Methylmagnesium chloride

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Methylmagnesium chloride
Methylmagnesiumchloride.svg
Names
IUPAC name
chlorido(methyl)magnesium
Other names
(chloromagnesio)methane
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEBI
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.010.573
Properties
CH3MgCl
Molar mass 74.79 g/mol
Appearance colorless solid
Reacts with water
Solubility soluble in diethyl ether and THF
Hazards
Main hazards Flammable, Reacts with water
NFPA 704
Flammability code 3: Liquids and solids that can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions. Flash point between 23 and 38 °C (73 and 100 °F). E.g., gasolineHealth code 3: Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury. E.g., chlorine gasReactivity code 2: Undergoes violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures, reacts violently with water, or may form explosive mixtures with water. E.g., phosphorusSpecial hazard W: Reacts with water in an unusual or dangerous manner. E.g., cesium, sodiumNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
3
3
2
Flash point -17°C
Related compounds
Related compounds
Phenylmagnesium bromide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Methylmagnesium chloride is an organometallic compound with the general formula CH3MgCl. This highly flammable, colorless, and moisture sensitive material is the simplest Grignard reagent and is commercially available, usually as a solution in tetrahydrofuran.

Synthesis and reactions[edit]

Relative to the more commonly encountered methylmagnesium bromide[1] and methylmagnesium iodide, methylmagnesium chloride offers the advantages of low equivalent weight and low cost. It is prepared by the reaction of methyl chloride and magnesium in ethyl ether.[2]

Structure of CH3MgCl(thf)2, which is representative of the species in donor solvents.

As with most Grignard reagents, methylmagnesium chloride is highly solvated by ether solvents via coordination from two oxygen atoms to give a tetrahedrally bonded magnesium center.

Like methyllithium, it is the synthetic equivalent to the methyl carbanion synthon. It reacts with water and other protic reagents to give methane, e.g.,:

CH3MgCl + ROH → CH4 + MgCl(OR)

When treated with dioxane, methylmagnesium chloride converts to dimethylmagnesium via the Schlenk equilibrium:

2 CH3MgCl + dioxane → (CH3)2Mg + MgCl2(dioxane)

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Sakai, Shogo; Jordan, K. D. (1982). "Ab initio study of the structure and vibrational frequencies of the Grignard reagent methylmagnesium chloride". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 104 (14): 4019. doi:10.1021/ja00378a047.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Raymond Paul, Olivier Riobé, Michel Maumy (1976). "(E)-4-Hexen-1-ol". Org. Synth. 55: 62. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.055.0062.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  2. ^ E. R. Coburn (1947). "3-Penten-2-ol". Org. Synth. 27: 65. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.027.0065.