Jump to content


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Islamic portrayal of the angel Metatron (Arabic: ميططرون) depicted in the Daqa'iq al-Haqa'iq (دقائق الحقایق 'Degrees of Truths') by Nasir ad-Din Rammal in the 14th century CE.

Metatron (Mishnaic Hebrew: מֶטָטְרוֹןMeṭāṭrōn),[1][a][b][5][6] or Matatron (מַטַּטְרוֹן, Maṭṭaṭrōn),[7][8] is an angel in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Metatron is mentioned three times in the Talmud,[9][1][10] in a few brief passages in the Aggadah, the Targum,[11] and in mystical Kabbalistic texts within Rabbinic literature. The figure forms one of the traces for the presence of dualist proclivities in the otherwise monotheistic visions of both the Tanakh and later Christian doctrine.[12] In Rabbinic literature, he is sometimes portrayed as serving as the celestial scribe.[9][11] The name Metatron is not mentioned in the Torah or the Bible, and how the name originated is a matter of debate. In Islamic tradition, he is also known as Mīṭaṭrūn (Arabic: ميططرون), the angel of the veil.[13][14]: 192 

In Jewish apocrypha, early Kabbalah, and rabbinic literature,[11] Metatron is the name that Enoch received after his transformation into an angel.


Numerous etymologies have been proposed to account for the name Metatron, but there is no consensus, and its precise origin is unknown.[15][16]: 92–97  Some scholars, such as Philip Alexander, believe that if the name Metatron originated in Hekhalot literature and Merkabah texts such as 3 Enoch, then it may have been a magical word like Adiriron and Dapdapiron.[17]

Hugo Odeberg[18] Adolf Jellinek[19] and Marcus Jastrow[20] suggest the name may have originated from either mattara (מטרא, lit.'keeper of the watch') or the verb memater (ממטר, 'to guard' or 'to protect'). An early derivation of this can be seen in Shimmusha Rabbah, where Enoch is clothed in light and is the guardian of the souls ascending to heaven. Odeberg also suggested that the name Metatron might have been adopted from the Old Persian name Mithra.[18] Citing Wiesner,[21] he drew up several parallels that appeared to link Mithra and Metatron based on their positions in heaven and duties.

Another hypothesis would derive Metatron from a combination of two Greek words, μετά (meta, meaning 'after') and θρóνος (thronos, meaning 'throne'), which, taken together, would suggest the idea of 'one who serves behind the throne' or 'one who occupies the throne next to the throne of glory'.[22] The primary arguments against this etymology are that Metatron's function as a servant of the celestial throne emerges only later in the traditions regarding him, and θρóνος itself is not attested as a word in Talmudic literature.[23]

A connection with the word σύνθρονος (synthronos) used as 'co-occupant of the divine throne', has been advanced by some scholars;[c] This, like the above etymology, is not found in any source materials.[18] It is supported by Saul Lieberman and Peter Schäfer, who give further reasons why this might be a viable etymology.[25] The Latin word metator ('messenger, guide, leader, measurer') had been suggested by Eleazar of Worms (c. 1165c. 1230), Nachmanides, and brought to light again by Hugo Odeberg.[18] When transliterated into the Hebrew language, it is given as מטיטור (mṭyṭwr) or מיטטור (myṭṭwr). Gershom Scholem argues that there is no data to justify the conversion of metator to Metatron.[26] Philip Alexander also suggests this as a possible origin of Metatron, stating that the word metator also occurs in Greek as mitator – a word for an officer in the Roman army who acted as a forerunner. Using this etymology, Alexander suggests the name may have come about as a description of 'the angel of the Lord who led the Israelites through the wilderness: acting like a Roman army metator guiding the Israelites on their way'.[27][28]

Other ideas include μέτρον (metron, 'a measure').[29] Charles Mopsik believes that the name Metatron may be related to the sentence from Genesis 5:24, "Enoch walked with God, then he was no more, because God took him".[30] The LXX version of the Hebrew word לָקַ֥ח ("took") is μετέθηκεν.

