Megalopolises in China

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"Megalopolis" or "City cluster"
Chinese城市群
Literal meaningcity group
Hanyu PinyinChéngshì qún
JyutpingSing4 Si5 Kwan4

In China, a city cluster (城市群) is an officially defined type of megalopolis[1], whereby government policy is to knit the area together more tightly and promote development through transportation and communication links. The policy began in 2005 with the province of Hunan promoting Chang-Zhu-Tan city cluster (长株潭城市群) as the example. The Economist Intelligence Unit in 2012 identified 13 megalopolises: Chang-Zhu-Tan (Greater Changsha), Chengdu, Chongqing, Greater Beijing i.e. Jingjinji, Greater Shanghai (incl. Suzhou), Greater Xi'an, Greater Zhengzhou, Greater Guangzhou, Hefei economic circle (incl. Lu'an, Huainan, Chaohu), Shandong peninsula, Greater Shenyang, Shenzhen and Wuhan.[2]

Up to 2018, there are nine officially approved megalopolises in China. In 2017, the National Development and Reform Commission stated that plans for six city clusters had been completed in 2016, five in 2017, with eight more forthcoming for a total of 19 city cluster plans by 2020. The new city clusters identified in 2017 were Lanzhou-Xining, Hohhot-Baotou-Ordos-Yulin, Guanzhong Plain, Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone, and the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau Greater Bay Area.[3]

Major megalopolises[edit]

Megalopolises Metropolitan Areas Cities (Bold means Major Metropolises) Area / km2 Population Approval
Issuance
Yangtze River Delta Megalopolis (长江三角洲城市群)[4]

Shanghai (central city and global city), Nanjing Metropolitan Area (南京都市圈), Hangzhou Metropolitan Area (杭州都市圈), Hefei Metropolitan Area (合肥都市圈), Suzhou-Wuxi-Changzhou Metropolitan Area (苏锡常都市圈), Ningbo Metropolitan Area (宁波都市圈)

