|Predecessor||Allen B. DuMont Laboratories|
DuMont Broadcasting Corporation
Metropolitan Broadcasting Corporation
|Founded||1931as Allen B. DuMont Labs|
|Defunct||1997(as a media company)|
|Fate||Sold off. Corporate name continues as owner of MetroMedia Technologies.|
|Successor||Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (content library)|
Fox Television Stations (broadcast stations)
|Headquarters||New York City, New York, U.S.|
|John W. Kluge, founder/chairman/CEO
Stuart Subotnick, Current President/CEOWilliam Ishida, President/CEO Metromedia Technologies, Inc.
|Products||Television, radio, entertainment, advertising|
|Services||Advertising, media display|
The Samuel Goldwyn Company
Motion Picture Corporation of America
Metropolitan Broadcasting Corporation
Metromedia (also often MetroMedia) was an American media company that owned radio and television stations in the United States from 1956 to 1986 and controlled Orion Pictures from 1988 to 1997. Metromedia was established in 1956 after the DuMont Television Network ceased operations and its owned-and-operated stations were spun off into a separate company. Metromedia sold its television stations to News Corporation in 1985 (which News Corp. then used to form the nucleus of Fox Television Stations), and spun off its radio stations into a separate company in 1986. Metromedia then acquired ownership stakes in various film studios, including controlling ownership in Orion. In 1997, Metromedia closed down and sold its media assets to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.
The company arose from the ashes of the DuMont Television Network, the world's first commercial television network. DuMont had been in economic trouble throughout its existence, and was seriously undermined when ABC accepted a buyout offer from United Paramount Theaters in 1953. The ABC-UPT deal gave ABC the resources to operate a national television service along the lines of CBS and NBC. DuMont officials quickly realized the ABC-UPT deal put their network on life support, and agreed in principle to merge with ABC. However, it was forced to back out of the deal when minority owner Paramount Pictures raised antitrust concerns. UPT had only spun off from Paramount four years earlier, and there were still doubts about whether the two companies were really separate.
By 1955, DuMont realized it could not compete against the other three networks and decided to wind down its operations. Soon after DuMont formally shut down network service in 1956, the parent firm DuMont Laboratories spun off the network's two remaining owned and operated stations, WABD in New York City and WTTG in Washington, D.C., to shareholders as the DuMont Broadcasting Corporation. The company's headquarters were co-located with WABD in the former DuMont Tele-Centre (which was later renamed the Metromedia Telecenter) in New York.
In 1957, DuMont Broadcasting purchased two New York area radio stations, WNEW (now WBBR) and WHFI (later WNEW-FM and WWFS), and later that year changed its name to the Metropolitan Broadcasting Corporation to distance itself from its former parent company. The following year, Paramount sold its shares in Metropolitan Broadcasting to Washington-based investor John Kluge, enough to give Kluge controlling interest. Kluge installed himself as chairman, and later increased his holdings to 75 percent. WABD's call letters were later changed to WNEW-TV to match its new radio sisters.
Metropolitan Broadcasting's first acquisitions included WHK-AM-FM in Cleveland (in 1958); the Foster & Kleiser outdoor advertising firm (in 1959); and KOVR in Stockton, California, Benedict Gimbel Jr.-owned WIP-AM-FM in Philadelphia, WTVH-TV (now WHOI) in Peoria, Illinois, and WTVP television (now WAND) in Decatur, Illinois (all in 1960). In 1961 Metropolitan purchased KMBC-AM-TV in Kansas City, Missouri. Later that year the company's name was changed to Metromedia; the Metropolitan Broadcasting name was retained for its broadcasting division until 1967.
In separate 1963 deals the company expanded into Los Angeles, buying first KTTV and later KLAC and the original KLAC-FM (now KIIS-FM). The company would later engineer a swap of FM facilities; the second KLAC-FM (later KMET and now KTWV) was established in 1965. Metromedia also entered the realm of live entertainment by purchasing the Ice Capades (in 1963) and the Harlem Globetrotters (in 1967). Later in the decade Metromedia opened a television production center in Los Angeles, known as Metromedia Square, which served as the studio facility for numerous network programs. Metromedia also owned a TV production and distribution company called Metromedia Producers Corporation (MPC), established in 1968 from Wolper Productions. MPC produced and syndicated various programs and TV movies, most notably the game show Truth or Consequences and the 1972-86 version of The Merv Griffin Show. Metromedia spent the 1970s and the first half of the 1980s increasing its television and radio station portfolio, and continued to expand its syndication business. In 1976, it teamed up with MTM Enterprises to launch a first-run syndicated variety show.
