|Owner||Regional Transportation Authority (RTA)|
|Locale||Chicago Metropolitan Area, United States|
|Transit type||Commuter rail|
|Number of lines||11 (2 planned)|
|Number of stations||241|
|Daily ridership||292,000 (weekday, FY2013)
109,700 (weekend, FY2013)
|Chief executive||Don Orseno|
Union Pacific, BNSF, NICTD
|System length||487.7 mi (784.9 km)|
|Track gauge||4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm)
Metra (reporting mark METX) is a commuter railroad in the Chicago metropolitan area. Metropolitan Rail Corporation or Metra operates 241 stations on 11 different rail lines. Throughout the 21st century, it has been at least the fourth busiest commuter rail system in the United States by ridership and the busiest outside the New York City metropolitan area. Ridership was up 1.3% in 2014, offering 83.4 million passenger rides. The busiest day for Metra ridership occurred Friday, June 11, 2010, with over 429,000 passengers. This was the day of the Chicago Blackhawks 2010 Stanley Cup victory rally.
Using Chicago's rich rail infrastructure, much of which was created in the 19th century, the Illinois General Assembly established the RTA, and later Metra, to serve commuters by rail. Metra's creation was a result of the anticipated failure of commuter service operated and owned by various private railroad companies in the 1970s. Freight rail companies still operate some routes; however, these operations are guided by contracted service agreements. Metra owns all rolling stock and is responsible for all stations along with the respective municipalities. Since its inception, Metra has directed more than $5 billion into the commuter rail system of the Chicago metropolitan area.
- 1 History
- 2 Operations
- 3 Fare system and ticketing
- 4 Safety and security
- 5 Rolling stock
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
Early Chicago commuter rail
Since the 19th century Chicago has been a major Midwestern hub in the North American rail network. It has more trackage radiating in more directions than any other city in North America. Railroads set up their headquarters in the city and Chicago became a center for building freight cars, passenger cars and diesel locomotives.
By the 1930s Chicago had the world's largest public transportation system, but commuter rail services started to decline. By the mid-1970s, the commuter lines faced an uncertain future. The Burlington Northern, Milwaukee Road, Chicago and North Western and Illinois Central were losing money and, were using passenger cars dating as far back as the 1920s.
Formation of the RTA
To provide stability to the commuter rail system, the Illinois General Assembly formed the Regional Transportation Authority in 1974. Its purpose was to fund and plan the Chicago region's public transportation. In the beginning the Regional Transportation Authority commuter train fleet consisted of second-hand equipment, until 1976 when the first order of new EMD F40PH locomotives arrived. That F40PH fleet is still in service today.
Less than a decade later the Regional Transportation Authority was already suffering from ongoing financial problems. In 1983 the Illinois Legislature reorganized the agency. That reorganization left the Regional Transportation Authority in charge of day-to-day operations of all bus, heavy rail and commuter rail services throughout the Chicago metropolitan area. It was also responsible for directing fare and service levels, setting up budgets, finding sources for capital investment and planning.
Due to the broad range of responsibilities entrusted with the Regional Transportation Authority, the Commuter Rail Service Board was created in 1984. It was renamed Metra in July 1985. The newly reorganized Metra service helped to bring a single identity to the many infrastructure components serviced by the Regional Transportation Authority's commuter rail system. Metra's operating arm, the Northeast Illinois Regional Commuter Railroad Corporation, was created as a separate rail subsidiary which operates seven Metra owned routes. Contracts were set up with the Union Pacific and BNSF railroads to operate four other Metra routes. While Metra owns all rolling stock and is responsible for most stations on those routes, the freight carriers use their own employees and control the right-of-way for those routes. In keeping with Metra's purpose to provide a single identity for commuter rail in the region, the freight operators provide service under the Metra name.
Growth, corruption and expansion
In the late 20th and early 21st century Metra experienced record ridership and expanded its services. In 1996 Metra organized its first new line, North Central Service. By 2006 it added new intermediate stops to that same route, extended the Union Pacific West line from Geneva to Elburn and extended SouthWest Service from Orland Park to Manhattan. In 2012 it boasted 95.8% average on-time performance (measured only for a train's arrivals at its last station no more than six minutes late). It also posted its fourth highest volume in its history despite decreases in employment opportunities in downtown Chicago.
