Metropolitanate of Karlovci
|Metropolitanate of Karlovci
Coat of Arms of Metropolitanate of Karlovci
|Headquarters||Karlovci, Habsburg Monarchy (today Sremski Karlovci, Serbia)|
|Sui iuris church||Self-governing Serbian Orthodox Metropolitanate|
The Metropolitanate of Karlovci (Serbian: Карловачка митрополија or Karlovačka mitropolija) was a metropolitanate of the Serbian Orthodox Church that existed between 1708 and 1848 (1920). Between 1708 and 1713 it was known as the Metropolitanate of Krušedol, and between 1713 and 1848 as the Metropolitanate of Karlovci. In 1848, it was transformed into the Patriarchate of Karlovci, which existed until 1920, when it was merged with Metropolitanate of Belgrade and other Serbian church provinces to form the united Serbian Orthodox Church.
During 16th an 17th-century, all of the southern and central parts of the former medieval Kingdom of Hungary were under Turkish rule and organized as Ottoman Hungary. Since 1557, Eastern Orthodox Church in those regions was under jurisdiction of Serbian Patriarchate. During the Austro-Turkish war (1683–1699), much of the central and southern Hungary was liberated and Serbian eparchies in those regions fell under the Habsburg rule. In 1689, Serbian Patriarch Arsenije III sided with Austrians and moved from Peć to Belgrade in 1690, leading the Great Migrations of the Serbs. In that time, large number of Serbs (cca 200 000) migrated to southern and central parts of Hungary.
Important privileges were given to them by Emperor Leopold I in three imperial chapters (Diploma Leopoldinum) the first issued on 21 August 1690, the second a year later, on 20 August 1691, and the third on 4 March 1695. Privileges allowed Serbs to keep their Eastern Orthodox faith and church organization headed by archbishop and bishops. In next two centuries of its autonomous existence, autonomous Serbian Church in Habsburg Monarchy was organized on the basis of privileges originally received from the emperor.
Until death in 1706, head of the church was Patriarch Arsenije III who reorganized eparchies and appointed new bishops. He held the Patriarch title until the end of his life. Emperor Joseph I, following the advice of cardinal Leopold Karl von Kollonitsch abolished this title and substituted it for much lower and far less distinguished title of metropolitan. In his decree, Emperor Joseph I stated, "we must make sure that they never elect another Patriarch since it is against the Catholic Church and the doctrine of the Fathers of the Church". All spiritual leaders of the Serbian Orthodox Church will be named after as both metropolitan and archbishop. The only exception from the Imperial decree was the case of later Patriarch Arsenije IV Jovanović Šakabenta who brought his title directly from the historic see of Peć (1737).
After the death of Patriarch Arsenije III (1706), the Serbian Church Council was held in the Monastery of Krušedol in 1708 and proclaimed Krušedol to be the official cathedral seat of the newly elected Metropolitan Isaija Đaković, while all administrative activities were moved to the nearby city of Sremski Karlovci. The monastery of Krušedol was bequest of the Serbian ducal family of Branković in the beginning of 16th century, which was the main historical and national reasons for the Serbs to have this town as their Church capital.
Between 1708 and 1713, the seat of the Metropolitanate was in the monastery of Krušedol, and in 1713 it was moved to Karlovci (today Sremski Karlovci, Serbia). The new archbishop Vićentije Popović moved all administration from Krušedol to Karlovci in 1713. So, the new capital of the Serbian Orthodox Church in Habsburg Monarchy became Sremski Karlovci which was confirmed by the seal of Imperial approval in the charter of Emperor Charles VI issued in October the same year.
During the next Austro-Turkish War (1716-1718), Belgrade was liberated from Ottoman rule and became the seat of the second metropolitanate of Orthodox Serbs in Habsburg Monarchy, known as the Metropolitanate of Belgrade, headed by metropolitan Mojsije Petrović. New autonomous Metropolitanate of Belgrade had jurisdiction over Kingdom of Serbia and Temes Banat. Its creation was approved by Serbian Patriarch Mojsije I Rajović. Shortly after, two metropolitanates merged in 1726 and by the imperial decree of Charles VI, the administrative capital of Serbian Orthodox Church was moved from Sremski Karlovci to Belgrade in 1731. It lasted only eight years until Belgrade fell again to Ottomans in the autumn on 1739.
By the abolishment of Serbian Patriarchate in 1766 the Metropolitanate of Karlovci became the fully independent center of Eastern Orthodoxy in the Habsburg Monarchy, with seven suffragan bishops (Bačka, Vršac, Temišvar, Arad, Buda, Pakrac and Upper Karlovac).