Metromedia entered the record business in 1969 with the launch of the Metromedia Records label, whose biggest-selling artist was Bobby Sherman. The label was also notable as having issued the first two studio albums of Peter Allen, Peter Allen (1971) and Tenterfield Saddler (1972). The label was closed in 1974. Allen's Tenterfield Saddler, the title song of which has become an Australian standard, was acquired and reissued by A&M Records in 1978.
In 1976, similar to the more successful SFM Holiday Network of syndicated stations launched two years later, Metromedia teamed up with Ogilvy and Mather for a proposed linking of independent TV stations termed MetroNet. The proposed programming would consist of several Sunday night family dramas, on weeknights a half-hour serial and a gothic series similar to Dark Shadows, and on Saturdays a variety program hosted by Charo. The plans for MetroNet failed when advertisers balked at Metromedia's advertising rate, which was only slightly lower than the Big Three's and low national coverage, leaving for another similar operation, Operation Prime Time. In 1979, Metromedia Producers Corporation had also reached a deal with Bob Stewart Productions for an exclusive co-producing agreement.
In 1982, Metromedia made its biggest broadcasting purchase when it acquired WCVB-TV in Boston for $220 million, which at the time was the largest amount ever spent on a single television station property. Two years later, John Kluge bought out Metromedia's shareholders and took the company private.
Also around this time, Metromedia attempted to bring to the air a national newscast for independent stations (much as the rival Tribune Company had created Independent Network News in 1980), planned for launch in the fall of 1983. Unlike INN, the program was planned to be offered as a hybrid, hour-long local/national newscast, fed to affiliates by satellite as a headlines block and three other segments, which could be aired by local stations in whatever order the stations deemed alongside locally produced news content. Also as part of this plan, Metromedia established full news departments for KRIV in Houston and what was then KRLD-TV in Dallas (another news department was planned for WFLD in Chicago, but that department ultimately didn't launch until 1987, after the Murdoch buyout). Metromedia attempted to hire Charles Kuralt away from CBS News to serve as anchor. Kuralt chose to stay to with CBS; John Hart was also considered as an anchor, but ultimately the planned newscast never came to fruition.
On May 4, 1985, Kluge announced the sale of Metromedia's television stations, and Metromedia Producers Corp., to News Corporation (owned by Australian newspaper publisher Rupert Murdoch) and 20th Century Fox Film Corporation (owned jointly by Murdoch and Marvin Davis) for $3.5 billion. With the exception of WCVB-TV (which was subsequently sold to the Hearst Corporation), all of the former Metromedia stations formed the nucleus of the Fox Broadcasting Company (which began operations on October 9, 1986), while MPC was folded into 20th Century Fox Television. The transactions became official on March 6, 1986. Because of these transactions, and the fact that Metromedia was originally spun off from the DuMont Television Network, radio personality Clarke Ingram has suggested that the Fox network is a revival or at least a linear descendant of DuMont.
Kluge also sold Metromedia's outdoor advertising firm, the Harlem Globetrotters, and the Ice Capades in 1985, its cellular phone and yellow pages divisions to the Southwestern Bell Corporation (now known as the second incarnation of AT&T, due to SBC's acquisition of AT&T Corporation in 2005) and spun off the radio stations into a separate company (which took on the Metropolitan Broadcasting name) 
In retaliation for a lawsuit brought by Paul Winchell, who sought the rights to his children's television program Winchell-Mahoney Time, which was produced at KTTV in Los Angeles during the mid-1960s, it is believed that KTTV management destroyed the program's video tapes. In 1989 Winchell was awarded nearly $18 million as compensation for Metromedia's capricious behavior.
In 1983, Christine Craft, a former evening news co-anchor at KMBC-TV in Kansas City, sued Metromedia on claims of fraud and sexual discrimination. After spending eight months at KMBC-TV in 1981, she was demoted to reporting assignment after a focus group study claimed Craft was "too old, too unattractive and not deferential to men" in the eyes of viewers. Craft declined the reassignment and subsequently resigned from the station. Craft initially won her case, though she lost on appeal at the U.S. Supreme Court.