Metra continued to seek expansion options and to improve passenger service. Over the past three decades, Metra has invested more than $5 billion into its infrastructure. That investment has been used to purchase new rolling stock, build new stations, renovate tracks, modernize signal systems and upgrade support facilities. In addition to core improvements on the Union Pacific Northwest and Union Pacific West routes, planning advanced on two new Metra routes, SouthEast Service and the Suburban Transit Access Route.
Metra also has been marred by allegations and investigations of corruption. In April 2010 Metra's executive director, Phil Pagano, faced investigation for taking an unauthorized $56,000 bonus and was later found to have improperly received $475,000 in vacation pay. The day that the agency's board was scheduled to discuss his fate, Pagano stepped in front of a moving Metra train in an apparent suicide. Around the time of Pagano's death, allegations also surfaced that a Metra employee demanded a $2,000 payoff from the studio that used Metra in the 2011 film Source Code. That employee was later relieved of his duties.
In June 2013, Metra CEO Alex Clifford abruptly resigned his position with no public comment. It gradually was reported that his exit had been demanded by the Metra board, which negotiated a $871,000 severance package including a non-disclosure agreement. Clifford's ouster was allegedly arranged because he rejected requests for patronage hiring and promotion, including a request to promote a longtime supporter of State Representative Michael Madigan. In the wake of this scandal, five board members resigned.
In August 2013, the remaining board members unanimously elected Don Orseno as interim CEO. (The six-member board was operating with reduced membership and thus lacked the authority to elect a permanent CEO. Orseno and Alex Wiggins shared duties as co-executive directors.) Orseno's long railroad career, beginning with work to set up trains and check doors for the Rock Island played favorably in the board's decision.
By October 2013, local officials had restored Metra's board to 11 members. After reviewing four candidates, the re-constituted board formally appointed Orseno CEO of Metra in January 2014.
Metra services passengers through stations throughout the Chicago metropolitan area. Each station, unless a route or branch terminus, provides travel toward (inbound) and away from (outbound) downtown Chicago. Therefore a passenger can connect between the city and a suburb or between two points in the suburbs using Metra service. Although Metra's commuter rail system is designed to connect points all over the Chicago metropolitan area, it does provide some intracity connections within Chicago.
Chicago's four downtown stations servicing Metra trains are Union Station, Ogilvie Transportation Center, LaSalle Street Station and Millennium Station. All of these stations are situated inside or within a block of the Chicago Loop, so Metra passengers may also transfer to a different Metra line upon their arrival downtown. Metra's urban-centric service remains popular with suburban commuters working downtown, reverse commuters, those who visit Chicago for recreational activities and tourism.
Of Metra's 11 routes, four are operated under contract. The BNSF Line service is operated by BNSF Railway. The Union Pacific/North, Union Pacific/Northwest and Union Pacific/West lines are operated by the Union Pacific Railroad. Lines not contracted are operated by the Northeast Illinois Regional Commuter Rail Corporation (NIRC), Metra's operating subsidiary. Inbound trains on every line at all times run through to Chicago, however, many outbound trains do not run through to their respective lines' terminus (for example, most trains on the Union Pacific/North Line do not run through to Kenosha.)
- The BNSF Railway Line is Metra's busiest route. The 37.5 mile (60 km) route to the western suburbs had an average of 64,600 weekday passenger trips in 2010; it has 26 stations from Union Station to Aurora.
- The Hollywood station is within walking distance of Chicago's Brookfield Zoo.
- The Heritage Corridor is a 37.2 mile (60 km) route to the southwest suburbs with six stations from Union Station to Joliet. It had an average of 2,600 weekday passenger trips in 2010.