In the entry entitled "Paradigmata" in his study "'The Written' as the Vocation of Conceiving Jewishly", John W. McGinley gives an accounting of how this name functions in the Bavli's version of "four entered pardes".[31]


From Hellenistic times, mention of a second divine figure, either beside YHWH or beneath him, occur in a number of Jewish texts, mostly apocryphal. These Jewish traditions implying a divine dualism were most frequently associated with Enoch. In the rabbinic period they center on 'Metatron', often in the context of debates over the heretical doctrine of 'two powers in heaven' (shtei rashuyot ba-shamayim).[32][12] Ultimately, these ideas appear to go back to differing interpretations of the heavenly enthronement passages at Exodus 24:10, Daniel 7:9. and perhaps even Ezekiel 1:26.[33][full citation needed] These different interpretations later came to distinguish what was orthodox from what was heretical in Judaism.[citation needed]

Among the pseudepigrapha 1 Enoch: Book of Parables presents two figures: the son of man and Enoch. At first, these two characters seem to be separate entities. Enoch views the son of man enthroned in Heaven. Later, however, they prove to be one and the same. Many scholars believe that the final chapters in the Book of Parables are a later addition. Others think they are not and that the son of man is Enoch's heavenly double similarly to the Prayer of Joseph where Jacob is depicted as an angel.[16] The Book of Daniel displays two similar characters: the Ancient of Days and the one like a man. Parts of the text in Daniel are Aramaic and may have been changed in translation. The Septuagint reads that the son of man came as the Ancient of Days. All other translations say the son of man gained access to the Ancient of Days and was brought before that one.[34]

The identification of Enoch with Metatron in 3 Enoch, where the name first appears, is not explicitly made in the Talmud although it does refer to a Prince of the World who was young but now is old. However, some of the earliest kabbalists assumed the connection. There also seems to be two Metatrons, one spelled with six letters (מטטרון), and one spelled with seven (מיטטרון). The former may be the transformed Enoch, Prince of the Countenance within the divine palace; the latter, the Primordial Metatron, an emanation of the "Cause of Causes", specifically the tenth and last emanation, identified with the earthly Divine Presence.[35] Furthermore, the Merkabah text Re'uyot Yehezkel identifies the Ancient of Days from the Book of Daniel as Metatron.[34]

Scholem's scholastic analysis[edit]

Many scholars see a discontinuity between how Enoch is portrayed in the early Enoch literature, and how Metatron is portrayed. Scholars commonly see the character of Metatron as being based on an amalgam of Jewish literature; in addition to Enoch, Michael, Melchizedek, and Yahoel among others are seen as influences.[16]

Scholem argues Metatron's character was influenced by two streams of thought: One linking Metatron with Enoch, and one fusing different obscure entities and mythic motifs.[36] Scholem argues that this second tradition was originally separate but later fused with the Enoch tradition.[16] He points to texts where this second Metatron is a primordial angel and referred to as Metatron Rabbah.[16] Scholem theorizes that the two Hebrew spellings of Metatron's name represent these two separate traditions.[16] In his view, the second Metatron is linked to Yahoel. Scholem also links Yahoel with Michael.[16] In the Apocalypse of Abraham, Yahoel is assigned duties normally reserved for Michael. Yahoel's name is commonly seen as a substitute for the Ineffable Name.[37]

In 2 Enoch, Enoch is assigned titles commonly used by Metatron such as "the Youth, the Prince of the Presence and the Prince of the World."[16] However, Enoch is not referred to as the Lesser YHWH.[16] In 3 Enoch, Metatron is called the Lesser YHWH. This raises a problem since the name Metatron does not seem to be directly related to the name of God YHWH.[16] Scholem proposes that this is because the Lesser YHWH is a reference to Yahoel.[16] In Maaseh Merkabah, the text reasons that Metatron is called the Lesser YHWH because in Hebrew gematria, Metatron is numerically equivalent to another name of God Shaddai.[38] Scholem does not find this convincing.[16][39] Scholem points to the fact that both Yahoel and Metatron were known as the Lesser YHWH. In 3 Enoch 48D1, Metatron is called both Yahoel Yah and Yahoel.[40] In addition to being one of the seventy names of Metatron from 3 Enoch 48D, Yahoel and Metatron are also linked in Aramaic incantation bowl inscriptions.[16][41]


The Babylonian Talmud mentions Metatron by name in three places: Hagigah 15a, Sanhedrin 38b, and Avodah Zarah 3b.

