Meudon

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Meudon
Observatory of Meudon
Observatory of Meudon
Coat of arms of Meudon
Coat of arms
Paris and inner ring départements
Paris and inner ring départements
Location of Meudon
Meudon is located in France
Meudon
Meudon
Paris and inner ring départements
Meudon is located in Île-de-France (region)
Meudon
Meudon
Meudon (Île-de-France (region))
Coordinates: 48°48′44″N 2°14′17″E / 48.812309°N 2.238150°E / 48.812309; 2.238150Coordinates: 48°48′44″N 2°14′17″E / 48.812309°N 2.238150°E / 48.812309; 2.238150
CountryFrance
RegionÎle-de-France
DepartmentHauts-de-Seine
ArrondissementBoulogne-Billancourt
CantonMeudon
IntercommunalityGrand Paris
Government
 • Mayor (2020–2026) Denis Larghero (UDI)
Area
1
9.90 km2 (3.82 sq mi)
Population
 (Jan. 2018)[1]
45,748
 • Density4,600/km2 (12,000/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
92048 /92190, 92360
Elevation28–179 m (92–587 ft)
(avg. 103 m or 338 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

Meudon (French pronunciation: [mødɔ̃] (About this soundlisten)) is a municipality in the southwestern suburbs of Paris, France. It is in the département of Hauts-de-Seine. It is located 9.1 km (5.7 mi) from the center of Paris. The city is known for many historic monuments and some extraordinary trees. One of them, the Imperial Cedar (Cèdre Impérial), attracted the attention of Empress Eugénie and Queen Victoria.[2] As of March 2021, the tree is in good condition, but it is threatened by real estate speculation. Another real estate project is planned for the historic park of the Napoleon III villa built by Charles Schacher. Both projects are controversial and have aroused local opposition.

Geography[edit]

The town of Meudon is built on the hills and valleys of the Seine. The wood of Meudon lies for the most part to the west of the town. The north-west part of Meudon, overlooking the Seine, is known as Bellevue ("beautiful view").

History[edit]

At Meudon, the argile plastique clay was extensively mined in the 19th century. The first fossil of the European diatryma Gastornis parisiensis was discovered in these deposits by Gaston Planté.

Archaeological sites show that Meudon has been populated since Neolithic times.

The Gauls called the area Mol-Dum (sand dune), and the Romans Latinized the name as Moldunum.

The handsome Galliera Institutions, on the hill of Fleury, were founded by the duchess of Galliera for the care of aged persons and orphans. The buildings were completed in 1885.

The old castle of Meudon was rebuilt in Renaissance style in the mid-sixteenth century. It was bought by Louis XIV as a residence for his son Louis, the Dauphin under whom Meudon became a center of aristocratic life. After the death of the Dauphin in 1711, the château was neglected, emptied in the Revolutionary sales, and finally burned in 1871 at the close of the Franco-Prussian War, while it was occupied by Prussian soldiers. A branch of the Paris Observatory was founded on the ruins in 1877. The Meudon town hall is about 43 m (141.08 ft) in altitude above that of Paris and the climb from there to the observatory offers some rewarding views of Paris.

Automotive pioneering[edit]

Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot, the inventor of the 'world's first automobile', is reported to have carried out some early trials at Meudon in the early 1770s.

Pioneering aviation[edit]

Chalais-Meudon was important in the pioneering of aviation, initially balloons and airships, but also the early heavier-than-air machines. A Corps d'Aérostatiers under the command of Jean-Marie-Joseph Coutelle was established in 1794, its balloons being used at the Battle of Fleurus. 'Hangar Y' (at 48°47′52″N 2°13′59″E / 48.7977°N 2.233°E / 48.7977; 2.233) was built in 1880 at the request of the military engineer Captain Charles Renard (1847–1905), for the construction of balloons and airships. The building is 70 m (230 ft) long, 24 m (79 ft) wide and around 26 m (85 ft) high. The airship La France, designed by Renard and Arthur Krebs, was built in Hangar Y in 1884 and was the first airship which was controllable during flight and which could return to its starting point.[3]