Ownership of film studios
On May 22, 1986, Metromedia acquired a 6.5% stake in Orion Pictures Corporation; a movie and television studio. By December, the stake in Orion's ownership was increased to 9.3% to 12.6% and on April 12, 1988, to 44.1% On May 20, 1988, Metromedia acquired Sumner Redstone's share for $78 million, holding a majority stake in Orion Pictures worth nearly 67%. In 1995, Kluge merged Orion, MCEG Sterling Entertainment (producer of the Look Who's Talking series), the holding company Actava, and Metromedia into a new Metromedia International Group. In November 1995, Metromedia announced that it would acquire Motion Picture Corporation of America (MPCA) for $32 million, followed by The Samuel Goldwyn Company for $115 million in February 1996. On April 11, 1997, Metromedia sold Orion/Goldwyn and MPCA to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM) for $573 million and was closed on July 10 of the same year. In 1998, MPCA broke apart from MGM becoming independent again.
Activities following film sale
Following the sale of the film business to MGM, Metromedia still owned Metromedia Restaurant Group (which it had renamed from S&A Restaurant Group, which was acquired from Grand Metropolitan) in 1990 as well as Metromedia Fiber Network. The latter went bankrupt a few years later and became AboveNet, while the former went bankrupt in 2008.
Beginning in 1967, Metromedia's television stations began utilizing a sans-serif typeface for their on-air logo. The typeface was a proprietary one called Metromedia Television Alphabet, which was as distinctive as the typeface employed by Group W unit of Westinghouse Electric for its TV and radio stations beginning in 1963. Metromedia Television Alphabet was used for the channel numbers of its television stations until 1977, when another typeface modeled slightly after the Futura family was introduced.
Former Metromedia stations
Stations are listed alphabetically by state and city of license.
Two boldface asterisks appearing following a station's call letters (**) indicate a station that was built and signed-on by Metromedia or its predecessor companies. This list does not include WDTV (now KDKA-TV) in Pittsburgh or KCTY in Kansas City. Although DuMont owned the two stations at some point, Metromedia never owned either of these two stations.
|City of license / Market||Station||Channel||Years owned||Current status|
|Los Angeles, CA||KTTV||11||1963–1986||Fox owned-and-operated (O&O)|
|San Francisco–Oakland–San Jose, CA||KNEW-TV||32||1968–1970||Non-commercial independent KMTP-TV,|
owned by Minority Television Project
|Stockton–Sacramento–Modesto, CA||KOVR||13||1959–1964||CBS owned-and-operated (O&O)|
|Washington, D.C.||WTTG **||5||1956–1986||Fox owned-and-operated (O&O)|
|Chicago, IL||WFLD-TV||32||1983–1986||Fox owned-and-operated (O&O)|
|Decatur–Springfield–Champaign–Urbana, IL||WTVP||17||1960–1965||NBC affiliate WAND, owned by Block Communications|
|Peoria–Bloomington, IL||WTVH-TV||19||1959–1965||TBD owned-and-operated (O&O), WHOI|
|Newport, KY–Cincinnati, OH||WXIX-TV||19||1972–1983||Fox affiliate owned by Gray Television|
|Boston, MA||WCVB-TV||5||1982–1986||ABC affiliate owned by Hearst Television|
|Minneapolis–St. Paul, MN||WTCN-TV||11||1972–1983||NBC affiliate KARE, owned by Tegna|
|Kansas City, MO||KMBC-TV||9||1961–1982[a]||ABC affiliate owned by Hearst Television|
|New York City, NY||WABD/
|5||1956–1986||Fox owned-and-operated (O&O) WNYW|
|Dallas–Fort Worth, TX||KRLD-TV||33||1983–1986||The CW affiliate KDAF, owned by Nexstar Media Group|
|Houston, TX||KRIV-TV||26||1978–1986||Fox owned-and-operated (O&O)|
|AM Station||FM Station|
|City of license / Market||Station||Years owned||Current ownership|
|Los Angeles, CA||KLAC 570||1963–1984||iHeartMedia|
|KLAC-FM 102.7||1963–1965||KIIS-FM, iHeartMedia|
|KLAC-FM/KMET 94.7||1965–1986||KTWV, Audacy, Inc.|