Hagigah 15a describes Elisha ben Abuyah in Paradise seeing Metatron sitting down (an action that is not done in the presence of God). Elishah ben Abuyah therefore looks to Metatron as a deity and says heretically: "Perhaps there are, God forbid, two powers in Heaven!"[9] The rabbis explain that Metatron had permission to sit because of his function as the Heavenly Scribe, writing down the deeds of Israel.[42] The Talmud states that it was proved to Elisha that Metatron could not be a second deity by the fact that Metatron received 60 "strokes with fiery rods" to demonstrate that Metatron was not a god, but an angel, and could be punished.[43]

In Sanhedrin 38b, one of the minim tells Rabbi Idith that Metatron should be worshiped because he has a name like his master. Rabbi Idith uses the same passage Exodus 23:21 to show that Metatron was an angel and not a deity and thus should not be worshiped. Furthermore, as an angel, Metatron has no power to pardon transgressions nor was he to be received even as a messenger of forgiveness.[43][44]

In Avodah Zarah 3b, the Talmud hypothesizes as to how God spends his day. It is suggested that in the fourth quarter of the day God sits and instructs the school children, while in the preceding three quarters Metatron may take God's place or God may do this among other tasks.

Yevamot 16b records an utterance, "I have been young; also I have been old" found in Psalm 37:25. The Talmud here attributes this utterance to the "chief angel" and "prince of the world", whom the rabbinic tradition identifies as Metatron.[45]


The tenth century Karaite scholar Jacob Qirqisani believed that rabbinic Judaism was the heresy of Jeroboam of the Kingdom of Israel.[46] He quoted a version of Sanhedrin 38b,[47] which he claimed contained a reference to the "lesser YHWH". Scholem suggests that the name was deliberately omitted from later copies of the Talmud.[48] Extra-talmudic mystical texts such as Sefer Hekhalot do speak of a "lesser YHWH", apparently deriving the concept from Exodus 23:21, which mentions an angel of whom God says "my name [understood as YHWH, the usual divine Proper Name] is in him".

Merkabah, Zohar and other mystical writings[edit]

Metatron also appears in the Pseudepigrapha including Shi'ur Qomah, and most prominently in the Hebrew Merkabah Book of Enoch, also called 3 Enoch or Sefer Hekhalot (Book of [the Heavenly] Palaces). The book describes the link between Enoch, son of Jared (great-grandfather of Noah) and his transformation into the angel Metatron.

Metatron says, "He [the Holy One] called me, 'The lesser YHVH' in the presence of his whole household in the height, as it is written, 'my name is in him.'" (12:5, Alexander's translation.) The narrator of this book, supposedly Rabbi Ishmael, tells how Metatron guided him through Heaven and explained its wonders. 3 Enoch presents Metatron in two ways: as a primordial angel (9:2–13:2) and as the transformation of Enoch after he was assumed into Heaven.[49][50]

And Enoch walked with God: and he was not; for God took him.

— Genesis 5:24, King James Version[51]

This Enoch, whose flesh was turned to flame, his veins to fire, his eye-lashes to flashes of lightning, his eye-balls to flaming torches, and whom God placed on a throne next to the throne of glory, received after this heavenly transformation the name Metatron.[52]

Metatron "the Youth", a title previously used in 3 Enoch, where it appears to mean "servant".[50] It identifies him as the angel that led the people of Israel through the wilderness after their exodus from Egypt (again referring to Exodus 23:21), and describes him as a heavenly priest.

