Metropolitan Transportation Authority
The Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) provides local and express bus, subway, and commuter rail service in Greater New York, and operates multiple toll bridges and tunnels in New York City.
|Owner||State of New York|
|Locale||New York City|
Lower Hudson Valley
|Transit type||Commuter rail, local and express bus, subway, bus rapid transit|
|Number of lines||
|Daily ridership||8.6 million (2017 weekday average)|
|Annual ridership||2.658 billion (2017)|
|Key people||Patrick Foye, Chairman & CEO|
Ronnie Hakim, Managing Director
|Headquarters||2 Broadway, New York, New York|
|Began operation||May 21, 1965|
|Number of vehicles||2,429 commuter rail cars|
6,418 subway cars
63 SIR cars
The Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) is a public benefit corporation responsible for public transportation in the U.S. state of New York, serving 12 counties in Downstate New York, along with two counties in southwestern Connecticut under contract to the Connecticut Department of Transportation, carrying over 11 million passengers on an average weekday systemwide, and over 850,000 vehicles on its seven toll bridges and two tunnels per weekday. The MTA is the largest public transit authority in the United States.
- 1 History
- 2 Responsibilities and service area
- 3 Subsidiaries and affiliates
- 4 Governance
- 5 Apps
- 6 Fare collection
- 7 Issues
- 8 Campaigns
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
In February 1965, New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller suggested that the New York State Legislature create an authority to purchase, operate, and modernize the Long Island Rail Road (LIRR). The LIRR, then a subsidiary of the Pennsylvania Railroad (PRR), had been operating under bankruptcy protection since 1949. The proposed authority would also have the power to make contracts or arrangements with other commuter-railroad operators in the New York City area. On May 21, 1965, the legislature chartered the Metropolitan Commuter Transportation Authority (MCTA) to take over the operations of the LIRR. Governor Rockefeller appointed his top aide, Dr. William J. Ronan, as chairman and chief executive officer of the MCTA. In June 1965, the state finalized an agreement to buy the LIRR from the PRR for $65 million. The MCTA made a down payment of $10 million for the LIRR in December 1965, and it had completed the rest of the payment by the next month.
In February 1965, Rockefeller and Connecticut Governor John N. Dempsey jointly suggested that operations of the New Haven Line, the New Haven Railroad's struggling commuter rail operation, be transferred to the New York Central Railroad as part of a plan to prevent the New Haven Railroad from going bankrupt. If the operational merger occurred, the proposed MCTA and the existing Connecticut Transportation Authority would contract with New York Central to operate the New Haven Line to Grand Central Terminal. A joint report from both agencies, released in September of that year, recommended that the line be leased to New York Central for 99 years, with the MCTA and CTA acting as agents for both states. In October, the MCTA found that the New Haven Line's stations and infrastructure were even more decrepit than those of the LIRR. The New Haven Railroad's trustees initially opposed New York Central's takeover of the New Haven Line, as they felt that the $140 million offer for the New Haven Line was too low. After some discussion, the trustees decided to continue operating the New Haven Line, but only until June 1967.
In January 1966, New York City Mayor John Lindsay proposed merging the New York City Transit Authority (NYCTA), which operated buses and subways in New York City, and the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority (TBTA), which operated toll bridges and tunnels within the city. Rockefeller offered his "complete support" for Lindsay's proposed unified transit agency, while longtime city planner and TBTA chair Robert Moses called the proposed merger "absurd" and "grotesque" for its unwieldiness. In June 1966, Rockefeller announced his plans to expand the MCTA's scope to create a new regional transit authority. The new authority would encompass the existing MCTA, as well as the NYCTA and TBTA. Lindsay disagreed, saying that the state and city should have operationally separate transit authorities that worked in tandem.
On May 3, 1967, Rockefeller signed a bill that allowed the MCTA to oversee the mass transit policies of New York City-area transit systems. The unification agreement would take place the following March, upon which the MCTA would take over the operations of the LIRR, NYCTA, TBTA, New Haven commuter services, New York Central commuter services, and the Staten Island Railway. Initially, the TBTA was resistant to the MCTA's efforts to acquire it. Moses was afraid that the enlarged MCTA would "undermine, destroy or tarnish" the integrity of the TBTA, One source of contention was Rockefeller's proposal to use TBTA tolls in order to subsidize the cheap fares of the NYCTA, since Moses strongly opposed any use of TBTA tolls for use by outside agencies. In February 1968, Moses finally acquiesced to the MCTA's merger proposal. New York Central and the PRR also merged in February 1968, forming the Penn Central Transportation Company.
On February 29, 1968, the MCTA published a 56-page report for Governor Rockefeller, and in it, proposed several subway and railroad improvements under the name "Metropolitan Transportation, a Program for Action" (alternatively called the "Grand Design"). The city had already intended to build subway extensions in all four boroughs so that most riders would need at most one transfer to get to their destination. The Program for Action also called for upgrades to the Penn Central railroads as well as to area airports. The Program for Action was put forward simultaneously with other development and transportation plans under the administration of Mayor Lindsay. This included Lindsay's Linear City plan for housing and educational facilities, and the projected construction of several Interstate Highways, many of which were originally proposed by Robert Moses.
On March 1, 1968, the day after the release of the Program for Action, the MCTA dropped the word "Commuter" from its name and became the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA). The MTA took over the operations of the other New York City-area transit systems. Moses was let go from his job as chairman of the TBTA, although he was retained as a consultant. The construction of two proposed bridges over the Long Island Sound was put under the jurisdiction of the MTA. Moses stated that TBTA construction projects would reduce the MTA's budget surplus through 1970. Chairman Ronan pushed for the MTA to pursue the Program for Action, saying, "We're making up for 30 years of do-nothingism".
Ronan also proposed that the MTA take over the Staten Island Railway from the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and commence a $25 million modernization project on the railway, The city's Board of Estimate approved this purchase in December 1969. The MTA did not actually take ownership of the Staten Island Railway until January 1971.
The agency entered into a long-term lease of Penn Central's Hudson, Harlem, and New Haven Lines. Before 1968, the Hudson and Harlem lines had been operated by the New York Central Railroad, while the New Haven Line had been part of the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad. Penn Central continued to operate the lines under contract to the MTA. In April 1970, Rockefeller proposed that the state take over the Hudson and Harlem Lines, and the next month, he signed a bond issue that provided $44.4 million in funding to these lines. Penn Central's operations were folded into Conrail in 1976. The MTA took over full operations in 1983, and merged the lines into the Metro-North Commuter Railroad.
