Metaphors We Live By

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Metaphors We Live By
Metaphors We Live By book cover.jpg
AuthorGeorge Lakoff and Mark Johnson
SubjectConceptual metaphor
PublisherUniversity of Chicago Press

Metaphors We Live By is a book by George Lakoff and Mark Johnson published in 1980.[1][2]


Conceptual metaphor and a detailed examination of the underlying processes, was first extensively explored in this book. Since then, the field of metaphor studies within the larger discipline of cognitive linguistics has increasingly developed, with several, annual academic conferences, scholarly societies, and research labs contributing to the subject area. Some researchers, such as Gerard Steen, have worked to develop empirical investigative tools for metaphor research, including the metaphor identification procedure, or MIP.[3] In Psychology, Raymond W. Gibbs, Jr., has investigated conceptual metaphor and embodiment through a number of psychological experiments. Other cognitive scientists, for example Gilles Fauconnier, study subjects similar to conceptual metaphor under the labels "analogy", "conceptual blending" and "ideasthesia".

Conceptual metaphors are seen in language in our everyday lives. Conceptual metaphors shape not just our communication, but also shape the way we think and act. In George Lakoff and Mark Johnson's work, Metaphors We Live By (1980), we see how everyday language is filled with metaphors we may not always notice. An example of one of the commonly used conceptual metaphors is "argument is war".[4]


  1. ^ "Review of "Metaphors We Live By". Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  2. ^ Arleo, Andy (1993). "George Lakoff and Mark Johnson, Metaphors we live by". Cahiers de l'APLIUT. 12 (3): 106–108. doi:10.3406/apliu.1993.2856. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  3. ^ A method for linguistic metaphor identification : from MIP to MIPVU. Steen, Gerard. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Pub. Co. 2010. ISBN 9789027288158. OCLC 650090590.CS1 maint: others (link)
  4. ^ Lakoff and Johnson, Ch.1-3