In the later Ecstatic Kabbalah, Metatron is a messianic figure.[53]

The Zohar describes Metatron as the "King of the angels".[54] and associates the concept of Metatron with that of the divine name Shaddai.[55] Zohar commentaries such as the Ohr Yakar by Moses ben Jacob Cordovero explain the Zohar as meaning that Metatron as the head of Yetzira[56] This corresponds closely with Maimonides' description of the Talmudic "Prince of the World",[57] traditionally associated with Metatron,[58] as the core "Active Intellect."[59][60]

The Zohar describes several biblical figures as metaphors for Metatron. Examples are Enoch,[61][62] Joseph,[63][64] Eliezer,[65] Joshua,[66] and others. The Zohar finds the word youth used to describe Joseph and Joshua a hint that the figures are a metaphor to Metatron, and also the concept of servant by Eliezer as a reference to Metatron.[67] The Staff of Moses is also described by the Zohar[62] as a reference to Metatron. The Zohar also states that the two tets in totaphot (the Biblical Hebrew term for the phylacteries) are a reference to Metatron.[68] The Zohar draws distinction between Metatron and Michael.[69] While Michael is described repeatedly in the Zohar as the figure represented by the High Priest, Metatron is represented by the structure of the tabernacle itself.[69]

Apocalyptic texts[edit]

In the Apocalypse of Zerubbabel, Metatron is not identified as Enoch. Instead he is identified as the archangel Michael.[16][36] The text also records that Metatron in gematria is the equivalent of Shaddai.[36] While he also appears in other apocalyptic writings, he is most prominent in the Apocalypse of Zerubbabel.[36] In these writings, he plays the role of heavenly interlocutor delivering knowledge about the coming messianic age.[36]


The earliest account of Metatron within Islamic scriptures might derive directly from the Quran itself. Uzair, according to Surah 9:30–31 venerated as a Son of God by Jews, commonly interpreted as an Arabic transliteration of the Hebrew name of the prophet Ezra, who was also identified with Enoch and Metatron in Merkabah Mysticism.[14]: 184  Islamic heresiologists repeatedly accused Jews for venerating an angel as a lesser god (or an Incarnation of God), especially for celebrating Rosh Hashanah.[70] The name itself is attested early in Islam by Al-Kindi and Al-Masudi.[14]: 192  Al-Suyuti identifies him as the angel of the veil and only he knows about that which lies beyond.[71][13][14]: 193  He is also frequently mentioned in the magical works by Ahmad al-Buni, who describes Metatron as wearing a crown and a lance, probably constituting the Staff of Moses.[14]: 198  In other magical practises, he is invoked to ward off evil jinn, devils, sorcerers and other magical threats.[14]: 199 

Ibn Hazm mentions that Jews, although regarding Metatron as an angel, would celebrate Metatron as a lesser god ten days each year, perhaps a reference to Rosh Hashanah in connection with Merkabah mysticism that Metatron took part on the creation of the world.[70]

In popular culture[edit]

Alan Rickman played Metatron in 1999

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Also written as מְטַטְרוֹן, Məṭaṭrōn,[2] מֵיטַטְרוֹן, Mēṭaṭrōn, מִיטַטְרוֹן, Mīṭaṭrōn,[3] מֶיטַטְרוֹן, Meṭaṭrōn,[4] מִטַּטְרוֹן, Mīṭṭaṭrōn
  2. ^ There are two spelling variations of the name Metatron that can be found in the Talmud. Firstly there is the more full spelling of מיטטרון, as can be seen in Chagigah 15a:6. The consonant yod (י) acts as a mater lectionis (mother of reading), usually indicating the vowel hiriq (ī). Secondly there is the slightly shorter and more common spelling of מטטרון without the yod, as can be seen in Sanhedrin 38b:19 for example. With the absence of the yod representing the vowel hiriq, this vowel would be pronounced shorter. This short hiriq (ī) would also cause the teth (ט) following the mem (מ) to geminate, giving the pronunciation of Mīṭṭaṭrōn (מִטַּטְרוֹן). The full spelling with yod representing hiriq may also indicate that the name has its origins in the word Mīṭāṭōr (מִיטָטוֹר), referring to a measurer of boundaries; an officer sent in advance of persons of high rank, or of troops, to lay out the camp or to arrange quarters; a quartermaster.
  3. ^ synthronos, the Greek term metatyrannos, which can be translated as "the one next to the ruler".[24]