Responsibilities and service area
The MTA has the responsibility for developing and implementing a unified mass transportation policy for the New York metropolitan area, including all five boroughs of New York City and the suburban counties of Dutchess, Nassau, Orange, Putnam, Rockland, Suffolk and Westchester. This twelve-county area make up the "Metropolitan Commuter Transportation District" (MCTD), within which the New York State Department of Taxation and Finance levies a "metropolitan commuter transportation mobility tax". On April 1, 2019, Patrick J. Foye was appointed Chairman and CEO.
The MTA's immediate past chairpersons were. William J. Ronan (1965–1974), David Yunich (1974–1975), Harold L. Fisher (1975–1979), Richard Ravitch (1979–1983), Robert Kiley (1983–1991), Peter Stangl (1991–1995), Virgil Conway (1995–2001), Peter S. Kalikow (2001–2007), H. Dale Hemmerdinger (2007–2009), Jay Walder (2009–2011), Joseph Lhota (2012), Thomas F. Prendergast (2013–2017), and Joseph Lhota (2017-2018). Lhota was re-appointed in 2017 and resigned on November 9, 2018.
The MTA considers itself to be the largest regional public transportation provider in the Western Hemisphere. As of 2018[update], its agencies serve a region of approximately 15.3 million people spread over 5,000 square miles (13,000 km2) in 12 counties in New York and two in Connecticut. MTA agencies now move about 8.6 million customers per day (translating to 2.65 billion rail and bus customers a year) and employ approximately 73,348 workers. The MTA's systems carry over 11 million passengers on an average weekday systemwide, and over 850,000 vehicles on its seven toll bridges and two tunnels per weekday.
Subsidiaries and affiliates
MTA carries out these planning and other responsibilities both directly and through its subsidiaries and affiliates, and provides oversight to these subordinate agencies, known collectively as "The Related Entities". The Related Entities represent a number of previously existing agencies which have come under the MTA umbrella. In turn, these previously existing agencies were (with the exception of MTA Bridges and Tunnels and MTA Capital Construction) successors to the property of private companies that provided substantially the same services.
In 1994, the MTA spent $3 million rebranding its five subsidiaries with simpler names to convey that the different agencies were part of one agency. Surveys found that a majority of riders did not know that the MTA owned the Long Island Rail Road or the Metro-North Railroad. As part of the changes, the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority was renamed MTA Bridges and Tunnels; Staten Island Rapid Transit was renamed MTA Staten Island Railway; Metropolitan Suburban Bus Authority was renamed MTA Long Island Bus. In addition, New York City Transit Authority was renamed MTA New York City Transit to seem less authoritarian, Metro–North Commuter Railroad was renamed MTA Metro-North Railroad to recognize the increase in non-commuter ridership. The MTA logo was changed from a two-toned "M" logo to a blue circle with the MTA initials written in perspective like they were rushing by like a train. The large "M" logos on trains and buses were replaced with decals that state MTA New York City Bus, MTA New York City Subway or MTA Staten Island Railway, eliminating inconsistencies in signage. Today, the older "M" logos survive on existing cube-shaped lamps on station lampposts dating to the 1980s, though such lamps have been updated with more modern spherical lamps over time.
Today, each of these Related Entities has a popular name and in some cases, a former legal name. Since 1994, the legal name has only been used for legal documents, such as contracts, and have not been used publicly. However, since the mid-2000s, the popular name has also been used for legal documents related to contract procurements where the legal name was used heretofore. Both are listed below.
- MTA Long Island Rail Road (LIRR)
(legal name, no longer used publicly: The Long Island Rail Road Company)
- MTA Metro-North Railroad (MNR)
(legal name, no longer used publicly: Metro-North Commuter Railroad Company)
- MTA Staten Island Railway (SIR)
(legal name, no longer used publicly: Staten Island Rapid Transit Operating Authority)
- MTA Capital Construction (MTACC)
(legal name, not used publicly: MTA Capital Construction Company)
- MTA Regional Bus Operations (legal name, not used publicly; but rather trading as):
- First Mutual Transportation Assurance Company (legal name, not used publicly; no public name)
- MTA Bridges and Tunnels (MTA B&T)
(legal name, no longer used publicly: Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority)
- MTA New York City Transit (NYCT)
(legal name, no longer used publicly: New York City Transit Authority and its subsidiary, the Manhattan and Bronx Surface Transit Operating Authority (MaBSTOA))
The Bus division is now managed under Regional Bus.
- MTA Long Island Bus
(legal name, no longer used: Metropolitan Suburban Bus Authority)
From January 1, 2012, this division was operated by Veolia Transport (now Transdev, Inc.) as Nassau Inter-County Express.
The MTA is governed by a 21-member board representing the 5 boroughs of New York City, each of the counties in its New York State service area, and worker and rider interest groups. Of these, there are 14 voting members, broken down into 13 board members who cast individual votes, 4 board members who cast a single collective vote, and 6 group representatives who do not vote. The chairman position was split off of the existing CEO position in 2017. However, the Chairman and CEO positions were merged back into one position in 2019 when Foye was appointed.
Four members as well as the chairman and the CEO are directly nominated by the Governor of New York, while four are recommended by New York City's mayor. The county executives of Nassau, Suffolk and Westchester counties nominate one member each. Each of these members has one vote. The county executives of Dutchess, Orange, Rockland, and Putnam counties also nominate one member each, but these members cast one collective vote. The Board also has six rotating nonvoting seats held by representatives of MTA employee organized labor and the Permanent Citizens Advisory Committee, which represent customers of MTA transit and commuter facilities. Board members are confirmed by the New York State Senate.
In 2017, the MTA had operating expenses of $16.85 billion, an outstanding debt of $38.083 billion, and a level of staffing of 79,832 people (staff compensation totaled $6.762 billion). It collects revenue from passenger fees and from a Metropolitan Commuter Transportation Mobility Tax, a payroll tax levied on employers in the 12-county area served by the MTA.
The MTA has developed several official web and mobile apps for its subway and bus services, and also provides data to private app developers to create their own unofficial MTA apps. In 2012, the MTA officially released the Subway Time app, which uses subway countdown clock data to determine the next-train arrival times on seven services. Real-time station information for the "mainline" A Division (numbered routes), comprising all numbered services except the 7 train, was made available to third party developers via an API. This was achieved through both the Subway Time mobile app and as open data. In early 2014, data for the L train were also given to developers. When Bluetooth-enabled countdown clocks were installed in the B Division (lettered services) in 2016 and 2017, they were also configured to feed data to the Subway Time app as well as in an open-data format.
