Metropolis of Corinth

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The Metropolis of Corinth, Sicyon, Zemenon, Tarsos and Polyphengos (Greek: Ιερά Μητρόπολις Κορίνθου, Σικυώνος, Ζεμενού, Ταρσού και Πολυφέγγους) is a metropolitan see of the Church of Greece in Corinthia, Greece. Since the Middle Ages it has also existed as a Roman Catholic titular see. The current metropolitan (since 2006) is Dionysios Mantalos.

History[edit]

The foundation of the See of Corinth is attributed to the Apostle Paul, who is held to have preached in the city and addressed two epistles to the Corinthian Church. His successor and first bishop was Saint Apollo of Ephesus.[1] Pope Clement I also wrote an epistle to the community, in the first century.[2] In the Roman and early Byzantine periods, Corinth was the capital and metropolitan see of the province of Achaea (southern Greece).[1][3]

The city was largely destroyed in the earthquakes of 365 and 375, followed by Alaric's invasion in 396. It was rebuilt on a smaller scale thereafter, but with grandiose buildings.[3] Corinth declined from the 6th century on, and the main settlement moved from the lower city to the Acrocorinth. Despite its becoming the capital of the themes of Hellas and Peloponnese, it was not until the 9th century that the city began to recover, reaching its apogee in the 11th and 12th centuries, when it was the site of a flourishing silk industry. This prosperity ended with the Norman sack of 1147.[3]

Besides St. Apollo, Le Quien (II, 155) mentions forty-three bishops for the Roman/Byzantine era: among them, St. Sosthenes, the disciple of St. Paul, St. Dionysius; Paul, brother of St. Peter, Bishop of Argos in the tenth century; St. Athanasius, in the same century; George, or Gregory, a commentator of liturgical hymns.[1] Until the 9th century, Corinth remained the metropolis of southern Greece, and particularly the Peloponnese. Indeed, the bishop of Corinth was the only bishop from the Peloponnese to attend the Council of Ephesus in 431, and the only bishop from Greece to attend the Third Council of Constantinople in 680.[3] From the early 9th century, however, the primacy of Corinth over the Peloponnese was challenged by the See of Patras, and from the 10th century on Corinth was restricted to the eastern Peloponnese and certain of the Ionian Islands.[3] Based on the various Notitiae Episcopatuum from the 10th–12th centuries, Corinth counted seven suffragan sees: Cephalonia, Zakynthos, Damala, Lacedaemon/Monemvasia, Argos, Helos and Zemena.[4]

In 1203/4, the city fell to the ambitious lord of the Argolid, Leo Sgouros, who secured possession of Corinth by inviting its Metropolitan, Nicholas, to Acronauplia for dinner, and then had him thrown from its heights.[5] Sgouros' ambitions to create a state of his own in southern Greece were checked by the onslaught of the victorious Crusaders, who captured Corinth in 1210.[6][7]

After the city's capture, the Crusaders established a Latin Archbishopric to replace the Greek Orthodox see.[8][9] Le Quien (III, 883) mentions twenty Latin prelates from 1210 to 1700, but Eubel (I, 218; II, 152) mentions twenty-two archbishops for the period from 1212 to 1476.[1] Although Corinth was the oldest and most prestigious see in southern Greece, during the period of Frankish rule it was eclipsed by the Latin Archbishopric of Patras.[10]

The city was recovered by the Byzantine Despotate of the Morea in 1395, and, after a short period (1397–1404) of rule by the Knights Hospitaller, returned to Byzantine hands, where it remained until it fell to the Ottoman Empire on 8 August 1458.[3] After the Byzantine recovery of the city, the Catholic see became a titular see. Today, the Metropolis of Corinth belongs to the Church of Greece, under the Archbishop of Athens and All Greece.

List of bishops[edit]

Name Name in Greek Tenure Notes
Apollo mid-1st century
Silas
Onesiphorus
Sosthenes
Apollonius early 2nd century
Dionysius I ca. 170
Bacchylus ca. 196
Hesiodus 3rd century
Dionysius II ca. 350
Dorotheus late 4th century
Eustathius 381
Alexander 406
Perigenes ca. 431
Erasistratus 446
Peter ca. 451
Photius ca. 536
Theodore 6th century
Anastasius ca. 590–591
John I 591
Stephen I 681
Gabriel I 8th/9th century
John II 879–880
Paul
Basil
Athanasius
Gabriel
George
Nicetas
Michael
Nicholas
Stephen II
Theodore
Gregory
Sergius
Nicodemus I
Hyacinthus
Theoleptos
Isidore
Theognostos
Latin Archbishops, 1212–mid-15th century
Mark 1445
Malachias 1446
Joachim ca. 1447
Cyril I 1492–1507
Macarius I 1507–1517
Theophanes 1517–1534
Joasaph I 1541–1549
Sophronius 1549–1569
Laurentius 1574–1585
Neophytus I 1585–1589
Laurentius 1590
Neophytus I 1595
Anthimus 1620–1622
Neophytus II 1622–1626
Daniel 1626–1628
Cyril I Spanos 1628–1635 Subsequently Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, 1652 and 1654
Ezekiel II 1636–1638
Joasaph II 1638–1641
Gregory I 1641–1660
Parthenius 1660–1668
Callistus 1668–1672
Zachary I 1678–1684
Gregory II Notaras 1684–1715 under Venetian rule
Joasaph III 1715–1719
Metrophanes 1719
Parthenios 1734–1763
Makarios Notaras 1764–1767
Gabriel III 1776–1784
Zachary II 1784–1819
Cyril II 1819–1836
Cyril III 1841–1842
Gerasimos 1842–1843
Jonah 1852–1854
Amfilochios 1854–1875
Bartholomew 1899–1918
Damaskinos Papandreou 1922–1938 Subsequently Archbishop of Athens, 1941–1949
Michail Konstantinidis 1939–1949
Prokopios 1949–1965
Paneteleimon Karanikolas 1965–2006
Dionysios Mantalos 2006–present

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Wikisource-logo.svg Pétridès, Sophron (1913). "Corinth". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  2. ^ First Epistle to the Corinthians (Clement)
  3. ^ a b c d e f Gregory (1991), pp. 531–533
  4. ^ Setton (1975), pp. 36–37 note 45
  5. ^ Setton (1975), pp. 21–24, esp. note 28
  6. ^ Bon (1969), pp. 56–59
  7. ^ Setton (1975), pp. 22–25, 36
  8. ^ Setton (1975), pp. 36–37 note 45
  9. ^ Bon (1969), pp. 93–94
  10. ^ Bon (1969), p. 92

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]

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