Population[edit]

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1793 2,250—    
1800 2,015−1.56%
1806 2,311+2.31%
1821 2,265−0.13%
1831 3,026+2.94%
1836 3,233+1.33%
1841 3,174−0.37%
1846 3,680+3.00%
1851 3,783+0.55%
1856 4,789+4.83%
1861 5,157+1.49%
1866 6,620+5.12%
1872 12,037+10.48%
1876 6,425−14.53%
1881 6,080−1.10%
1886 7,621+4.62%
1891 8,005+0.99%
1896 8,892+2.12%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1901 9,702+1.76%
1906 10,289+1.18%
1911 12,292+3.62%
1921 15,649+2.44%
1926 18,123+2.98%
1931 20,870+2.86%
1936 20,749−0.12%
1946 20,797+0.02%
1954 24,729+2.19%
1962 34,878+4.39%
1968 50,623+6.41%
1975 52,806+0.60%
1982 48,450−1.22%
1990 45,339−0.83%
1999 43,663−0.42%
2007 44,873+0.34%
2012 45,107+0.10%
2017 45,352+0.11%
Source: EHESS[4] and INSEE (1968-2017)[5]

Economy[edit]

Although a choice residential district, access to the railway (RER) and the Seine river have made Meudon a manufacturing center since the 1840s. Metal products and military explosives have been continuously produced there since then.

Scientific facilities[edit]

In addition to the Observatory, what is today ONERA, a national aerospace research institute and wind tunnel has been present since the military opened its aerostatic (lighter-than-air) field in the Chalais park in 1877. From 1921 to 1981 the Air Museum was located here until it moved to Le Bourget Airport.

CNRS has a campus in Bellevue.

Public transport[edit]

Meudon Val Fleury Station

Meudon is well served by public transport operated jointly by the SNCF and the RATP.

Réseau Express Régional (RER)Line C[edit]

Meudon is served by line C of the RER by Meudon – Val Fleury station.

TransilienLine N[edit]

Meudon is also served by the Transilien Line N through Meudon station and Bellevue station.

TramwayT2 and T6[edit]

The T2 tramway line links Pont de Bezons station to Porte de Versailles station. It stops by La Défense. Meudon is served by Brimborion and Meudon-sur-Seine stations.

The T6 tramway line runs from Châtillon to Viroflay. Meudon is served by Georges Millandy and Meudon la Forêt stations.

Buses[edit]

Meudon is served by twelve lines of the RATP bus network, that have numerous stops in the city:

The area was once served by the Bellevue funicular, a model of which is in the local Museum of Art and History.

Education[edit]

Public schools:

Private schools:

International relations[edit]

Meudon is twinned with:[11]

Personalities[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Populations légales 2018". INSEE. 28 December 2020.
  2. ^ History of the Imperial Cedar of Meudon
  3. ^ Ville de Meudon, Aviation, Archdeacon and Wright No 3 Archived 1 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ Des villages de Cassini aux communes d'aujourd'hui: Commune data sheet Meudon, EHESS. (in French)
  5. ^ Population en historique depuis 1968, INSEE
  6. ^ "Écoles maternelles." Meudon. p. 1–2. Retrieved on 7 September 2016.
  7. ^ "Écoles maternelles." Meudon. p. 1. Retrieved on 7 September 2016.
  8. ^ "Écoles élémentaires." Meudon. p. 1. Retrieved on 7 September 2016.
  9. ^ a b c "Collèges et lycées." Meudon. Retrieved on 7 September 2016.
  10. ^ a b "Écoles maternelles." Meudon. p. 2. Retrieved on 7 September 2016.
  11. ^ "Jumelages". meudon.fr (in French). Meudon. Retrieved 19 November 2019.
  12. ^ l'Association pour la Sauvegarde de l'Orgue de Marcel Dupré Archived 3 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine

External links[edit]