MTA's Bus Time app originated as a pilot program to install bus countdown clocks along the M16 and M34 routes in August 2009. At the same time, many new buses were retrofitted with GPS-enabled automatic vehicle location systems. In October 2010, the developers of the buses' GPS devices implemented the MTA system's first bus-tracking app, which monitored buses along the M16 and M34 routes. This evolved into the current web app, which originally tracked buses along the B63 route in Brooklyn when it started in February 2011. By January 2012, every local and express bus in Staten Island was equipped with the system. The M34 corridor began using the system on April 6, 2012 with nearly every Bronx bus route using the system by the end of 2012. All five boroughs of the city used the system by March 2014, and a mobile app was released in 2015.
In 2011, the MTA began to look at ways of displaying service disruptions due to weekend engineering works in a visual format. On September 16, 2011, the MTA introduced a Vignelli-style interactive subway map, "The Weekender", to its website. The web app provided a way for riders to get information about any planned work, from late Friday night to early Monday morning, that is going on either on a service(s) or station(s) of the subway during the weekends. On June 11, 2012, the MTA duplicated "The Weekender" site as a free mobile app download for iOS. On November 29, 2012, an Android version of the app was released.
The MTA announced plans to integrate all three apps in 2017. The combined app, which was scheduled for release in 2018, would include real-time arrival information for all subway and bus routes, as well as weekend service changes and travel planners. In April 2018, the MTA started testing MYmta, which provides arrival information for MTA railroad, subway, and bus routes; escalator and elevator outage information; and real-time service changes. The app also includes an improved version of the MTA's Trip Planner; whereas the existing Trip Planner can only plan trips along MTA-operated modes of transportation, MYmta's Trip Planner can also suggest routes via other operators such as the Staten Island Ferry, NYC Ferry, PATH, and NJ Transit. A beta version of MYmta was released to the general public in July of that year. In future versions of the MYmta app, the MTA planned to integrate the eTix functionality, as well as make it easier for Access-A-Ride customers to view when their vehicle will arrive at a certain point.
The subway, buses, and Staten Island Railway charge a single flat fare for each trip, regardless of time or distance traveled. From the MTA's inception until 2003, the agency collected subway and bus fares via a series of small metal tokens. The MTA cycled through several series of tokens throughout the late 20th century. In 1993, MTA started testing the MetroCard, a magnetic stripe card that would replace the tokens used to pay fares. By 1997, the entire bus and subway system accepted MetroCard, and tokens were no longer accepted for fare payment in 2003.
A different fare payment system is used on the LIRR and Metro-North. Both railroads sell tickets based on geographical "zones" and time of day, charging peak and off-peak fares. Tickets may be bought from a ticket office at stations, ticket vending machines (TVMs), online through the "WebTicket" program, or through apps for iOS and Android devices.
In 2017 it was announced that the MetroCard would be phased out and replaced by OMNY, a contactless fare payment system, with fare payment being made using Apple Pay, Google Wallet, debit/credit cards with near-field communication enabled, or radio-frequency identification cards. The announcement calls for all buses and subway stations to use electronic fare collection by 2020. However, support of the MetroCard is slated to remain until 2023. MTA also plans to use OMNY in the LIRR and Metro-North.
The budget deficit of the MTA is a growing crisis for the organization as well as for New York City and State residents and governments. The MTA held $31 billion in debt in 2010 and it also suffered from a $900 million gap in its operating budget for 2011. The capital budget, which covers repairs, technological upgrades, new trains, and expansions, is currently $15 billion short of what the MTA states it needs. If this is not funded, the MTA will fund the repairs with debt and raise fares to cover repayments.
The MTA has consistently run on a deficit, but increased spending in 2000–04 coupled with the economic downturn led to a severe increase in the financial burden that the MTA bore. The budget problems stem from multiple sources. The MTA cannot be supported solely by rider fares and road tolls. In the preliminary 2011 budget, MTA forecasted operating revenue totaled at $6.5 billion, amount to only 50% of the $13 billion operating expenses. Therefore, the MTA must rely on other sources of funding to remain operational. Revenue collected from real estate taxes for transportation purposes helped to contain the deficit. However, due to the weak economy and unstable real estate market, money from these taxes severely decreased; in 2010, tax revenue fell at least 20% short of the projected value. Beyond this, steadily reducing support from city and state governments led to borrowing money by issuing bonds, which contributed heavily to the debt.
This budget deficit has resulted in various problems, mainly concentrated in New York City. New York City Subway fares have been increased four times since 2008, with the most recent occurring March 22, 2015, raising single-ride fares from $2.50 to $2.75, express service from $6 to $6.50 and the monthly MetroCard fare from $112 to $116. Each fare raise was met with increasing resistance by MTA customers, and many are beginning to find the fare increases prohibitive. 2010 also saw heavy service cuts for many MTA subsidiaries. Fewer trains spaced farther between resulted in heavy overcrowding beyond normal rush hours, leading to frustration for many subway and bus riders. In 2013, the subway had the highest ridership since 1947. MTA employees also suffered due to the budget issues. By mid-July 2010, MTA layoffs had reached over 1,000, and many of those affected were low-level employees who made less than $55,000 annually.
As of 2015[update], the MTA was running a $15 billion deficit in its $32 billion 2015–2019 Capital Plan. Without extra funding, many necessary construction and renovation projects would not be performed. In October 2015, the MTA passed the $29 billion 2015–2019 Capital Plan, the largest capital plan in MTA's history; it will be funded by federal, state and city government as well as riders' fares and tolls. Three months later, New York Governor Andrew Cuomo and MTA chairman Thomas Prendergast unveiled their plan to spend $26 billion to modernize the subway network, which includes adding Wi-Fi and cellphone services throughout all 278 underground stations by the end of 2016. Other plans call for making extensive renovations to 30 subway stations, allowing mobile ticketing by cellphone or bank cards, and adding security cameras on buses, charging stations for electronics, and more countdown clocks. Roughly $3 billion will be spent to improve bridges and tunnels.