  1. ^ a b "Sanhedrin 38b:19". www.sefaria.org. Retrieved 10 June 2023.
  2. ^ "Bereshit Rabbah 5:4". Sefaria.
  3. ^ "Incantation bowl, late-post Sasanian, 6th C.-8th C." The British Museum.
  4. ^ "Chagigah 15a:6". Sefaria.
  5. ^ Jastrow, Marcus (1903). "Jastrow, מִיטָטוֹר". Sefaria.
  6. ^ Jastrow, Marcus (2004) [1903]. A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic Literature. Judaica Treasury. p. 767. ISBN 978-1-932-44320-2.
  7. ^ Jastrow, Marcus (1903). "Jastrow, מַטַּטְרוֹן". Sefaria.
  8. ^ Schechter, Solomon; Levias, Caspar. "GEMAṬRIA: Metatron". Jewish Encyclopedia.
  9. ^ a b c "Chagigah 15a:5". www.sefaria.org. Retrieved 10 June 2023.
  10. ^ "Avodah Zarah 3b:12". www.sefaria.org. Retrieved 10 June 2023.
  11. ^ a b c "Targum Jonathan on Genesis 5:24". www.sefaria.org. Retrieved 2024-05-22.
  12. ^ a b Stroumsa, Guy G. (2015). The Making of the Abrahamic Religions in Late Antiquity. Oxford University Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-198-73886-2.
  13. ^ a b Burge, Stephen R. (2015). Angels in Islam - Jalal Al-Din Al-Suyuti's Al-Haba'ik Fi Akhbar Al-mala'ik. Taylor & Francis. p. 48. ISBN 978-1-136-50474-7.
  14. ^ a b c d e f Wasserstrom, Steven M. (2014). Between Muslim and Jew: The Problem of Symbiosis Under Early Islam. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-1-400-86413-3.
  15. ^ Orlov, Andrei A. "The Name "Metatron"" (PDF). The Enoch-Metatron Tradition. pp. 92–96. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 October 2021.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Orlov, Andrei A. (2005). "Evolution of the Roles and Titles in Early Enochic Booklets". The Enoch-Metatron Tradition. Texts and Studies in Ancient Judaism. Vol. 107. Mohr Siebeck. pp. 83–86, 140–142. doi:10.1628/978-3-16-158687-3. ISBN 978-3-161-48544-2. S2CID 198676033.
  17. ^ Alexander, Philip S. (1977). The Historical Settings of the Hebrew Book of Enoch. Oxford Centre for Hebrew and Jewish Studies. p. 162.
  18. ^ a b c d Odeberg, Hugo, ed. (2012) [1928]. "Origin of the Word 'Metatron'". 3 Enoch or The Hebrew Book of Enoch. CreateSpace. pp. 125–142. ISBN 978-1-479-37227-0.
  19. ^ Jellinek, Adolf (1852). Contributions to the History of Kabbalah - Parts I & II. Leipzig: C.L. Fritzsche. p. 4. Free access icon
  20. ^ Jastrow, Marcus (1903) [1887]. A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic Literature. Vol. II. London: Luzac. p. 767. ISBN 978-1-565-63860-0.
  21. ^ in Ben Chananja, 1862, p. 384; 1866, pp. 600–625
  22. ^ Schäfer, Peter (2012) [1992]. The Hidden and Manifest God - Some Major Themes in Early Jewish Mysticism. SUNY Series in Judaica. State University of New York Press. p. 29. ISBN 978-1-438-41882-7. most probable is the etymology of Lieberman: Metatron = Greek metatronos = metathronos = synthronos; i.e. the small "minor god" whose throne is beside that of the great "God"
  23. ^ Gershom Scholem, 'Metatron,' in Encyclopedia Judaica, 2nd edition 2007, vol.14 pp.132–134. Also his Major Trends, p. 69, and his Jewish Gnosticism, pp.43, 91. Scholem dismissed this hypothesis as 'without merit'.
  24. ^ Philip Alexander, "3 Enoch"
  25. ^ Gruenwald, Ithamar (2018) [1980]. "Metatron, the Meaning of His Name and His Functions". Apocalyptic and Merkavah Mysticism. Leiden/Cologne: E. J. Brill. pp. 235–241. ISBN 978-9-004-33267-6.
  26. ^ Gershom Scholem, Jewish Gnosticism, Merkabah Mysticism, and Talmudic Tradition, Jewish Theological Seminary of America 2nd. ed. 1965 pp41,93.
