgut aus Metall/I, Weimar, 1987.
  43. ^ T. Stambolov, R.D. Bleck, N. Eichelmann, Korrosion und Konservierung von Kunst und Kulturgut aus Metall/I, Weimar, 1987.
  44. ^ https://biblio.ugent.be/input/record?func=publicRecord&recordOId=000470013&context=search, Accessed 19.01.2012.
  45. ^ http://www.heritagesciencejournal.com/content/2/1/14/abstract Accessed 27.08.2014.
  46. ^ Brinch Madsen, H. A preliminary note on the use of benzotriazole for stabilizing bronze objects, Studies in Conservation 12/4 1967.
  47. ^ USPT 6,805,756
  48. ^ MacLeod, I.D. Stabilization of corroded aluminum: the Bertram Seapleane Float http://www.museum.wa.gov.au/maritime-archaeology-web/sites/default/files/mcleod.doc Accessed 12.03.2012
  49. ^ USPT 4,054,466
  50. ^ S. Yahya, A. Abdul Rahim, R. Adnan, A. Mohd Shah, R. Adnan, “Tannins: Eco-friendly corrosion inhibitors for aluminium alloy”, Refereed Proceedings of the Symposium of USM Fellowship Holders 2009, 14–15 November 2009, USM, Penang [ISBN 978-967-5417-48-1]
  51. ^ Aluminium-Taschenbuch, Duesseldorf 1963.
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  54. ^ Feller, R.L., N. Stolow, and E.H. Jones. 1985. On picture varnishes and their solvents. Revised and enlarged ed. Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art
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  58. ^ Selwitz, C Cellulose Nitrate in Conservation
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External links[edit]

Articles and presentations[edit]