Reasons for high costs
On November 18, 2017, The New York Times published an investigation into the problems underlying the MTA. It found that politicians from both the Democratic and Republican parties, at the mayoral and gubernatorial levels, had gradually removed $1.5 billion of MTA funding. Other actions by city and state politicians, according to the Times, included overspending; overpaying unions and interest groups; advertising superficial improvement projects while ignoring more important infrastructure; and agreeing to high-interest loans that would have been unnecessary without their other interventions. The Times stressed that no single event directly caused the crisis; rather, it was an accumulation of small cutbacks and maintenance deferments. The MTA funds were described as a "piggy bank" for the state, with the issuance of MTA bonds benefiting the state at the MTA's expense. By 2017, a sixth of the MTA's budget was allocated to paying off debt, a threefold increase from the proportion in 1997. The city's $250 million annual contribution to the MTA budget in 2017 was a quarter of the contribution in 1990. David L. Gunn, who helped end a transit crisis when he led the NYCTA in the mid-1980s, described the 2017 crisis as "heartbreaking".
In December of the same year, the Times reported that the $12 billion East Side Access project, which would extend the LIRR to Grand Central Terminal upon its completion, was the most expensive of its kind in the world, with a projected price of $3.5 billion per mile of track. Over the years, the projected cost of East Side Access had risen by billions of dollars due to unnecessary expenses. In addition to overpaying workers and overspending, politicians and trade unions had forced the MTA to hire more workers than was needed. In 2010, an accountant found that the project was hiring 200 extra workers, at a cost of $1,000 per worker per day, for no apparent reason. The bidding process for MTA construction contracts also raised costs because, in some cases, only one or two contractors would bid on a project. Similar construction projects in New York City, such as the Second Avenue Subway and 7 Subway Extension, had been more expensive than comparable projects elsewhere for the same reasons, even though other cities' transit systems faced similar, or greater, problems compared to the MTA. In March 2018, the federal Government Accountability Office ordered an audit of the United States' transit costs, which were generally higher than in any other developed country in the world. The GAO planned to devote special attention to the MTA's transit costs.
The MTA collected $138 million from advertising on its trains and buses in 2014. In June 1992, the MTA banned tobacco advertising on subways, buses and commuter rail, costing the agency $4.5 million in annual advertising revenue. The tobacco advertisements were removed once the advertising contracts expired. They were removed from subways, buses, and bus shelters by the start of 1993, from the commuter rail lines by the start of 1994, and from Long Island Bus vehicles by the start of 1997.
The MTA refused to display an ad in the New York City Subway system in 2012, which read: "In any war between the civilized man and the savage, support the civilized man. Support Israel. Defeat Jihad." The authority's decision was overturned in July 2012 when Judge Paul A. Engelmayer of the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York ruled that the ad of the American Freedom Defense Initiative is protected speech under the First Amendment, and that the MTA's actions were unconstitutional. The judge held in a 35-page opinion that the rejected ad was "not only protected speech — it is core political speech ... [which as such] is afforded the highest level of protection under the First Amendment." The MTA had received $116.4 million in revenue in 2011 from advertising sold throughout its subway, commuter rail, and bus systems.
In April 2015, another ad became the subject of controversy when the MTA refused to display it, the refusal was again challenged in court, and the MTA again lost in court and was ordered by a federal judge to display the ad. The ad, paid for by the American Freedom Defense Initiative, showed a man with a scarf covering his face, with the caption "Killing Jews is Worship that draws us close to Allah", which was attributed to "Hamas MTV," and then stated: "That's His Jihad. What's yours?" The ad included a disclaimer that the display of the ad did not reflect the opinion of the MTA. U.S. District Judge John Koeltl of the US District Court for the Southern District of New York in Manhattan said the ad was protected speech under the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, and rejected the MTA's argument that the ad might endorse terrorism or violence. Pamela Geller, president of the group that sued the MTA in order to run the ads, lauded the decision, and a lawyer for the organization said the same decision had been made in Washington and Philadelphia.
A week afterward, the MTA's board in a 9–2 vote banned all political, religious, and opinion advertisements on subways and buses, limiting any ads to commercial ones. Specifically, it banned advertisements that "prominently or predominately advocate or express a political message" about "disputed economic, political, moral, religious or social issues," and any ad that "promotes or opposes" a political party, ballot referendum, and "the election of any candidate". The board estimated that the ads that the board was banning made up less than $1 million of the MTA's advertising revenue of $138 million in 2014. Nevertheless, lawyers for the American Freedom Defense Initiative called the MTA's action a "disingenuous attempt to circumvent" the judge's order.
Another controversy regarding MTA ads arose in 2018. After initially rejecting proposed advertisements from Unbound, a sex-toy retailer, the MTA allowed the ads. Previous advertisement proposals from companies, such as female-hygiene retailer Thinx's ad proposal in 2015, had been rejected and later approved due to "dissemination of indecent material to minors" and "public display[s] of offensive sexual material."
2017 transit crisis
In June 2017, New York Governor Andrew Cuomo declared a state of emergency for the MTA due to ongoing reliability and crowding problems. This order applied particularly to the New York City Subway, which was the most severely affected by dilapidated infrastructure, causing overcrowding and delays. With many parts of the system approaching or exceeding 100 years of age, general deterioration could be seen in many subway stations. By 2017, only 65% of weekday trains reached their destinations on time, the lowest rate since a transit crisis in the 1970s. A corresponding bus crisis was not covered as heavily in the media, but in November 2017, New York City Comptroller Scott Stringer identified several causes for the bus system's unreliability. The average speeds of New York City buses were found to be 7 to 8 miles per hour (11 to 13 km/h), the slowest of any major bus system nationwide.
In 2002, following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, the MTA introduced the slogan "If you see something, say something." The campaign, which was based from a theme created by Korey Kay & Partners, consisted of public safety announcements, posted on advertisement boards in stations, subway, buses, and trains, urging people to report suspicious activity. Allen Kay, CEO of Korey Kay and Partners, stated in 2007 that the company had to do a lot of research to ensure that consumers understood the message correctly. Since 2002 the campaign has evolved from simple print ads to television spots, and reports of suspicious packages in the system rose over 40-fold, from 814 in 2002 to over 37,000 in 2003.
The MTA moved to trademark the slogan in 2005. The slogan was used by more than 30 other "transport and governmental" organizations by 2007. That year, the MTA spent $3 million to run 4,000 television ads and 84 newspaper ads in 11 total papers, over a span of more than four months. The idea gained traction, and in 2010, the domestic-security branch of the United States federal government, the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS), started its own "see something, say something" campaign. Kevin Ortiz, a spokesman for the MTA, described the slogan as having "engaged the public in serving as the eyes and ears of our system." Meanwhile, the DHS's campaign had attracted at least 215 partners in the private, public, and nonprofit sectors by 2014, which one writer called "a true smart practice." However, the MTA program has not been universally well-received; in 2012, a sociologist at New York University noted that the campaign had not netted any thwarted terrorist plots, and that the sheer volume of calls to the MTA hotline resulted in MTA workers possibly not being able to identify genuine threats.