- The Metra Electric District is a 31.5 mile route to the south suburbs. The line has 49 stations, with two branches, from Millennium Station downtown to University Park, Blue Island and South Chicago at the ends of its branches. The line had an average of 36,200 passenger weekday trips in 2010.
- A number of major Chicago attractions are serviced by the Metra Electric District. Chicago's Museum Campus, including the Shedd Aquarium, Field Museum of Natural History, Adler Planetarium & Astronomy Museum and Soldier Field are all within walking distance of the Museum Campus/11th Street station. Metra Electric District trains also provide direct service to McCormick Place at the McCormick Place station which is directly below the convention center. The 55th-56th-57th Street station is within walking distance of the University of Chicago, the Robie House, the Oriental Institute, the Museum of Science and Industry and the DuSable Museum of African American History.
- Milwaukee District North is a 49.5 mile (80 km) route to northern suburbs. The line has 22 stations from Union Station to Fox Lake. The line had an average of 23,500 weekday passenger trips in 2010.
- Milwaukee District West is a 39.8 mile (64 km) route to western suburbs. The line has 22 stations from Union Station to Big Timber Road; during off-peak hours service terminates at Elgin. The line had an average of 22,300 weekday passenger trips in 2010.
- North Central Service is a 52.8 mile (85 km) route to northern and northwest suburbs on weekdays only. The line has 18 stations from Union Station to Antioch. It had an average of 5,400 weekday passenger trips in 2010.
- North Central's O'Hare Transfer station connects to O'Hare International Airport and is walking distance from the Allstate Arena.
- The Rock Island District is a 46.8 mile (75 km) route to southwest and southern suburbs. The line has 26 stations on two branches from LaSalle Street Station to Joliet. It had an average of 30,500 weekday passenger trips in 2010.
- Rock Island's 35th Street station provides service to the Illinois Institute of Technology and U.S. Cellular Field, home of the Chicago White Sox.
- SouthWest Service is a 40.8 mile (66 km) route to southwest suburbs. The line has 13 stations from Union Station to Manhattan. It had an average of 9,500 weekday passenger trips in 2010.
- Union Pacific North is a 51.6 mile (83 km) route to the northern suburbs. The line has 27 stations from Ogilvie Transportation Center to Kenosha Metra station. The line had an average of 36,400 weekday passenger trips in 2010.
- The line serves Northwestern University via the Evanston Davis Street station, Ravinia Festival via the Ravinia Park station and the Chicago Botanic Garden via the Braeside station.
- The longest Metra route, Union Pacific Northwest is a 70.5 mile (113 km) route to the northwest suburbs. The line has 23 stations from Ogilvie Transportation Center to Harvard and McHenry. The line had an average of 40,900 weekday passenger trips in 2010.
- The line serves Arlington Park through the Arlington Park station.
- Union Pacific West is a 43.6 mile (70 km) route to the western suburbs. The line has 19 stations from Ogilvie Transportation Center to Elburn. The line had an average of 29,400 weekday passenger trips in 2010.
Transportation in Chicago consists of a rich public transportation infrastructure allowing for intermodal connections to local, regional, national and international transportation services. Parking lots are available adjacent to most suburban Metra stations for passengers connecting with their train by car. Most parking lots are operated by the municipality they are located in. Fees and fines are also assessed by the local municipality; however, parking is usually free on weekends and most holidays. Mass transit CTA and suburban Pace buses connect with many Metra stations downtown and in the suburbs. Monthly pass holders are offered link-up options with these services. In addition, many intercity bus lines connect with passengers outside of Union Station.
The Chicago 'L' also has transfers with Metra at some Chicago stations. Most 'L' lines traverse the Loop allowing nearby access to all downtown Metra terminals. There are also transfer points between Metra and the 'L' outside of the Loop, such as transfers from the Union Pacific/Northwest Line to the Blue Line at Irving Park and Jefferson Park Transit Center. 'L' trains announce downtown Metra connections on board when announcing the next 'L' stop. Amtrak intercity trains depart alongside Metra trains at Union Station. In addition to Illinois Service and Hiawatha Service, Amtrak trains run nationwide including service to states spanning both coastlines. Passengers connecting from Ogilvie Transportation Center can access Union Station through its north platforms on the opposite side of Madison Street.