  1. ICOM CC WG Metals
  2. BROMEC - Bulletin of Research On Metal Conservation
  3. METALConsninfo (Metals Conservation Catalog subpage - including big collection of links //300 links!!!//)
  4. ICON Metals Group
  5. Коррозионные разрушения археологического железа и методы его стабилизации
  6. MEDAL project
  7. UCLA metals course-archived presentations
  8. Society for Historical Archaeology-Conservation FAQ and facts
  9. Building Conservation-articles on metals conservation
  10. Development and Testing of Organic Coatings for the Protection of Outdoor Bronze Sculpture from Air-Pollutant Enhanced Corrosion – Year (2001-09)
  11. Development and Testing of Organic Coatings for the Protection of Outdoor Bronze Sculpture from Air-Pollutant Enhanced Corrosion – Year 2 (2001-08)
  12. Development and Testing of Organic Coatings for the Preservation of Outdoor Bronze Sculpture from Air-Pollutant Enhanced Corrosion – Year 3 (2002-18)
  13. Development and Evaluation of Removable Protective Coatings on Bronze (2004-27)
  14. Research Into Protective Coating Systems for Outdoor Bronze Sculpture and Ornamentation Phase I (1997-03)
  15. Research into Protective Coating Systems for Outdoor Bronze Sculpture and Ornamentation Phase II (1999-23)
  16. Research into Protective Coating Systems for Outdoor Bronze Sculpture and Ornamentation Phase III (2000-08)
  17. R.W. Hoge: Conservation Rules for Coins and Medals
  18. A Framework for Conservation of metals
  19. Recognizing Metals and their Corrosion Products
  20. Schotte, B. Adriaens, A. Treatments of Corroded Lead Artefacts - An Overview
  21. A Simple Guide for Archaeological Materials Characterization
  22. Russian article on tannin-based treatment of "bronze disease" (in Russian - Try Google Translator, it is free)
  23. CONSIST project
  24. Hamilton, D. Methods of Conserving Archaeological Material from Underwater Sites
  25. Native American Jewelry Conservation Project: Part 2
  26. Siano, S. Laser Ablation in Conservation of Artworks
  27. CCI Notes 9/2 Storage of Metals
  28. CCI Notes 9/1 Recognizing Active Corrosion
  29. CCI Notes 9/4 Basic Care of Coins and Medals
  30. Watkinson, D. Preservation of Metallic Cultural Heritage,2010.
  31. Boissonnas, V. An introduction to the history of metals conservation
  32. Preservapedia - Metals conservation
  33. Grissom, C.A. The Conservation of American War Memorials Made of Zinc
  34. Bailey, G.T. Stabilization of wrecked and corroded aluminium aircraft
  35. CCI Notes 9/3 The Cleaning, Polishing and Protective Waxing of Brass and Copper
  36. CCI Silver Care and Tarnish removal
  37. CCI Notes 9/8 Mechanical Removal of Rust fom Machined Ferrous Surfaces
  38. CCI Notes 9/5 Tannic Acid Treatment
  39. Care and Conservation of Pewter
  40. Conservation of lead sculpture
  41. Conservation of lead, tin and lead alloys
  42. Watkinson, D. Conserving cultural material : Ethical challenges for the conservator
  43. Minimum Common Standards Definition – Model Curricula Metals -EQF Level 7 - ECPL
  44. Laboratorie d archeologie des metaux, Nancy
  45. The TIGHAR Guide to Aviation Historic Preservation Terminology
  46. Hayha, H. THE HISTORY OF IRON PROTECTION. DESCRIPTION OF MATERIALS AND EVALUATION OF THEIR PROPERTIES
  47. National Research Laboratory for Conservation of Cultural Property, Lucknow, India-research papers, some good articles on metals conservation
  48. Care and Handling of Bronze Objects
  49. Wanhill, R.J.H. Brittle archaeological silver- identification, restoration and conservation
  50. Conservation of iron and steelwork in historic structures and machinery/Maintenance handbook
  51. Finishing Techniques in Metalwork
  52. AIC Metals Conservation wiki
  53. Care of Objects Made of Zinc
  54. Aircraft Restoration Practice and Philosophy
  55. The France-Lanord collection
  56. Funcionalidad vs conservacion en piezas de orfebreria...
  57. Creating a microclimate box for metal storage
  58. Identifying Archaeological Metal
  59. Conservation Case Studies: A medieval tabernacle from Cologne
  60. Cleaning treatment of a tarnished Daguerreotype by using the reducing afterglow of an atmospheric plasma
  61. Plazmochemické procesy a technologie pro konzervaci kovových archeologických předmětů
  62. Protection of metal artifacts with the formation of metal–oxalates complexes by Beauveria bassiana
  63. The Croatian Apoxyomenos
  64. Серебряный кратир из Новгорода отреставрируют лазером
  65. Guidelines for the Storage and Display of Archaeological Metalwork
  66. NHIG Conservation Principles for Heritage Forged and Cast Ironwork
  67. An ABS Recycled Coating for Corrosion Protection and Conservation of Copper and Alloys of Cultural or Historic Value

Download free books[edit]

  1. Metallography and Microstructure of Ancient and Historic Metals
  2. Ancient and Historic Metals-Conservation and Scientific Research
  3. Metals in America's Historic Buildings - Uses and Preservation Treatments
  4. Diaz Martinez, S.; Garcia Alonso, E. Tecnicas metodologicas aplicadas a la conservacion-restauracion del patrimonio metalico, Madrid 2011.
  5. La técnica radiográafica en los metales históricos (English translation included), Madrid 2011.
  6. Mach, M.; Doktor, A.; Meissner, B. Bronze und Galvanoplastik-Geschichte-Materialanlyse-Restaurierung, Dresden 2001.
  7. РЕСТАВРАЦИЯ МЕТАЛЛА. Методические рекомендации (1989)(in Russian – try Google translator – it is free, translation can be very silly)
  8. El Relicario de santa Lucia:Restauracion, analisis y estudio Historico-artistico
  9. Katharina Schmidt-Ott Das Plasma in Der metAll Konservierung– mögliChKeiten unD grenzen
  10. Ligas metálicas : Investigação e conservação
  11. Stambolov, T.;Bleck, R.D.;Eichelmann, N. Korrosion und Konservierung von Kunst und Kulturgut aus Metall/I(1987.)
  12. Stambolov, T.;Bleck, R.D.; Eichelmann, N. Korrosion und Konservierung von Kunst und Kulturgut aus Metall/II(1988.)