In 2016, MTA updated the campaign, renaming it "New Yorkers Keep New York Safe." As before, the campaign features public service announcements in advertisement spaces. However, this new campaign now features the pictures, names, and quotes of New Yorkers who called to report suspicious people or things on the MTA's system. The rebooted campaign also shows 15- to 30-second videos of these New Yorkers who speak about their experiences. The two-year "New Yorkers Keep New York Safe" campaign received $2 million of funding from the DHS. The MTA still owns the trademark for "If you see something, say something."
In MTA buses, there are stickers plastered on the frontmost seats. The front seats are priority seating, and the stickers state "Won't you please give up your seat to the disabled or elderly" with the "o" in "Won't" replaced with a heart symbol. In 2009, it was codified into an enforceable policy that could be punished with a fine.
Since 2014, the MTA has had a "Courtesy Counts" campaign consisting of posters that show colored stick figures having either correct or incorrect etiquette. Green stick figures show what riders should do, such as taking off their backpacks, while red stick figures show what riders should not do, such as manspreading. All of the posters have the tagline “Courtesy Counts: Manners Make a Better Ride.” Starting in January 2015, these posters were installed in subway cars, with the posters coming to commuter rail and buses the following month.
In May 2017, the MTA started a three-month pilot program to encourage riders to give up their seats for the pregnant, disabled, or elderly. It created a website where pregnant women, the disabled, and the elderly could request specialized buttons. There are two designs: a "Baby on Board" button for pregnant mothers and a more generic "Please offer me a seat" button. This idea stemmed from the "Baby on Board" buttons that were given out across the London Underground in 2013 after the Duchess of Cambridge, Kate Middleton, wore such a button there.
Other transportation authorities operating in New York state:
- Capital District Transportation Authority, in Capital District, New York
- Central New York Regional Transportation Authority, in Syracuse, New York
- Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority, in Buffalo, New York
- Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, in New York City and northern New Jersey
- Rochester-Genesee Regional Transportation Authority, in Rochester, New York
- "The MTA Network". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved June 2, 2018.
- "MTA Leadership". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved April 2, 2019.
- "ROCKEFELLER URGES STATE BUY L.I.R.R. AND MODERNIZE IT; To Ask Legislature to Vote Funds to Purchase Line at 'Reasonable' Price NEW BOARD IS PROPOSED It Would Sell $200 Million Bonds for Improvements -- Railroad Favors Plan Rockefeller Urges State Buy L.I.R.R." (PDF). The New York Times. February 26, 1965. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 31, 2018.[dead link]
- "ASSEMBLY VOTES COMMUTER BOARD; Bill Creates Transportation Authority for City Area" (PDF). The New York Times. May 21, 1965. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 31, 2018.[dead link]
- "ROCKEFELLER NAMES RONAN TO RAIL JOB; Aide to Governor to Head New Agency at $45,000" (PDF). The New York Times. June 22, 1965. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 31, 2018.[dead link]
- "STATE IN ACCORD WITH THE PENNSY ON BUYING L.I.R.R.; P.R.R. Agrees on Price of $65 Million With New Transportation Agency" (PDF). The New York Times. June 3, 1965. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 31, 2018.[dead link]
- "Authority Signs a Pact To Buy the Long Island" (PDF). The New York Times. December 23, 1965. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 1, 2018.[dead link]
- "STATE TAKES OVER THE L.I. RAIL ROAD; Finishes Paying the Pennsy --Re-elects All Officers" (PDF). The New York Times. 1966. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 1, 2018.[dead link]
- "CONNECTICUT JOINS NEW YORK IN PLAN TO AID COMMUTERS; Service-Contract Idea Might Involve Leasing Lines of Central and New Haven 2 STATES OFFER COMMUTER PLAN" (PDF). The New York Times. February 28, 1965. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 1, 2018.[dead link]
- "2 States May Lease, Modernize NHRR NYC-New Haven Section" (PDF). Yonkers Herald Statesman. September 27, 1966. p. 2. Retrieved February 1, 2018 – via Fultonhistory.com.[dead link]
- "RAIL PANEL VIEWS NEW HAVEN NEEDS; Reports Situation Is Worse Than It Had Expected" (PDF). The New York Times. October 29, 1965. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 1, 2018.[dead link]
- "NEW HAVEN SALE OPPOSED ON PRICE; $140-Million Deal Is Called 'Wholly Inadequate' by Metropolitan Life PASSENGER AID SLATED Insurer Backs Road's Entry Into Merger of Pennsy and Central Lines" (PDF). The New York Times. October 11, 1966. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 1, 2018.[dead link]
- "NEW HAVEN PLANS TO EXTEND RUNS; Passenger Service to New York Will Be Maintained Till June 30, 1967" (PDF). The New York Times. December 15, 1966. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 1, 2018.[dead link]
- "ALBANY IS WARM TO TRANSIT UNITY; Leaders Indicate Readiness to Weigh Lindsay Plan" (PDF). The New York Times. 1966. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 1, 2018.[dead link]
- "GOVERNOR BACKS MAYOR ON TRANSIT; Support on Legislation for Unification Is Assured" (PDF). The New York Times. February 9, 1966. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 1, 2018.[dead link]
- "Moses Scores a Transit Merger as Unworkable" (PDF). The New York Times. 1967. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 1, 2018.[dead link]
- "ROCKEFELLER SEEKS REGIONAL AGENCY TO DIRECT TRANSIT; It Would Include Subway and Bridge Authorities and L.I. Rail Road BILL UNDER STUDY NOW Commuter Organization for Metropolitan Area May Get More Powers ROCKEFELLER SEEKS MASS TRANSIT UNIT" (PDF). The New York Times. June 3, 1966. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 1, 2018.[dead link]
- "Lindsay Is Strongly Opposed To State Transit Proposal" (PDF). The New York Times. June 4, 1966. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 1, 2018.[dead link]
- "GOVERNOR SIGNS 2D TRANSIT BILL; Unification Measure Names Agency to Head Operation" (PDF). The New York Times. May 3, 1967. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 1, 2018.[dead link]
- "TRIBOROUGH PACT ENDS LAST BLOCK TO TRANSIT UNITY; Superagency Will Control Authority, but Is Curbed on Transfer of Funds TRIBOROUGH PACT REACHED IN TALKS" (PDF). The New York Times. February 10, 1968. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 1, 2018.[dead link]
- "MOSES CAUTIONS NEW AUTHORITY; Praises Triborough Bridge Operations in Final Report" (PDF). The New York Times. February 19, 1968. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 1, 2018.[dead link]
- "TRIBOROUGH FUNDS ARE AGAIN SOUGHT TO SAVE 20C FARE; Governor and Mayor Study Way to Include Authority in Metropolitan Program AID TO LINDSAY IS AN AIM Move Would Avoid Another Fare Rise Before Election No Comment by Moses TRIBOROUGH AID ON FARE REVIVED" (PDF). The New York Times. February 28, 1967. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 1, 2018.[dead link]
- "Court Here Lets Railroads Consolidate Tomorrow; RAIL MERGER GETS FINAL CLEARANCE" (PDF). The New York Times. 1968. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 1, 2018.[dead link]
- "Full text of "Metropolitan transportation, a program for action. Report to Nelson A. Rockefeller, Governor of New York."". Internet Archive. November 7, 1967. Retrieved October 1, 2015.
