Udaipur State

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Udaipur State
Former Princely State of India
1818–1949

Coat of arms of Udaipur State

Coat of arms

Location of Udaipur State
Udaipur State in the Imperial Gazetteer of India
History
 •  Established 1818
 •  Independence of India 1949
Area
 •  1941 33,517 km2 (12,941 sq mi)
Population
 •  1941 6,500,000 
Density 193.9 /km2  (502.3 /sq mi)
 •  1901 1,018,805 
Today part of India
"Udaipur State (also called Mewar): History". The Imperial Gazetteer of India. 1909. pp. v. 24, p. 87. 

The Udaipur State, also known as Mewar State,[1] was a princely state in northwestern India prior to the formation of the Indian Republic.

Geography[edit]

From the treaty with the British in 1818 to its accession to the Republic of India in 1949, the boundaries of Udaipur state were as follows: the state was bounded on the north by the British district of Ajmer-Merwara; on the west by Jodhpur and Sirohi; on the southwest by Idar; on the south by Dungarpur, Banswara and Pratabgarh; on the east by Bundi and Kotah; and on the northeast by Jaipur.[citation needed]

History[edit]

For half a century prior to 1818, the armies of Holkar, Scindia, and Amir Khan had plundered Mewar, pauperising its ruler and people. As early as 1805, Maharana Bhim Singh of Mewar approached the British for assistance but the Treaty of 1803 with Scindia prevented the British from entertaining the request. But by 1817, the British too were anxious to have alliances with Rajput rulers and the Treaty of Friendship, Alliances and Unity was concluded between Mewar and East India Company (on behalf of Britain) on 13 January 1818.[2][3]

Under the treaty, the British Government agreed to protect the territory of Mewar, in return for which Mewar acknowledged British supremacy and agreed to abstain from political associations with other states and to pay one-fourth of its revenues as tribute for 5 years, and three-eight in perpetuity.[3] The British authorities granted the ruler of Udaipur a 19 gun salute.[citation needed]

The last ruler of Udaipur Kingdom signed the accession to Independent India on 7 April 1949.[4]

Maharanas[edit]

The rulers of Udaipur held the title of maharana. Their regnal dates were:[5]

Bhagwat Singh died on 2 November 1984. He has two sons, Mahendra Singh and Arvind Singh. Before his death, he founded a trust named the Maharana Mewar Foundation and tasked younger son Arvind to look after it. Arvind lives in Udaipur's City Palace.[citation needed]

British Residents and Political Agents[edit]

Political Agents employed by the East India Company to oversee their affairs in the state included James Tod, who held the office from March 1818 to June 1822.[citation needed] The post of British Resident that superseded this position was twice held by Alan Holme (1908 – 1911 and 1916 – 1919).[citation needed]

Administrative structure[edit]

At the time of the 1901 census, the state was divided into 17 administrative sub-divisions - 11 zilas and 6 parganas, the difference between a zila and pargana being that the latter was larger and broken up into further subdivisions.[6] Further, there were 28 principal jagirs and 2 bhumats.[7] Each zila was administered by a hakim, a state official, supported at each tehsil (a zila sub-division) by an assistant hakim.[8]

Land tenure[edit]

The principal forms of land tenure in the state were jagir, bhum, sasan, and khalsa. Jagirs were grants of land made in recognition service of a civil or political nature. Jagirdars, the holders of jagir, usually paid a fixed annual tribute called chhatund on an annual basis, and nazarana on the succession of a new Maharana. On the death of a jagirdar, the jagir reverted to the Maharana until the late jagirdar's successor was recognized by the Maharana. Those holding bhum tenures paid a small tribute or nominal quit-rent (bhum barar), and were liable to be called on for local service. Sasan (also known as muafi) holders were not liable for payments to the Maharana but taxes were sometimes recovered from them. Khalsa (crown lands) holders were cultivators who were undisturbed in their possession as long as they continued to pay land revenue.[9] As of 1912, 38% of the land revenue of the State was from khalsa land, the rest from other forms of tenure.[10]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Agarwal, B.D. (1979). Rajasthan District Gazetteers: Udaipur. Jaipur: Government of Rajasthan. p. 230. 
  2. ^ Gupta, R.K.; Bakshi, S.R., eds. (2008). Studies in Indian History: Rajasthan Through the Ages Vol. 5. New Delhi: Sarup & Sons. p. 64. ISBN 978-81-7625-841-8. 
  3. ^ a b Aitchison, C.U. (1909). A Collection of Treaties, Engagements and Sanads Relating to India and Neighbouring Countries Vol. III. Calcutta: Superintendent Government Printing, India. pp. 10–32. 
  4. ^ Princely States of India
  5. ^ The Rajputs of Rajputana: a glimpse of medieval Rajasthan by M. S. Naravane ISBN 81-7648-118-1
  6. ^ Agarwal, B.D. (1979). Rajasthan District Gazetteers: Udaipur. Jaipur: Government of Rajasthan. p. 2. 
  7. ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India : Provincial Series Rajputana. Calcutta: Superintendent of Government Printing. 1908. pp. 106–168. 
  8. ^ Ojha, Gaurishankar Hirachand (1999). उदयपुर राज्य का इतिहास. Jodhpur: Rajasthani Granthagar. pp. 15–16. 
  9. ^ Erskine, K.D. (1908). Rajputana Gazeteers, Vol II-A (The Mewar Residency). Ajmer: Scottish Mission Industries Co. Ltd. pp. 71–72. 
  10. ^ Administration Report of the Mewar State for the Year 1910-11 (PDF). Ajmer: Scottish Mission Industries Co., Ltd. 1911. p. 1. 

Further reading[edit]

  • The Kingdom of Mewar: great struggles and glory of the world's oldest ruling dynasty, by Irmgard Meininger. D.K. Printworld, 2000. ISBN 81-246-0144-5.
  • Costumes of the rulers of Mewar: with patterns and construction techniques, by Pushpa Rani Mathur. Abhinav Publications, 1994. ISBN 81-7017-293-4.

Coordinates: 24°35′N 73°41′E / 24.58°N 73.68°E / 24.58; 73.68