Download free conference proceedings[edit]

  1. Archaeological Iron Conservation Colloquium 2010 Abstracts/1
  2. Archaeological Iron Conservation Colloquium 2010 Abstracts /2
  3. Archaeological Iron Conservation Colloquium 2010 Abstracts /3
  4. Archaeological Iron Conservation Colloquium 2010 Abstracts/4
  5. Archaeological Iron Conservation Colloquium 2010 Abstracts/posters
  6. Bronze colloquium 2012. conference brochure
  7. Anais 2. Congresso Latino-americano de restauracao de metais, Rio de Janeiro 2005.
  8. IV Congreso Latinoamericano de Conservación y Restauración de Metal
  9. Big Stuff 2004. - conference papers
  10. Incredible Industry
  11. METAL 2010. proceedings
  12. METAL 2004-proceedings of conference
  13. Extended Abstracts ENAMEL 2010
  14. 4th Biennial Experts’ Meeting on Enamel on Metal Conservation, Barcelona 2012.
  15. Lets Putz Silber 2014.
  16. History, Technology and Conservation of Ancient Metals, Glasses and Enamels
  17. Actas del II Congreso de Conservación y Restauración del Patrimonio Metálico. MetalEspaña 2015

Download free theses[edit]

  1. Folgado Martins, M. La practica de la limpieza con laser en materiales metalicos - hierro, cobre, plata
  2. Marušić, K. Protection of patinated bronze by non toxic inhibitors, thesis, Zagreb 2010.
  3. Strandberg, H. Perspectives on Bronze Sculpture Conservation. Modelling Copper and Bronze Corrosion, thesis
  4. L.B. Brostoff: Coating Strategies for the Protection of Outdoor Bronze Art and Ornamentation (thesis)
  5. Regis Bertholon: La limite de la surface d origine des objets metalliques archeologiques - doctoral thesis
  6. Castillo Narrea, L.E.J.A. Conservacion y Restauracion de algunos objetos arqueologicos: Arte, Tecnica y Metalurgia, Santiago de Chile 2008. - thesis
  7. Koh, Y.S. Laser Cleaning as a Conservation Technique for Corroded Metal Artifacts, doctoral thesis, Lulea 2006.
  8. Hollner, S. Development de nouveaux traitements de protection a base d acide carboxylique...
  9. Carrasco, G.L. Preservacao de artefatos ornamentais de ferro integrados a arqitetura...
  10. Saleh, A.M.S. CONSERVATION METHODS OF IRON ARTIFACTS RECOVERED FROM THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT
  11. Rimmer, M.B. Investigating the treatment of chloride-infested archaeological iron objects
  12. Thickett, D. Post Excavation Changes and Preventive Conservation of Archaeological Iron
  13. A study of the electrolitic reduction of corroded lead object and the application, characterization and testing of a protective lead carboxylate coating/ doctoral thesis by Bart Schotte
  14. Cano Diaz, Emilio (2004) Efecto de los vapores de los acidos acetico y formico en la degradacion y patinado del cobre. Thesis PhD.
  15. Alonso Cantalapiedra, Maria de la Paz (2001)Efectos de la contaminacion atmosferica en la esculturas de bronce:estudio de la patina. Thesis PhD.
  16. Valle y Diaz, Felix del (2001) La electroquimica y las poliamidas en la restauracion reversible y a fuego de la orfebreria esmaltada. Thesis PhD.
  17. Kolmanitsch, G. Pflege und Massnahmen Konzept fuer Bronzen in Freien-Am Beispiel des Marc Anton Monuments, Wien -Secession(thesis)
  18. Casanova, M. G. Metales arqueologicos de la costa norte del Peru: Conservacion, Analisis y Restauracion
  19. Rivera Diaz, J. A. Restauracion Y Conservacion De Metales Arqueologicos Submarinos:Plata y bronce
  20. Fox, G.L. Bronze Age Objects from Tel Nami, Israel:Their Conservation and Implications for Ancient Metallurgy in the Eastern Mediterranean
  21. Gujarathi, K. Corrosion of Aluminium Alloy 2024 Belonging to The 1930s in Seawater Environment-thesis(2008.)
  22. Chamon Fernandez, J. Arqueometria, Conservacion y Restauracion de los metales dorados medievales, doctoral thesis
  23. Nunez, G.A.N. Tres casos de restauracion y conservacion de metales arqueologicos, thesis Santiago de Chile 2010.
  24. Garcia, J.M. METODOLOGÍA Y TÉCNICAS DE CONSERVACIÓN DE OBJetos arqueologicos de hierro
  25. Berankova, R. Konzervovane kovovehu artefaktu(železna sekyra)
  26. Einarsdottir, S.S. Mass-conservation of Archaeological Iron Artefacts
  27. Brueck, D. Ermittlung eines pigmentierten Beschichtungssystems zur Konservierung von historischen Stahlbauten bei Erhalt der Altbeschichtung– am Beispiel eines Dachtragwerkes in Hamburg
  28. Pappot, A. Lokale behandeling van bronspest
  29. The Evaluation of Corrosion Inhibitors for Application to Copper and Copper Alloy Archaeological Artefacts by R. Faltermeier
  30. The Formation of Acetate Corrosion on Bronze Antiquities:Characterisation and Conservation by Alice Boccia Paterakis
  31. Desalination of Archaeological Composite Objects Consisting of Wrought Iron and Wood/Bone. With Focus on the Iron Component by Sigridur Thorgeirsdottir
  32. Crawford, J. "Case studies in the determination of the original surface limits of the ferrous armour of the Order of St John, Palace Armoury, Malta"
  33. Pienimäki;A. :Desalination of iron - A comparison of fresh, wet finds and dry, storaged ones.
  34. Lewis,M. The Influence of Atmospheric Moisture on the Corrosion of Chloride-Contaminated Wrought Iron