  27. ^ Alexander, P. "From Son of Adam to a Second God" and Alexander, P. "3 Enoch"
  28. ^ Urbach, Ephraïm Elimelech (1987) [1979]. The Sages - Their Concepts and Beliefs. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-78523-6. OCLC 15489564.
  29. ^ Black, Matthew (1951). "The Origin of the Name of Metatron". Vetus Testamentum. 1 (3). E.J. Brill: 217–219. doi:10.2307/1515863. JSTOR 1515863. Can be linked back to the title praemetitor in Philos QG which can be connected to the Greek word for Metator "measurer"
  30. ^ Mopsik, Charles (1989). Le Livre hébreu d'Hénoch ou Livre des palais. Paris: Verdier. ISBN 978-2-864-32088-3.
  31. ^ McGinley, John W. (2006). "The Written" as the Vocation of Conceiving Jewishly. iUniverse. p. 432. ISBN 978-0-595-40488-9. The entry "Paradigmata" gives an accounting of the meaning of "Metatron" as it is used in the Bavli's version of "four entered pardes".
  32. ^ Segal, Alan F. (2002). "Chapter Three. Aher, Metatron, Merkabah and the Angel of YHWH". Two Powers in Heaven - Early Rabbinic Reports about Christianity and Gnosticism. E.J. Brill. p. 60. ISBN 978-0-391-04172-1.
  33. ^ Segal ibid. p.60
  34. ^ a b Deutsch, Nathaniel (1999). Guardians of the Gate - Angelic Vice Regency in Late Antiquity. E.J. Brill. pp. 45–47. ISBN 978-9-004-10909-4.
  35. ^ von Nettesheim, Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa (1993). Tyson, Donald; Freake, James (eds.). Three Books of Occult Philosophy. Llewellyn Worldwide. p. 473. ISBN 978-0-875-42832-1.
  36. ^ a b c d e Reeves, John C. (2005). Trajectories in Near Eastern Apocalyptic: A Postrabbinic Jewish Apocalypse Reader. Society of Biblical Literature Atlanta. pp. 55, 180–185. ISBN 978-1-589-83102-5.
  37. ^ Ginzberg, Louis (1906). "Abraham, Apocalypse of". Jewish Encyclopedia.
  38. ^ Wolfson, Elliot R. (1994). Through a Speculum That Shines - Vision and Imagination in Medieval Jewish Mysticism. Princeton University Press. p. 259. ISBN 978-0-691-01722-8.
  39. ^ Charlesworth, James H. (1983). The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Hendrickson Publishers. p. 227. ISBN 978-1-598-56491-4.
  40. ^ Deutsch, Nathaniel (1999). Guardians of the Gate - Angelic Vice Regency in Late Antiquity. E.J. Brill. pp. 36–37. ISBN 978-9-004-10909-4.
  41. ^ Charlesworth, James H. (2006). The Bible and the Dead Sea Scrolls: The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Qumran Community. Baylor University Press. p. 369. ISBN 978-1-932-79220-1.
  42. ^ Scholem, Gershom (1974). Kabbalah. Quadrangle. pp. 378–380. ISBN 978-0-812-90352-2.
  43. ^ a b Society for Jewish Study (1983). "The Journal of Jewish Studies Volumes 34–35". Journal of Jewish Studies. Oxford Centre for Postgraduate Hebrew Studies: 26. Retrieved 5 March 2014.
  44. ^ Herford, Robert Travers (1903). Christianity in Talmud and Midrash. Williams & Norgate. pp. 286–290. Metatron christianity.
  45. ^ Matt, Daniel Chanan, ed. (2005). The Zohar, Volume 3; Volume 2006. Stanford University Press. p. 86. ISBN 978-0-804-75210-7.
  46. ^ Solomon, Norman (2009). The A to Z of Judaism. Scarecrow Press. p. 217. ISBN 978-0-810-87011-6.
  47. ^ Scholem, Gershom (2011). Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. p. 366. ISBN 978-0-307-79148-1.
  48. ^ Cohon, Samuel S. (1987). Essays in Jewish Theology. Hebrew Union College Press. ISBN 978-0-878-20117-4.