- Annual Report. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. 1970. Retrieved October 1, 2015.
- Bennett, Charles G. (February 29, 1968). "Transportation Funding Would Have 4 Sources; Plan's Financing Would Be Varied" (PDF). The New York Times. Retrieved October 11, 2015.
- Witkin, Richard (February 29, 1968). "$2.9-BILLION TRANSIT PLAN FOR NEW YORK AREA LINKS SUBWAYS, RAILS, AIRPORTS; 2-PHASE PROPOSAL Program by Governor Calls for $1.6-Billion in First 10 Years 2-PHASE PROPOSAL FOR TRANSIT GIVEN" (PDF). The New York Times. Retrieved October 11, 2015.
- "Chapter 1: Purpose and Need" (PDF). mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. p. 17. Retrieved December 19, 2015.
- "ROUTES OUTLINED FOR NEW SUBWAYS; City Aides Report Major Agreement on Layout of Lines in 3" (PDF). The New York Times. 1968. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
- "Regional Transportation Program". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved July 26, 2016.
- Burks, Edward C. (May 23, 1971). "INTERBORO ROUTE ANGERS RESIDENTS; Proposal for a Truck Link Assailed in Queens" (PDF). The New York Times. Retrieved October 3, 2015.
- Penner, Larry (July 15, 2014). "Happy 51st Birthday To Queens Public Transportation". Queens Gazette. Archived from the original on September 12, 2015. Retrieved November 1, 2015.
- "M.T.A. TAKES OVER TRANSIT NETWORK; Moses Will Be Kept On as Consultant to Agency" (PDF). The New York Times. March 2, 1968. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 1, 2018.[dead link]
- "Number One Transportation Progress An Interim Report". thejoekorner.com. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. December 1968. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
- "Moses Says Triborough Projects Will Absorb Surpluses Until '69" (PDF). The New York Times. March 31, 1967. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 1, 2018.[dead link]
- "Ronan Lays Transit Crisis To a 30-Year Lag in City; Ronan Lays Transit Crisis to 30-Year Lag in City". The New York Times. August 25, 1968. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 28, 2014. Retrieved February 1, 2018.
- "City Urged to Take Over Staten Island Railway; Transportation Agency Asks a $25-Million Modernizing" (PDF). The New York Times. May 8, 1968. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 6, 2018.[dead link]
- "Board of Estimate Agrees to the Purchase of S.I.R.T. Line or $3.5-Million" (PDF). The New York Times. December 19, 1969. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 6, 2018.[dead link]
- Corry, John (1976). "About New York". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 6, 2018.
- Kovach, Bill (April 17, 1970). "State to Acquire 2 Commuter Runs". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 1, 2018.
- Witkin, Richard (May 7, 1970). "Rockefeller Signs Bill on Rail Lines". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 1, 2018.
- "Metropolitan commuter transportation mobility tax". Department of Taxation and Finance. November 7, 2014. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
- "Past Board Chairmen". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. June 20, 2017. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
- "MTA Management Team". MTA. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
- "New MTA boss Joe Lhota welcomes the 'challenge' of fixing dysfunctional transit system". New York Daily News. Retrieved June 23, 2017.
- Siff, Andrew (November 9, 2018). "MTA Chairman Joe Lhota Resigns, Effective Immediately". NBC New York. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
- "Transportation Network". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. February 11, 2018. Archived from the original on February 11, 2018. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
- "MTA – About Bridges & Tunnels". Retrieved October 1, 2014.
- McKinley, James C, Jr. (August 28, 1994). "What's in a Symbol? A Lot, the M.T.A. Is Betting". The New York Times. Retrieved February 23, 2008.
- "Metropolitan Transportation Authority Description and Board Structure Covering Fiscal Year 2009" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. c. 2010. pp. 2, 3. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
- "MTA Subsidiary Public Benefit Corporations Report 2015" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. 2015. p. 3. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
- Castillo, Alfonso A. (June 10, 2011). "Illinois company to run Long Island Bus". Newsday. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
- "NYS DOB: FY 2018 Executive Budget - Agency Appropriations - Metropolitan Transportation Authority". New York State Division of the Budget. Retrieved May 16, 2017.[permanent dead link]
- Gelinas, Nicole (June 22, 2017). "Who Runs the MTA?". City Journal. Retrieved February 7, 2018.
- "MTA Board Members". MTA. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved February 7, 2018.
- Yang, Lucy (May 16, 2017). "MTA unveils 6-point plan to improve service". ABC7 New York. Retrieved May 16, 2017.
- "mediaContact". apps.cio.ny.gov. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved May 16, 2017.
- Fitzsimmons, Emma G. (June 18, 2016). "New York's Voice at the M.T.A. Gets Louder, as 2 Mayoral Board Picks Are Confirmed". The New York Times. Retrieved February 7, 2018.
- "NYSABO 2018 Report" (PDF). pp. 16, 29, 44. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
- "NYS Dept of tax and finance description of the MCTMT". Retrieved November 6, 2018.
- "Updates". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Archived from the original on July 12, 2017. Retrieved July 12, 2017.
- Whitford, Emma (June 5, 2015). "MTA's Bus Tracker Is Now Available As An App". Gothamist. Archived from the original on November 13, 2015. Retrieved November 9, 2015.