Municipality: Shanghai
Jiangsu: Nanjing, Wuxi, Changzhou, Suzhou, Nantong, Yancheng, Yangzhou, Zhenjiang, Taizhou
Zhejiang: Hangzhou, Ningbo, Jiaxing, Huzhou, Shaoxing, Jinhua, Zhoushan, Taizhou
Anhui: Hefei, Wuhu, Ma'anshan, Tongling, Anqing, Chuzhou, Chizhou, Xuancheng
211,700 150,000,000 (2014) 2016-05-22
2016-06-01
[5]
Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (粤港澳大湾区)
a.k.a Pearl River Delta Megalopolis (珠江三角洲城市群)[6]
Guangzhou-Foshan-Zhaoqing Metropolitan Area (广佛肇都市区), Shenzhen-Dongguan-Huizhou Metropolitan Area (深莞惠都市区), Zhuhai-Zhongshan-Jiangmen Metropolitan Area (珠中江都市区)[7] Guangdong: Guangzhou, Foshan, Zhaoqing, Shenzhen, Dongguan, Huizhou, Zhuhai, Jiangmen, Zhongshan
SARs: Hong Kong, Macau
56,000 70,000,000 (2017) (2019-02-18)
[8][9]
Jingjinji Megalopolis (京津冀城市群) Beijing Metropolitan Area (北京都市圈), Tianjin Metropolitan Area (天津都市圈) Municipalities: Beijing, Tianjin
Hebei: Xiong'an New Area, Tangshan, Baoding, Shijiazhuang, Langfang, Zhangjiakou, Chengde, Cangzhou, Qinhuangdao, Xingtai, Handan, Hengshui
130,000,000 Pending approval
Shandong Peninsula Megalopolis (山东半岛城市群) Jinan Metropolitan Area (济南都市圈), Qingdao Metropolitan Area (青岛都市圈) Shandong: Jinan, Qingdao, Yantai, Weihai, Zibo, Binzhou, Dongying, Tai'an, Weifang, Rizhao, Linyi 28,000,000 Pending approval
Mid-Southern Liaoning Megalopolis (辽中南城市群) Shenyang Metropolitan Area (沈阳都市圈), Dalian Metropolitan Area (大连都市圈) Liaoning: Shenyang, Dalian, Benxi, Liaoyang, Anshan, Yingkou, Pulandian, Gaizhou 27,000,000 Pending approval
Middle Yangtze River Valley Megalopolis (长江中游城市群) Wuhan Metropolitan Area (武汉城市圈), Circum-Changzhutan City Cluster (环长株潭城市群), Circum-Poyang Lake City Cluster (环鄱阳湖城市群) Hubei: Wuhan, Huangshi, Ezhou, Huanggang, Xiaogan, Xianning, Xiantao, Qianjiang, Tianmen, Xiangyang, Yichang, Jinzhou
Hunan: Changsha, Zhuzhou, Xiangtan, Yueyang, Yiyang, Changde, Hengyang, Loudi
Jiangxi: Nanchang, Jiujiang, Jingdezhen, Yingtan, Xinyu, Yichun, Pingxiang, Shangrao, Fuzhou, Ji'an
317,000 121,000,000 (2014) 2015-03-26
2015-04-13
[10]
Harbin-Changchun Megalopolis (哈长城市群) Harbin Metropolitan Area (哈尔滨都市圈), Changchun-Jilin Metropolitan Area (长吉都市圈) Heilongjiang: Harbin, Daqing, Qiqihar, Suihua, Mudanjiang
Jilin: Changchun, Jilin, Siping, Liaoyuan, Songyuan, Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture
51,100 20,000,000 (2015) 2016-02-23
2016-03-07
[11]
Chengyu Megalopolis (成渝城市群) Chengdu Metropolitan Area (成都都市圈), Chongqing Metropolitan Area (重庆都市圈) Municipality: Chongqing
Sichuan: Chengdu, Leshan, Luzhou, Mianyang, Nanchong, Yibin, Meishan, Ziyang, Deyang, Suining, Neijiang, Zigong, Yongchuan, Dazhou, Guang'an
185,000 90,940,000 (2014) 2016-04-12
2016-04-27
[12]
Central Plain Megalopolis (中原城市群) Greater Zhengzhou Metropolitan Area (郑州大都市区) Henan: Zhengzhou, Kaifeng, Luoyang, Nanyang, Shangqiu, Anyang, Xinxiang, Pingdingshan, Xuchang, Jiaozuo, Zhoukou, Xinyang, Zhumadian, Hebi, Puyang, Luohe, Sanmenxia, Jiyuan
Shanxi: Changzhi, Jincheng, Yuncheng
Hebei: Xingtai, Handan
Anhui: Liaocheng, Heze
Shandong: Huaibei, Bengbu, Suzhou, Fuyang, Bozhou
287,000 2016-12-28
2016-12-29
[13]
Beibu Gulf Megalopolis (北部湾城市群) One core (Nanning), two axes (Nanning-Beihai-Qinzhou-Fangchenggang, Zhanjiang-Maoming-Yangjiang), two poles (Haikou, Zhanjiang) Guangxi: Nanning, Beihai, Qinzhou, Fangchenggang, Yulin, Chongzuo
Guangdong: Zhanjiang, Maoming, Yangjiang
Hainan: Haikou, Zhangzhou, Dongfang, Chengmai, Lingao, Changjiang
116,600 2017-01-20
2017-02-10
[14]
Guanzhong Plain Megalopolis (关中平原城市群) Greater Xi'an Metropolitan Area (大西安都市圈) Shaanxi: Xi'an, Baoji, Xianyang, Tongchuan, Weinan, Yangling Agricultural Hi-tech Industries Demonstration Zone, Shangluo (Shangzhou District, Luonan County, Danfeng County and Zhashui County)
Shanxi: Yuncheng (Pinglu County and Yuanqu County excluded) , Linyi (Yaodu District, Houma City, Xiangfen County, Huozhou, Quwo County, Yicheng County, Hongtong County and Fushan County)
Gansu: Tianshui, Pingliang (Kongtong District, Huating County, Jingchuan County, Chongxin County and Lingtai County), downtown Qingyang
107,100 38,630,000 (2016) 2018-01-09
2018-02-02
[15]
Hohhot-Baotou-Ordos-Yulin Megalopolis (呼包鄂榆城市群) - (Underdeveloped) Inner Mongolia: Hohhot, Baotou, Ordos