|San Francisco–Oakland, CA||KNEW 910||1966–1980||KKSF, iHeartMedia|
|KSAN-FM 94.9||1966–1981||KYLD, iHeartMedia|
|Denver–Boulder, CO||KHOW 630||1981–1985||iHeartMedia|
|Washington, D.C.||WASH-FM 97.1||1968–1986||iHeartMedia|
|Tampa–St. Petersburg–Clearwater, FL||WWBA-FM 107.3||1981–1986||WXGL, Cox Media Group|
|Chicago, IL||WDHF/WMET-FM 95.5||1972–1983||WCHI-FM, iHeartMedia|
|Baltimore, MD||WCBM 680||1963–1986||WCBM Maryland Inc.|
|WCBM-FM 106.5||1963–1968||WWMX, Audacy, Inc.|
|Detroit, MI||WOMC 104.3||1972–1986||Audacy, Inc.|
|Kansas City, MO||KMBC 980||1961–1967[a]||KMBZ, Audacy, Inc.|
|KMBC-FM/KMBR 99.7 **||1962–1967||KZPT, Audacy, Inc.|
|New York City, NY||WNEW 1130||1957–1986||WBBR, Bloomberg L.P.|
|WNEW-FM 102.7 **||1958–1986||Audacy, Inc.|
|Cleveland, OH||WHK 1420||1958–1972[b]||Salem Media Group|
|Philadelphia, PA||WIP 610||1959–1986||WTEL, Beasley Broadcast Group|
|WIP-FM/WMMR 93.3||1959–1986||Beasley Broadcast Group|
|Dallas–Fort Worth, TX||KRLD 1080||1978–1986[c]||Audacy, Inc.|
|Seattle–Tacoma, WA||KJR 950||1980–1984||iHeartMedia|
- The acquisition of KMBC-AM-TV also included KMOS-TV in Sedalia, Missouri, and KFRM radio in Concordia, Kansas. Both stations were subsequently spun off by Metropolitan Broadcasting to other firms.
- DuMont Broadcasting also acquired a construction permit for channel 19 in Cleveland along with its purchase of WHK radio in 1958 but that station, intended to be called WHK-TV, never signed on. The channel 19 allocation was later occupied by WOIO.
- The acquisition of KRLD also included the Texas State Network.
This is a list of television programs that were produced and/or syndicated by Metromedia Producers Corporation (MPC):
- Allen Ludden's Gallery (1969)
- The Ann Sothern Show (1958–1961)
- B.A.D. Cats[N 1]
- Charlie's Angels[N 2]
- Chopper One[N 2]
- The Cross-Wits (1975–1980) (co-produced with Ralph Edwards Productions)
- Crusader Rabbit (1950–1952, 1956–1959)[N 2]
- Dusty's Trail (1973–1974) (co-produced with Redwood Productions and Writer First Productions)
- Dynasty (distributor, 1985–1986)[N 1]
- Expedition Danger
- Family[N 2]
- Firehouse (1974) (co-produced with Stonehenge Productions)
- Groovie Goolies and Friends[N 3]
- The Great Space Coaster (co-produced with Sunbow Productions)[N 4]
- Hart to Hart[N 2]
- Here We Go Again (1973)
- Hit Man (co-produced with Jay Wolpert Productions)
- Jane Goodall and the World of Animal Behavior
- Jeopardy! (original version - distributor, 1974)[N 1]
- Kids Are People Too (1978–1982)
- Little Gloria... Happy at Last (1982; mini-series)
- Mayberry RFD (distributor)[N 5]
- The Merv Griffin Show (distributor/co-producer, 1972–1983)[N 6]
- Movin' On (distributor)[N 7]
- My Favorite Martian (distributor)[N 7]
- National Geographic Specials (1964–1971)
- The New Avengers (U.S. distributor)[N 8]
- The New Howdy Doody Show (1976–1977)
- Primus (1971–1972) (co-produced with Ivan Tors Films)
- Queen for a Day (1969–1970)
- S.W.A.T.[N 2]
- Small Wonder (production company, 1985–1986)
- Soul Train (syndicated by Tribune Entertainment then Trifecta Entertainment & Media; rights now owned by Paramount Media Networks)
- Star Search (production company, 1983–1986)[N 1]
- Starsky & Hutch[N 2]
- Strange Paradise
- Strike Force[N 1]
- The Super (1972)
- Super Pay Cards (1981–1982; distributor)
- Susie (1953–1957)
- T. J. Hooker[N 2]
- That Girl (distributor)[N 9]
- Thicke of the Night (distributor)[N 5]
- Too Close for Comfort (1980–1987) (co-produced with D.L. Taffner Productions)
- Truth or Consequences (distributor, 1966–1978) (co-produced with Ralph Edwards Productions)
- The Undersea World of Jacques Cousteau
- Untamed World (co-produced with the CTV Television Network)
- Vega$ (1978–1981) (distributor)[N 1]
- Wild Times (1980; mini-series)
- Winchell-Mahoney Time (1965–1968)[N 10]
- Wonderama (1955–1977, 1980–1983)
- Rights now owned by CBS Media Ventures.