- "'The Weekender' Is Now an iPhone App". MTA.info. June 11, 2012. Retrieved June 13, 2012.
- "MTA's 'Weekender' App Comes to Android Devices". MTA.info. November 29, 2012. Archived from the original on April 3, 2015. Retrieved October 20, 2013.
- "App Gallery". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Archived from the original on May 4, 2013. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- Flegenheimer, Matt. "Some Subway Arrival Times Are Now Just an Apple Device Away". City Room. The New York Times. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- "MTA | Press Release | MTA Headquarters | MTA Releases Real-Time Subway Arrival Times". www.mta.info. Retrieved February 14, 2016.
- "MTA Adds Real-Time Arrival Estimates on L Line To Subway Time App, Website and Open Data Portal".
- Wolfe, Jonathan (August 7, 2017). "New York Today: New Subway Clocks". The New York Times. Retrieved September 11, 2017.
- Romero, Katherine; Namako, Tom (August 12, 2009). "34th St. bus countdown clocks ticking". New York Post. Archived from the original on August 18, 2009. Retrieved November 8, 2015.
- Grynbaum, Michael M. (August 11, 2009). "Miracle on 34th Street: Knowing Bus Arrival Times". The New York Times. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
- "MTA NYC Transit Bus Arrival Info Here Now on 34th Street Crosstown". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. January 14, 2013. Retrieved March 11, 2016.
- "Bus Company Committee Meeting January 2010" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. January 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 18, 2010. Retrieved March 9, 2016.
- "New York City Transit - History and Chronology". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Archived from the original on January 8, 2014. Retrieved March 12, 2007.
- Magee, Kelly (October 15, 2010). "Bus here yet? Check your phone". New York Post. Retrieved November 9, 2015.
- "MTA Bus Time® to Debut Sunday on the M34/M34A SBS Crosstown". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. April 6, 2012. Archived from the original on April 10, 2012. Retrieved November 9, 2015.
- "Introducing MTA Bus Time". YouTube. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. January 11, 2012. Retrieved November 8, 2015.
- Sedon, Michael (January 11, 2012). "New service will tell Staten Island commuters where their bus is". Staten Island Advance. Staten Island, New York. Retrieved November 9, 2015.
- "MTA BusTime Offers Real-Time Bus Location Information for B63 Customers: Information Available Online, by Text Message and on Your Smartphone; MTA BusTime Coming to Staten Island Next" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. February 1, 2011. Retrieved November 9, 2015.
- Barone, Vincent (December 17, 2014). "Staten Island to receive additional electronic, real-time bus signage". Staten Island Advance. Staten Island, New York. Retrieved November 8, 2015.
- "MTA Bus Time Implementation & New Applications" (PDF). apta.com. American Public Transportation Association; Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 9, 2015. Retrieved November 9, 2015.
- "MTA Real-Time Bus Tracking Arriving in Brooklyn and Queens in March". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. February 24, 2014. Retrieved November 9, 2015.
- "Introducing The Weekender". MTA.info (YouTube). September 30, 2011. Retrieved October 1, 2011.
- "The Weekender". MTA.info. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Grynbaum, Michael M. (September 15, 2011). "Aid for Baffled Weekend Subway Riders". The New York Times. Retrieved September 30, 2011.
- "Introducing 'The Weekender'". MTA.info. September 16, 2011. Retrieved September 18, 2011.
- "MTA Launches Interactive Online Map Ahead Of Difficult Weekend For Subways". NY1. September 16, 2011. Retrieved September 18, 2011.[permanent dead link]
- "MTA Releases "Weekender" Smartphone App". NY1. June 11, 2012. Archived from the original on June 16, 2012. Retrieved June 13, 2012.
- Barone, Vincent (October 17, 2017). "MTA set to debut comprehensive app in 2018: Sources". am New York. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- Barone, Vincent (April 11, 2018). "New MTA app to offer real-time commuting info". am New York. Retrieved July 2, 2018.
- "Don't Hate Her. She's Just the (Subway) Messenger". The New York Times. July 1, 2018. Retrieved July 2, 2018.
- Rivoli, Dan (July 2, 2018). "MTA unveils new travel app for public testing". nydailynews.com. Retrieved July 3, 2018.
- Berger, Paul (July 2, 2018). "MTA Launches New App for Riders to Plan Transit in Real Time". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved July 3, 2018.
- Aniv, Oren; Barrera, Edward; Wilcox, Beagen (April 13, 2003). "N.Y.C. TOKEN: 1953-2003". New York Daily News. Retrieved February 13, 2016.
- Markowitz, Michael (April 28, 2003). "NYC Subway Token, 1953-2003". Gotham Gazette. New York. Archived from the original on April 27, 2007. Retrieved April 25, 2010.
- Faison, Seth (June 2, 1993). "3,000 Subway Riders, Cards in Hand, Test New Fare System". The New York Times. Retrieved April 25, 2010.
- "About NYC Transit - History". October 19, 2002. Retrieved September 18, 2016.
- "MTA eTix Ticketing App Available on LIRR & Metro-North". Retrieved October 23, 2016.
- Rivoli, Dan (October 23, 2017). "MTA approves plan to scrap MetroCards for 'tap' payment system". NY Daily News. Retrieved October 24, 2017.
- Barron, James (October 23, 2017). "New York to Replace MetroCard With Modern Way to Pay Transit Fares". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 24, 2017.
- "Say hello to tap and go, with OMNY". MTA. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
- Drum Major Institute for Public Policy. (2010). Solving the MTA's Budget Crisis and Reinvesting in Mass Transit: A Five-Step Platform for the Next Governor of New York State. Retrieved from "Archived copy". Archived from the original on April 30, 2011. Retrieved April 13, 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link).
- Metropolitan Transportation Authority. (July 2010). 'MTA 2011 Preliminary Budget. July Financial Plan 2011–2014. Retrieved from .
- Smerd, Jeremy. (June 23, 2010). Another Tax Shortfall Hits the MTA's Budget. Crain's New York Business. Retrieved from .
- Gupta, Arun and Valdes, Danny. (June 5, 2009). Why the MTA is Broken. The Indypendent. Retrieved from .
- Namako, Tom. (October 7, 2010). MTA raises fares again, monthly MetroCard prices skyrocket to $104. New York Post. Retrieved from "Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 18, 2010. Retrieved April 13, 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link).
- MTA approves massive service cuts. NYPOST.com (March 24, 2010). Retrieved on July 26, 2013.