Metals conservation video files[edit]

  1. Conserving Bronze: The Lamp with Erotes from Vani
  2. Caring for Metals - Housekeeping for Historic Sites
  3. USS Monitor Engine Removed from Water
  4. Laser Cleaning of Bronze Eagle in Oak Park
  5. Re-Constructing Silver Objects from the Staffordshire Hoard
  6. Erik Risser Describes the Conservation of the Apollo Saettante at the Getty Villa
  7. CoinScubber - Cleaning Ancient Coins
  8. Cleaning an Outdoor Sculpture Part I
  9. Dorure au mercure
  10. Fachhochschule Potsdam Metallrestaurierung
  11. Repatination of a Bronze WWII Memorial Plaque
  12. Restoring an Artifact at the SCCRRMM
  13. Clemson Conservation Center: H.L. Hunley submarine - Part 1/3
  14. NCPTT Iron Fence Repair - Cemetery Monument Conservation
  15. Restoration of the USS Monitor
  16. Apoxyomenos de Croacia 5
  17. Bronze Age Fibula
  18. Patina & corrosion surfaces on ancient bronzes
  19. Campanas medievales limpieza criogenica
  20. Restauro David Donatello
  21. Cruz Parroquial de la iglesia de Santa María de la Asunción de Estepa (Sevilla)
  22. Il nuovo intervento di restauro sui Bronzi di Riace
  23. Il restauro della base originale del Cinghiale in Firenze
  24. Restauración y conservación de los cañones de La Sabana
  25. Conservation of iron artefacts at Jamestown
  26. Cleaning the Staffordshire Hoard - K551 and K1775.
  27. Conservation of Henry Moore's bronze sculpture 'Knife Edge Two Piece'