Positive train control
In regards to the PTC mandate that passed congress, Metra has taken steps to meet this deadline. Metra believes that the December 31, 2015 mandate to have PTC running is an unreasonable requirement. This aligns with the stance taken by much of the railroad industry. This is due to a variety factors including but not limited to: delays from the government and the fundamental complexity of building a program from the ground up. Moreover, Metra estimates the cost of implementing the system on their 1,100 miles of track in the Chicago region to be over $200 million. The fear is this unfunded mandate will divert scarce capital funds from other essential needs. This includes building and maintaining existing tracks, stations, signals, and other equipment that ensures a safe operating environment for all of Metra’s passengers. However, Metra recognizes the need for PTC but just would like a more reasonable timeline to implement such a program. This recognition is partially based on Metra’s previous accident history. Two noteworthy events were a pair of accidents on the Rock Island Line within a span of a couple of years. The first event was a derailment that occurred on Oct. 12, 2003 when a train flew through a 10 mph crossing at 68 mph. A second very similar occurrence happened on Sep. 17, 2005 but was more serious. This derailment killed 2 passengers and injured 117. Both of these incidents could have been prevented if PTC were in place. In both circumstances PTC would have overridden the engineer and slowed the train down to the appropriate speed to prevent an accident from occurring.
Just recently Metra has taken significant steps in the process to fully implementing PTC. On April 22, 2015 the Metra board approved an $80 million dollar contract to Parsons Transportation Group. Parson’s was the sole bidder and speaks to the complexities of the project. They will be in charge of incorporating various devices from GPS, radio, to trackside antennas into one cohesive system. The group has some experience in this sector previously as Parsons worked with the southern California commuter rail agency Metrolink to install their system.
Fare system and ticketing
Fare is determined by the distance travelled by a passenger. Each station along every route has been placed in a specific zone based on its distance from its respective downtown station. Downtown termini and downtown stations are classified as zone 'A' and each additional zone generally represents an added 5 miles (8.0 km) from the downtown terminus. Multiple stations can be placed in the same zone even though they are on the same line.
Several ticketing options exist for passengers. Riders may choose to purchase one-way tickets, ten-ride tickets, weekend passes or monthly passes.
- A one-way ticket is used for one-way travel between two stations. For roundtrip travel, two one-way tickets can be purchased. One-way tickets can be purchased from ticket agents or on the train from a conductor. Conductors will charge an extra $3 if a ticket agent was available at the passenger's departing station, and this cost will increase to $5 once the Ventra Mobile App is launched.
- A ten-ride provides ten rides between two zones determined at the time of purchase. Ten-rides can be shared between passengers and expire after one year from the date of purchase. Ten-rides can be purchased from ticket agents, by mail or online from Metra's website.
- A weekend pass provides unlimited travel between any and all zones for one passenger on a Saturday and Sunday. Sometimes weekend passes are extended to include holidays adjacent to the weekend. Weekend passes can always be purchased from conductors without a surcharge and from ticket agents. As of 2015, weekend passes cost $8.
- A monthly pass provides unlimited travel between any two zones for one passenger on every day of a respective month. Monthly passes can be used on any line within the specified zones. Monthly passes can be purchased from ticket agents, by mail or online from Metra's website. Monthly pass holders may also purchase a Pace PlusBus card in conjunction with their monthly pass purchase. The PlusBus card provides unlimited rides on all Pace suburban buses. A CTA/Pace Link-Up pass is also available for purchase. On CTA buses and the CTA 'L' the Link-Up pass allows unlimited travel during weekday rush hours and on Pace buses it allows unlimited travel anytime. Monthly pass holders may also travel beyond the zones listed on the monthly pass by purchasing incremental tickets from conductors on the train. Incremental tickets cost $1 beyond the first zone and 50 cents for every additional zone thereafter. There is no surcharge to purchase incremental tickets for monthly pass holders.