The position of Serbs and their Church in Austria and Hungary was regulated in reforms brought about first by empress Maria Theresa and later by emperor Joseph II. The Serbian Church-Public Council of 1769 regulated its status in a special paper named "Regulament" and, later, in "Deklaratorij" published in 1779.
Serbian metropolitans of Sremski Karlovci promoted the Enlightenment by introducing western education in the schools established in Sremski Karlovci (1733) then in Novi Sad (1737). In order to counter the Roman Catholic influence, the school curricula was exposed to Russian Church and culture. As early as in 1724 the Holy Synod of Russian Orthodox Church sent M. Svivorov to open a school in Sremski Karlovci, which graduates were thereof passed on to Kievan seminary, and the more gifted to the Academy in Kiev. The Church liturgical language became Russian Slavonic, called Church Slavonic. On another hand, baroque influence became visible in the church architecture, iconography, literature and theology.
During the eighteenth century the Metropolitanate maintained close connections with Kiev and the Russian Orthodox Church. Many Serbian theological students were educated in Kiev. A Seminary was open in 1794 which educated Orthodox priests during the nineteenth century for the needs of the Karlovci Metropolitanate and beyond.
In the second half of the 18th century, the Metropolitanate of Karlovci included a large territory that stretched from the Adriatic Sea to Bukovina and from Danube and Sava to Upper Hungary. The Metropolitanate had a jurisdiction over Orthodox Serbs, Romanians, Greeks and Cincars that lived in the Habsburg Monarchy.
Eparchies under direct or spiritual jurisdiction of Karlovci
It included following eparchies:
|Eparchy of Arad||Arad|
|Eparchy of Bačka||Novi Sad||Bačka|
|Eparchy of Belgrade||Belgrade (Beograd)||(1726–1739)|
|Eparchy of Buda||Szentendre (Sentandreja)|
|Eparchy of Gornji Karlovac||Karlovac|
|Eparchy of Kostajnica||Kostajnica||(1713–1771)|
|Eparchy of Lepavina||Lepavina||(1733–1750)|
|Eparchy of Mohács||Mohács (Mohač)||(until 1732)|
|Eparchy of Pakrac||Pakrac||Now Eparchy of Slavonia|
|Eparchy of Râmnicu||Râmnicu Vâlcea (Rimnik)||(1726–1739)|
|Eparchy of Srem||Sremski Karlovci||Syrmia|
|Eparchy of Temišvar||Timişoara (Temišvar)||Banat|
|Eparchy of Valjevo||Valjevo||(1726–1739)|
|Eparchy of Vršac||Vršac||Banat|
|Eparchy of Transilvania||Sibiu (Sibinj)||Spiritual jurisdiction only|
|Eparchy of Bukovina||Chernivtsi (Černovci)||Spiritual jurisdiction only|
|Eparchy of Dalmatia||Šibenik||Spiritual jurisdiction only|
Heads of Serbian Orthodox Church in Habsburg Monarchy, 1690–1848
|1690–1706||Archbishop of Peć and Serbian Patriarch||Leader of the First Serbian Migration|
|1708||Metropolitan of Krušedol|
|1710–1711||Metropolitan of Krušedol|
|1713–1725||Metropolitan of Karlovci|
|1726–1730||Metropolitan of Belgrade and Karlovci|
|1731–1737||Metropolitan of Belgrade and Karlovci|
|Arsenije Jovanović Šakabenta
Арсеније Јовановић Шакабента
|1737–1748||Archbishop of Peć and Serbian Patriarch||Leader of the Second Serbian Migration|
|1748–1749||Metropolitan of Karlovci|
|1749–1768||Metropolitan of Karlovci|
|1768–1773||Metropolitan of Karlovci|
|Vićentije Jovanović Vidak
Вићентије Јовановић Видак
|1774–1780||Metropolitan of Karlovci|
|1781–1790||Metropolitan of Karlovci|
|1790–1836||Metropolitan of Karlovci|
|1836–1841||Metropolitan of Karlovci|
|1842–1848||Metropolitan of Karlovci||Elevated to Patriarch|
- Patriarchate of Karlovci
- Serbian Orthodox Church
- List of heads of the Serbian Orthodox Church
- Religion in Serbia
- Religion in Vojvodina
- The Encyclopedia of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, Volume 2 by John Anthony McGuckin, Wiley, Feb 8, 2011 page 564
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- About Metropolitanate of Karlovci (Serbian)