- Currently distributed by Disney–ABC Domestic Television.
- Currently owned by NBCUniversal (via DreamWorks Animation).
- Currently owned by Tanslin Media.
- Currently distributed by Warner Bros. Television.
- Currently distributed by Reelin' In the Years Productions on behalf of The Griffin Group.
- Currently distributed by the Peter Rodgers Organization.
- Rights now owned by StudioCanal.
- Later distributed by Worldvision Enterprises and Shout! Factory.
- Rights now owned by Paul Winchell's family.
- "About Us". MetroMedia Technologies. Archived from the original on June 5, 2011. Retrieved October 3, 2018.
- Goldenson, Leonard H.; Wolf, Marvin J. (1991). Beating the Odds. New York: Macmillan. p. 105. ISBN 9780684190556.
- "DuMont TV". Archived from the original on December 31, 2006. Retrieved December 31, 2006.
- "DuMont network to quit in telecasting 'spin-off.'" Broadcasting - Telecasting, August 15, 1955, pg. 64. [permanent dead link]
- "DuMont completes spin-off, separates broadcasting, labs.'" Broadcasting - Telecasting, December 5, 1955, pg. 7. [permanent dead link]
- "DuMont pays $7.5 million for WNEW." Broadcasting, March 25, 1957, pp. 31-32. [permanent dead link][permanent dead link]
- "Changing Hands." Broadcasting, November 18, 1957, pg. 96[permanent dead link]
- "For the Record." Broadcasting - Telecasting, January 6, 1958, p. 108. [permanent dead link]
- "DuMont revenue grows, name change approved." Broadcasting, May 19, 1958, pg. 84. [permanent dead link]
- "Kluge buying Paramount's 21% of Metropolitan Broadcasting." Broadcasting, December 1, 1958, pg. 9. [permanent dead link]
- "Name change." Broadcasting, September 8, 1958, pg. 84[permanent dead link]
- "Changing Hands" (PDF). Broadcasting. Vol. 54, no. 16. April 21, 1958. p. 58. Retrieved September 5, 2022 – via World Radio History.
- Spielvogel, Carl. "Advertising: an acquisition set." The New York Times, December 20, 1959.
- "3 blessings with 2 rebukes." Broadcasting, January 4, 1960, pg. 40. [permanent dead link]
- [permanent dead link]"Changing hands." Broadcasting, January 18, 1960, pp. 95-96[permanent dead link]
- "Metropolitan buying KMBC." Broadcasting, December 26, 1960, pp. 51-52. [permanent dead link][permanent dead link]
- "It's Metromedia." Broadcasting - Telecasting, April 3, 1961, pg. 56. [permanent dead link]
- Metromedia gets its TV team in uniformBroadcasting, March 25, 1968, pp. 56-57.
- "KTTV to Metromedia for $10 million plus." Broadcasting, January 14, 1963, pg. 9. [permanent dead link]
- "Metromedia adds KLAC in $4.5 million deal." Broadcasting, March 18, 1963, pp. 9-10. [permanent dead link][permanent dead link]
- "Changing hands." Broadcasting, March 22, 1965, pp. 110-111: Metromedia acquires KRHM (94.7 FM) and sells KLAC-FM (102.7 FM); the FCC allows both facilities to exchange call letters. [permanent dead link][permanent dead link]
- "Ice Capades Acquired By Metromedia, Inc." The New York Times, May 14, 1963.
- Gent, George. "Metromedia buys Globetrotters; TV chain will add team to Ice Capades operation." The New York Times, May 24, 1967.
- "Programming Briefs" (PDF). Broadcasting. June 14, 1976. Retrieved August 27, 2021.
- Peter Allen discography; www.allmusic.com.