- Mooney, Jake. (July 26, 2010). MTA Cuts Mean Bigger Crowds, More Problems. City Limits News. Retrieved from .
- Subway and Staten Island Railway Service Reductions, mta.info. Retrieved April 15, 2014.
- Bus Service Reductions, mta.info. Retrieved April 15, 2014.
- "MTA – news – 2013 Ridership Reaches 65-Year High". mta.info.[permanent dead link]
- Wells, Nicholas. (August 12, 2010). MTA Budget Deficit – Not Riders' Fault! Westview News. Retrieved from "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 2, 2011. Retrieved April 13, 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link).
- "MTA Board Votes to Ban Political Ads". DNAinfo New York. Archived from the original on May 8, 2015.
- Benjamin Mueller (February 25, 2015). "M.T.A. Chief Tries to Ease Alarm on Budget Gap, but Warns of Risks to Projects". The New York Times. Retrieved May 9, 2015.
- Fitzsimmons, Emma; Burns, Alexander (October 10, 2015). "New York City and State Reach Agreement on M.T.A. Capital Plan". nytimes.com. The New York Times. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
- Harshbarger, Rebecca (October 29, 2015). "MTA approves $29 billion capital plan, largest in history, cuts $1 billion from Second Avenue Subway". amNewYork.com. am New York. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
- Krudy, Edward. "New York's MTA to renovate subway stations, equip them with Wi-Fi". reuters.com. Reuters. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
- Gormley, Michael. "Cuomo plans Wi-Fi in subways, security cameras on NYC buses". newsday.com. Newsday. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
- Rosenthal, Brian M.; Fitzsimmons, Emma G.; LaForgia, Michael (November 18, 2017). "How Politics and Bad Decisions Starved New York's Subways". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 18, 2017.
- Fitzsimmons, Emma G.; LaForgia, Michael (December 20, 2017). "How Cuts in Basic Subway Upkeep Can Make Your Commute Miserable". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 20, 2017.
- Rosenthal, Brian M. (December 28, 2017). "The Most Expensive Mile of Subway Track on Earth". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 29, 2017.
- Rosenthal, Brian M. (March 28, 2018). "Why Does Subway Construction Cost So Much? Congress Wants to Find Out". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 29, 2018.
- "Anti-Hamas Group Renews Bid to Display Rejected Ads". New York Law Journal.
- Zane, J. Peder (June 27, 1992). "In Surprise, M.T.A. Bans All Tobacco Advertising". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 13, 2018.
- Howe, Marvine (June 17, 1992). "M.T.A. Panel Backs Cut in Cigarette Ads". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
- "Controversial 'Defeat Jihad' ad to appear in NYC subways". CNN. September 19, 2012. Retrieved October 1, 2014.
- Flegenheimer, Matt (September 18, 2012). "Ad Urging Defeat of Jihad to Appear in New York Subway". The New York Times.
- Ted Mann (July 20, 2012). "Court Rejects MTA's Ban Against 'Demeaning' Transit Ads". WSJ. Retrieved October 1, 2014.
- Weiser, Benjamin (July 20, 2012). "M.T.A. Violated Rights of Pro-Israel Group, Judge Says". The New York Times.
- "Judge orders NY transit agency to run 'Killing Jews' ad". Reuters. April 21, 2015.
- Michael E. Miller (April 22, 2015). "'Killing Jews is Worship' posters will soon appear on NYC subways and buses". Washington Post. Retrieved April 22, 2015.
- Emma G. Fitzsimmons (April 29, 2015). "M.T.A. Board Votes to Ban Political Ads on Subways and Buses". New York Times. Retrieved May 2, 2015.
- "After Cries of Sexism, M.T.A. Says Sex Toy Ads are O.K." The New York Times. May 17, 2018. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 28, 2018.
- "Are these ads too hot for the MTA? It reverses itself, after PIX11's report". WPIX 11 New York. May 17, 2018. Retrieved May 28, 2018.
- Fitzsimmons, Emma G. (June 29, 2017). "Cuomo Declares a State of Emergency for New York City Subways". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 25, 2017.
- "They Vowed to Fix the Subway a Year Ago. On-Time Rates Are Still Terrible". The New York Times. July 23, 2018. Retrieved November 3, 2018.
- Wang, Vivian (November 27, 2017). "Bus Service Is in Crisis, City Comptroller's Report Says". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 10, 2018.
- Stringer, Scott M. (November 2017). "The Other Transit Crisis: How to Improve the NYC Bus System" (PDF). Office of the New York City Comptroller Scott M. Stringer. Retrieved March 9, 2018.
- Elliott, Stuart (March 16, 2007). "Do You Know Where Your Slogan Is?". The New York Times. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
- Smerd, Jeremy (November 4, 2005). "MTA Moves To Trademark 'See Something, Say Something'". The New York Sun. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
- Karni, Annie (July 18, 2007). "The MTA Has a Message for Television Watchers". The New York Sun. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
- "'See something, say something' drive begins in NYC". USATODAY.com. July 1, 2010. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
- Adcox, Ken (August 4, 2014). "See Something, Say Something: A Smart Practice for Homeland Security". Medium. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
- Gunn, Dwyer (September 21, 2012). "Does "See Something, Say Something" Do Nothing?". NYMag.com. New York Magazine. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
- Rivoli, Dan (March 21, 2016). "MTA ad campaign to show real New Yorkers who 'say something'". NY Daily News. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
- Altamirano, Angy (March 21, 2016). "MTA re-launches public safety campaign with real stories from New Yorkers". Metro. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
- Sulzberger, A. G. "Please Give the Disabled Your Seat. Or Else". City Room. The New York Times Company. Retrieved May 16, 2017.
- "MTA targets 'manspreading' in new NYC campaign". USA TODAY. December 23, 2014. Retrieved May 16, 2017.
- Kirby, Jen (December 22, 2014). "Here Are the New MTA Ads Targeting Manspreaders, Subway Eaters, and More". Daily Intelligencer. New York Magazine. Retrieved May 16, 2017.
- Fitzsimmons, Emma G. (December 20, 2014). "'Manspreading' on New York Subways Is Target of New M.T.A. Campaign". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 16, 2017.
- Fitzsimmons, Emma G. (May 14, 2017). "If a Pregnant Straphanger's Bump Isn't Obvious, Maybe the Button Will Be". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 16, 2017.
- "MTA Hands Out 'Baby on Board' Buttons to Pregnant Riders". NBC New York. Retrieved May 16, 2017.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Metropolitan Transportation Authority.|