Shaanxi:Yulin

175,000 11,384,000 (2016) 2018-02-05
2018-02-27
[16]
Lanzhou-Xining Megalopolis (兰西城市群) Lanzhou-Baiyin Metropolitan Area (兰州—白银都市圈), Xining-Haidong Metropolitan Area (西宁—海东都市圈) Gansu: Lanzhou, Baiyin (Baiyin District, Pingchuan District, Jingyuan County, Jingtai County), Dingxi (Anding District, Longxi County, Weiyuan County, Lintao County), Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture (Linxia City, Dongxiang Autonomous County, Yongjing County, Jishishan Bonan, Dongxiang and Salar Autonomous County)
Qinghai: Xining, Haidong, Haibei Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (Haiyan County), Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (Gonghe County, Guide County, Guinan County), Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (Tongren County, Jianzha County)
97,500 11,930,000 (2016) 2018-02-22
2018-03-13
[17]
  • The dates in Approval and Issuance column are the dates of the State Council's approval and the dates of the National Development and Reform Commission's issuance of the development plans of the megalopolises respectively. The plan of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area was directly issued by the State Council as Outline Development Plan for the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ In China, the official term corresponding to the meaning of "megalopolis" is 城市群 (chéngshì qún), which literally means "city cluster". In Standard for basic terminology of urban planning (GB/T 50280—98) issued in 1998, 城市群 is defined as "An area in which cities are relatively densely distributed in a certain region", but the term is mistranslated as "agglomeration".
  2. ^ "Supersized Cities". Economist Intelligence Unit. 2012.
  3. ^ 王建芬. "Five city clusters planned to help boost balanced growth". www.chinadaily.com.cn. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
  4. ^ "关于长江三角洲构建世界第六大城市群的思考". China.com.cn. Retrieved 2013-04-04.
  5. ^ "长江三角洲城市群发展规划" [Yangtze River City Cluster Development Plan] (PDF) (in Chinese). National Development and Reform Commission and Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development. 2016-06-01.
  6. ^ Vidal, John (2010-03-22). "UN report: World's biggest cities merging into 'mega-regions'". The Guardian. London.
  7. ^ "印发《珠江三角洲城乡规划一体化规划(2009-2020年)》的通知" (in Chinese). 广东省人民政府办公厅. 2010-07-30.
  8. ^ "Outline Development Plan for the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area" (PDF).
  9. ^ "中共中央 国务院印发《粤港澳大湾区发展规划纲要》". Gov.cn (in Chinese). 2019-02-18.
  10. ^ "长江中游城市群发展规划" [Middle Yangtze River Valley City Cluster Development Plan] (PDF) (in Chinese). National Development and Reform Commission and Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development. 2015-04-13.
  11. ^ "哈长城市群发展规划" [Harbin-Changchun City Cluster Development Plan] (PDF) (in Chinese). National Development and Reform Commission and Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development. 2016-03-07.
  12. ^ "成渝城市群发展规划" [Chengyu City Cluster Development Plan] (PDF) (in Chinese). National Development and Reform Commission and Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development. 2016-04-27.
  13. ^ "中原城市群发展规划" [Central Plain City Cluster Development Plan] (PDF) (in Chinese). National Development and Reform Commission and Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development. 2016-12-29.
  14. ^ "北部湾城市群发展规划" [Beibu Gulf City Cluster Development] (PDF) (in Chinese). National Development and Reform Commission and Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development. 2017-02-10.
  15. ^ "关中平原城市群发展规划" [Guanzhong Plain City Cluster Development Plan] (PDF) (in Chinese). National Development and Reform Commission and Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development. 2018-02-02.
  16. ^ "呼包鄂榆城市群发展规划" [Hohhot-Baotou-Ordos-Yulin City Cluster Development Plan] (PDF) (in Chinese). National Development and Reform Commission and Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development. 2018-02-27.
  17. ^ "兰州—西宁城市群发展规划" [Lanzhou-Xining City Cluster Development Plan] (PDF) (in Chinese). National Development and Reform Commission and Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development. 2018-03-13.