- Peter Allen discography; www5d.biglobe.ne.jp.
- Nadel, Gerry (May 30, 1977). "Who Owns Prime Time? The Threat of the 'Occasional' Networks". New York Magazine. New York: 34–35. Retrieved October 4, 2009.
- "Monitor" (PDF). Broadcasting. December 17, 1979. Retrieved September 26, 2021.
- Schwartz, Tony. "Metromedia seeks TV station." The New York Times, July 23, 1981.
- Cuff, Daniel F. "Business people; Metromedia's founder begins new challenge." The New York Times, December 14, 1983.
- "KURALT WOOED". UPI. Retrieved June 2, 2022.
- Hodges, Ann (October 1, 1982). "Ch. 26 to carry Turner's All-Star NFL package". Houston Chronicle. p. 5:13.
- Shales, Tom (June 26, 1983). "Ode to the Road Of Charles Kuralt". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved June 2, 2022.
- Alridge, Ron (October 13, 1982). "WFLD is planning some big news for Chicago". Chicago Tribune.
- Cole, Robert J.. "Murdoch to buy & TV stations; cost $2 billion." The New York Times, May 7, 1985.
- "Rupert Murdoch buys Metromedia". The 10 O'Clock News. New York, NY. May 4, 1985. 00:00 minutes in. WNEW-TV. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
- Clarke Ingram. "The DuMont Television Network: Channel Nine". Dumont History.
- Stevenson, Richard W. "Metromedia ad business sale". The New York Times, January 21, 1986.
- Fabrikant, Geraldine. "Metromedia set to sell Globetrotters, ice show." The New York Times, March 5, 1986.
- "Metromedia, Katz radio groups sold in LBO's." Broadcasting, March 31, 1986, pp. 33-34. [permanent dead link][permanent dead link]
- "In brief." Broadcasting, November 17, 1986, pg. 120[permanent dead link]
- "Metromedia Will Sell Its Cellular Units". Los Angeles Times. July 1, 1986. Retrieved November 23, 2022.
- "Victory for ventriloquist." Broadcasting, July 3, 1989, pg. 37[dead link]
- "Paul Winchell Gets Last Word and $17.8 Million." "LA Times", July 3, 1986
- "Newsroom issue goes to court." Broadcasting, August 1, 1983, pp. 24-25. [permanent dead link][permanent dead link]
- "Craft decision leaves questions." Broadcasting, August 15, 1983, pp. 28-30. [permanent dead link][permanent dead link][permanent dead link]
- "Craft case continues." Broadcasting, December 23, 1985, pg. 69[permanent dead link]
- "Christine Craft wins two, loses big one." Broadcasting, March 10, 1986, pp. 74-75. [permanent dead link][permanent dead link]
- Metromedia's Orion Stake, chicagotribune.com
- Metromedia's Orion Stake, newyorktimes.com
- BATES, JAMES (September 1, 1994). "Orion to Be Folded Into Global Media Concern : Entertainment: Billionaire John Kluge's expanded Metromedia International would be formed via a four-way stock swap worth $1 billion". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved January 27, 2019.
- "Metromedia to Acquire Motion Picture Corporation of America". AP. November 28, 1995. Retrieved November 9, 2022.
- "COMPANY NEWS;AT $115 MILLION, A BUYER FOR SAMUEL GOLDWYN". The New York Times. February 1, 1996. Retrieved November 9, 2022.
- Bates, James. "Metromedia to Sell Film Units to MGM for $573 million." The New York Times. April 29, 1997.
- "Years of Hits, Misses Comes to Close." Daily News of Los Angeles. July 10, 1997; Bates, James. "MGM Lays Off 85 in Metromedia Film, TV Units." Los Angeles Times. July 11, 1997.
- Bernstein, Charles (August 14, 1989). "Conglomerate menace stalks chains". bnet. Archived from the original on March 13, 2009. Retrieved September 5, 2021.
- "$9.65 million sale of KMBC." Broadcasting, July 31, 1961, pp. 45-46. [permanent dead link][permanent dead link]
- John Kluge at the Museum of Broadcast Communications Encyclopedia of Television
- New York Times 1986 announcement of Metromedia liquidation
- Metromedia Radio, a Web based radio station holds the WNEW tape archive and trademark rights to the Metromedia name and Soundmark rights to the WNEW and Metromedia Radio jingles