Metropolitan municipalities in Turkey

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There are 81 provinces in Turkey (Turkish: il). Among the 81 provinces, thirty are designated metropolitan municipalities[1] (Turkish: büyükşehir belediyeleri). Metropolitan municipalities are subdivided into districts (Turkish: ilçe), where each district includes a corresponding district municipality, which is a second tier municipality.[2]

History[edit]

The first metropolitan municipalities were established in 1984.[3] These were the three most populous cities in Turkey, namely; İstanbul, Ankara and İzmir. In each metropolitan municipality a number of second level municipalities (ilçe) were established. In 1986, four new metropolitan municipalities were established in Adana,[4] Bursa,[5] Gaziantep[6] and Konya.[7] Two years later the total number was increased to eight with the addition of Kayseri.[8] In 1993, seven new metropolitan municipalities were established in Antalya, Diyarbakır, Erzurum, Eskişehir, Mersin, Kocaeli and Samsun.[9] Following the earthquake of 1999, Sakarya was also declared a metropolitan municipality.[10]

Before 2004, only the urban centers with a population more than 750,000 were declared metropolitan centers. However, in 2004, the concept of metropolitan municipality was redefined in Istanbul and Kocaeli, where from then on metropolitan municipality borders would overlap with provincial borders. In 2012, this was extented to other metropolitan municipalities.[11] Thus, all provinces with a population in excess of 750,000 were declared metropolitan municipality and accordingly the number of metropolitan municipalities has sharply increased. The following 13 cities became metropolitan municipality:[11]

Later, with the addition of Ordu, the total number of the metropolitan municipalities was increased to 30.[12]

List of metropolitan areas[edit]

Desc-20.png
Metropolitan municipalities Date of establishment Population (2013)[13] Population (2014)[14] Number of districts
Adana 05.06.1986 2,149,160 2,165,595 15
Ankara 23.03.1984 5,045,083 5,152,072 25
Antalya 09.09.1993 2,158,265 2,222,562 19
Aydın 06.12.2012 1,020,957 1,041,579 17
Balıkesir 06.12.2012 1,162,761 1,189,057 20
Bursa 18.06.1986 2,740,970 2,787,539 17
Denizli 06.12.2012 963,464 978,700 19
Diyarbakır 09.09.1993 1,607,437 1,635,048 17
Erzurum 09.09.1993 766,729 763,320 20
Eskişehir 09.09.1993 799,724 812,320 14
Gaziantep 20.06.1986 1,844,438 1,889,466 9
Hatay 06.12.2012 1,503,066 1,519,836 15
Mersin[Note 1] 09.09.1993 1,705,774 1,722,255 13
İstanbul 23.03.1984 14,160,467 14,377,018 39
İzmir 23.03.1984 4,061,074 4,113,072 30
Kayseri 07.12.1988 1,295,355 1,322,376 16
Kocaeli[Note 2] 09.09.1993 1,676,202 1,722,795 12
Konya 20.06.1986 2,079,225 2,108,808 31
Malatya 06.12.2012 762,538 769,544 13
Manisa 06.12.2012 1,359,463 1,367,905 17
Kahramanmaraş 06.12.2012 1,075,076 1,089,038 11
Mardin 06.12.2012 779,738 788,996 10
Muğla 06.12.2012 866,665 894,509 13
Ordu 14.03.2013 731,452[Note 3] 724,268 19
Sakarya[Note 4] 06.03.2000 917,373 932,706 16
Samsun 09.09.1993 1,261,810 1,269,989 17
Tekirdağ 06.12.2012 874,475 906,732 11
Trabzon 06.12.2012 758,237 766,782 18
Şanlıurfa 06.12.2012 1,801,980 1,845,667 13
Van 06.12.2012 1,070,113 1,089,542 13
Total N/A 58,999,701 59,968,586 519

Since the total population of Turkey is 77.695.904, these 30 provinces make up 77% of the total.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Formerly named İçel.
  2. ^ Formerly the center city of Kocaeli Province was İzmit, which is now a district
  3. ^ The population of Ordu Province was more than 750,000 limit in 2013
  4. ^ Formerly the center city of Sakarya Province was Adapazarı, which is now a district

References[edit]