Reduced fare programs
Metra allows some travellers to purchase reduced fare tickets or even ride for free. These reduced fare and free ride programs are administered by Metra and the RTA. Some pre-college students, youth, senior citizens, members of the United States Armed Forces and persons with disabilities may qualify for these programs. Time-based and geographical restrictions apply to these programs and passengers must ensure they qualify before attempting to purchase special tickets or ride for free.
Safety and security
Metra employees, the Metra Police Department and other public safety agencies are responsible for maintaining safety and security on its lines, aboard its trains and at stations all to various degrees. Although rail transport is one of the safest forms of land travel, compromises to Metra's safety and security can occur through pedestrian accidents, suicide attempts, vehicle collisions, derailment, terrorism and other incidents. Failing to maintain safety and security can result in equipment and infrastructure damage, extensive service disruptions, traumatic injuries and loss of life. Therefore Metra and other agencies consider safety a top priority and dedicate a significant amount of resources to combat these dangers.
Starting in early summer of 2013 Metra has announced plans to up police patrols on to the seven lines the agency operates: the Milwaukee Districts North and West, the North Central Service, the Heritage Corridor, South West Service, Rock Island and Electric District. The police patrols will not be help on the BNSF and Union Pacific train lines because those line are operated by the railroads that own them and security falls to those companies. When asked why there were increasing patrols spokesman Michael Gillis said, "There is no particular reason, other than the fact that we want to be more proactive and more deliberately visible to our riders,"
The Metra Police Department is a special law enforcement agency charged with providing police services to passengers, employees, equipment and property. The department has more than 100 police officers and is responsible for the safety of all routes and stations. In an effort to help coordinate emergency preparedness and incident management, all Metra police officers are certified in the National Incident Management System. In addition, the Metra police work with the Chicago Police Department as a member of the Chicago Alternative Policing Strategy. To date, only one Metra police officer has been killed in the line of duty.
The focus on rail safety by Metra comes from many fronts beyond operations including emergency preparedness and public awareness. The setup of railway platforms, use of grade crossing signals and horn blasts make up a critical system used to communicate movements of commuter trains to pedestrians and vehicles. Outside of these operational components, Metra aggressively pursues safety through public awareness. Metra utilizes its own Operation Lifesaver program and uses it to help spread safety messages. Metra also holds events promoting rail safety at schools and organizes a safety poster contest awarding winners with prizes and features their poster on monthly passes and at stations.
Metra has been honored with several E. H. Harriman Awards for employee safety, most recently with a Bronze award in class B (line-haul railroads with between 4 and 15 million employee hours per year) for 2005. Previous Harriman Awards conferred to Metra include Gold awards for 2003 and 2004 and a Silver award for 2002.
There were 156 non-employee fatalities involving Metra equipment and Metra owned track between 2001 and 2010. On average 15 people were killed annually based on data from that decade. The highest number of fatalities in a year throughout that time occurred in 2002, with 23 deaths and in 2010, with 21 deaths. The majority of these fatalities occurred at grade crossings and on railway involving an impact with a train; only four deaths involved passengers aboard the train.
The worst passenger rail disaster in Illinois occurred prior to the formation of Regional Transportation Authority. The 1972 Chicago commuter rail crash consisted of a two train collision on track now used for the Metra Electric District. The collision resulted in 45 deaths and 332 injuries. Two decades later, Metra experienced its first rail disaster, the 1995 Fox River Grove bus–train collision. This accident involved a collision of a Metra train and a school bus at a grade crossing resulting in 21 injuries and the deaths of seven high school students. In 2003, another incident involved a train derailing while switching from one track to another, injuring 45 passengers. In 2005, a locomotive carrying 200 passengers along the same stretch of track derailed and then collided with a steel bridge resulting in two deaths and 117 injured. The cause of both accidents was ruled to be human error; the trains were going at speeds in excess of 68 miles per hour (109 km/h) when they should have been going 10 miles per hour (16 km/h).