  49. ^ Weimer, Christopher M., ed. (2002) [1893]. "Hebrew Visions of Hell and Paradise". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. Archived from the original on 2 January 2007.
  50. ^ a b Alexander, P. (1983). "3 (Hebrew Apocalypse of) Enoch". In Charlesworth, James H. (ed.). The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. New York: Doubleday. p. 223. ISBN 978-0-385-19491-4.
  51. ^ Genesis 5:24
  52. ^ Scholem, Gershom G. (2011) [1941]. Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism. Knopf Doubleday. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-307-79148-1.
  53. ^ Koslowski, P., ed. (2002). Progress, Apocalypse, and Completion of History and Life after Death of the Human Person in the World Religions. Springer. p. 58. ISBN 978-1-402-00647-0.
  54. ^ Zohar 3. p. 293a.
  55. ^ Zohar Chadash. Sifra Tanina 11.
  56. ^ Matok Midvash on Zohar 2. p. 149a.
  57. ^ "Yevamot 16b:6". www.sefaria.org. Retrieved 2024-05-22.
  58. ^ Tosaphoth on Babylonian Talmud. p. 16b.
  59. ^ "Guide for the Perplexed, Part 2 6:4". www.sefaria.org. Retrieved 2024-05-22.
  60. ^ "Guide for the Perplexed, Part 2 4:3". www.sefaria.org. Retrieved 2024-05-22.
  61. ^ Zohar 3. p. 189a.
  62. ^ a b Zohar 1. p. 27a.
  63. ^ Zohar 1. p. 47a.
  64. ^ Zohar 2. p. 43a.
  65. ^ Zohar 1. p. 130b.
  66. ^ Zohar 2. p. 65b.
  67. ^ Zohar 2. p. 94a.
  68. ^ Zohar 3. p. 226b.
  69. ^ a b Zohar 2. p. 159a.
  70. ^ a b Lazarus-Yafeh, Hava (2004). Intertwined Worlds: Medieval Islam and Bible Criticism. Princeton University Press. p. 32. ISBN 978-1-400-86273-3. JSTOR j.ctt7ztthw.
  71. ^ Knight, Michael Muhammad (2016). Magic in Islam. New York: TarcherPerigee. p. 120. ISBN 978-1-101-98349-2.
  72. ^ Pederson, Joshua (2010). "The Gospel of Thomas (Pynchon): Abandoning Eschatology in Gravity's Rainbow". Religion and the Arts. 14 (1–2): 139–160. doi:10.1163/107992610X12592913031865.
  73. ^ Weisenburger, Steven (1995). Fables of Subversion: Satire and the American Novel, 1930–1980. University of Georgia Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-820-31668-0.
  74. ^ Clemons, Amy Lea (2017). "Adapting Revelation: Good Omens as Comic Corrective". Journal of the Fantastic in the Arts. 28 (1 (98)): 86–101. ISSN 0897-0521. JSTOR 26390195.
  75. ^ Bryan, Anna (26 January 2022). "Good Omens: All-star cast confirmed for second season of Amazon show filming in Edinburgh and Bathgate". Edinburgh Evening News. Retrieved 11 June 2023.
  76. ^ Geddo, Benedetta (January 27, 2023). "A Look Into the Figure of The Authority in 'His Dark Materials'". The Mary Sue. Retrieved June 13, 2023.
  77. ^ Dean, Tyler (January 3, 2023). ""Love Takes a Million Forms": His Dark Materials' Series Finale". tor.com.
  78. ^ Fry, Carrol Lee (2008). Cinema of the Occult: New Age, Satanism, Wicca, and Spiritualism in Film. Associated University Presse. pp. 39–40. ISBN 978-0-934223-95-9.
  79. ^ Heath, Chris (16 March 2000). "The Epic Life of Carlos Santana". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 16 June 2023.
  80. ^ Giannini, Erin (7 November 2017). Joss Whedon Versus the Corporation: Big Business Critiqued in the Films and Television Programs. McFarland. p. 184. ISBN 978-1-476-66776-8.
  81. ^ "Mars Volta encounters demons and spirits during recording of Bedlam in Goliath". The Marquee Magazine.
  82. ^ "The Mars Volta". The Week. 8 January 2015. Retrieved 14 June 2023.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]