In addition to the loss of life, injuries, damage and service disruptions caused by accidents, Metra and other transportation agencies have been involved in multi-million dollar lawsuits and settlements stemming from safety failures. These failures have also resulted in updated safety policies and adjustments of equipment and warning devices.
|100–149, 215-216||F40PH-3||1976–1981||All diesel routes||Operating, 100-149 rebuilt to phase 3 status between 2008-2011
215-216 sold to Metra in 2009 by the Tennessee Central Railway Museum and refurbished by Progress Rail before coming to Chicago.
|150–184||F40PH-2||1979–1989||All diesel routes, many of which are assigned to the UP lines||Operating, being rebuilt to F40PH-3s as of January 2011|
|185–214||F40PHM-2||1991–1992||BNSF, RI and Southwest Service.
The F40PHM-2s are the last F40PH series locomotives built.
|401–427||MP36PH-3S||2003–2004||BNSF, RI, Milwaukee North, Milwaukee West and North Central Service||Operating|
|305, 308||F7||1949||All Diesel Routes||Retired, donated to Illinois Railway Museum 308 is still operating and 305 has been restored as Chicago and Northwestern 411.|
|514–516, 518, 521||E8||1951–1953||All Diesel Routes||Retired 515 and 518 have been sold to SL&RG|
611 and 614 were brought back into service, first in 2004 when the MP36PH-3S had software and computer problems when first delivered to Metra and again in 2008 while F40s were sent to Progress Rail for overhaul all units are presumed scrapped. 610 resides at National Railway Equipment in Dixmoor, IL.
|1–2||SW1||1939||RI, Number 1 has been modified with MU Car couplers and is the oldest operating loco in the U.S. that is not preserved. It is used to transfer cars from Metra Electric at Blue Island to the Blue Island wheel house to maintain proper wheel profile on Metra Electric MU cars. Both originally Illinois Central units, then sold to Rock Island. Conveyed to RTA in the take over of commuter service.ME||Operating|
|3||SW1200||Rock Island District, Used for work trains and in switch moves between districts. Originally Milwaukee Road||Operating|
|4–9||SW1500||RI, Milwaukee West, Milwaukee North, ME||Operating|
|740–820, 7100-7121||Coach||Burlington||1950–1973, 1977-1978||Budd||Operating
Some sold to MItrain in Michigan
Some have been converted to coaches.
|8400–8478||Coach/Cab||Metra||1994–1998||Morrison-Knudsen/Amerail||Operating mainly assigned on the UP lines.|
|7700–7866||Coach||Chicago and North Western||1960–1970||Pullman||Operating
Five have been purchased back due to money problems.
|7600–7613||Coach||Chicago and North Western||1955||St. Louis||Retired two preserved in the Illinois Railway Museum|
|7650–7681||Coach||Chicago and North Western||1956||Pullman||Retired one preserved in Illinois Railway Museum as a cab coach|
|7867–7871||Coach||Rock Island||1970||St. Louis||Retired|
|7880||Coach (Former Parlor)||Chicago and North Western||1958||Pullman||Retired|
|7900–7901||Club Car||Chicago and North Western||1955||St. Louis||Retired|
|8700–8763||Coach/Cab||Chicago and North Western||1960–1968||Pullman||Retired|
Privately owned club coaches
|553||Private railroad car||Chicago and North Western||1949||ACF||Operating|
|555||Private railroad car||Chicago and North Western||1949||ACF||Retired|
Metra electric fleet
|1201–1226||MU Coach||Metra||2005||Nippon Sharyo||Operating|
|1227–1238||MU Coach||Metra||2012||Sumitomo Group||Operating|
|1239–1279||MU Coach||Metra||2013||Sumitomo Group||Operating|
|1280-1386||MU Coach||Metra||Deliveries began in 2012||Sumitomo Group||Not Ready|
|1501–1630||MU Coach||Illinois Central||1971–1972||St. Louis||Some retired|
|1631–1666||MU Coach||Illinois Central||1978–1979||Bombardier||Some retired|
- Mass transit in Chicago
- Chicago 'L'
- Chicago Transit Authority
- Pace (transit)
- South Shore Line (NICTD)
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