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Mewat is a historical region of Haryana and Rajasthan states in northwestern India. The loose boundaries of Mewat are not precisely determined but generally include Mewat District of Haryana and parts of Alwar, Bharatpur, and Dholpur districts of Rajasthan.
The region roughly corresponds to the ancient kingdom of Matsya, founded in the 5th century BCE. Mewati dialect, a slight variant of the Haryanvi and Rajasthani dialects of Hindi, is spoken in rural areas of the region. Mewati Gharana is well known Gharana of Indian classical music.
Mewat District is a district of Haryana state in India. It is located at southern edge of Haryana. Its area is 1,912 square km and the population is one million. It is semi-arid and its economy is mainly rain-fed agriculture. Nuh is the district headquarter of Mewat.
Hasan Khan Mewati is most well known chieftain of Mewat. He fought against Babur in Battle of Khanwa in 1527. Under Mughal rule Mewat came under Rajputs. It was a part of Alwar princely state until independence. The Delhi-Gurgaon-Alwar-Jaipur highway used to pass through Mewat until late 1960s when the new national highway (NH 8) was constructed bypassing Mewat.
Mewat District has predominantly rural population (95%) with a few small towns.
Mewat's population has a large share of Muslims. The Muslim residents are known as "Mev" or "Meo" but the Hindus in Mewat are not called "Meo". Thus the word "Meo" is both region-specific and religion-specific. The main source of income is agriculture. In the absence of good canal system, agriculture is mainly dependent on Monsoon. The "Mewat Region" is much bigger than Mewat district. It comprises parts of Alwar, Bharatpur in Rajasthan; Mathura in Uttar Pradesh; Mewat in Haryana. As Meos were a rebellious tribe, they were forced to shift from their villages whenever the Delhi rulers became strong. A region near Bhopal settled by Meos who ran away from Mewat is called Chotti Mewat Small Mewat). Meos are converted from Hinduism under Sufi influence in 13th century.
Meos, who are said to be Muslim Rajputs, follow the clan cuture of Pals and Gotra like Hindus kshatriyas. Meos are divided into 13 pals & 52 gotras. Mirasi singers keep a wonderful tradition of oral history of their Meo patrons.
Though the district is in NCR (National Capital Region) and just 50 km from Delhi airport, it has remained undeveloped. The industrial estates created by Haryana State Industrial Development Corporation remained underutilised. However, due to expansion of building activities in nearby Gurgaon, the land prices in Mewat have gone up considerably and the land is being bought by investors and developers. This has created sudden wealth with persons who have sold or are selling their agricultural land.
The planned Rewari-Bhiwadi-Palwal railway line will pass through Mewat and near its district headquarter town, Nuh, if and when it is constructed. The Gurgaon-Sohna-Nuh-Alwar road is planned to be widened to six or eight lanes and made a national highway. Another six-lane Kundli-Manesar-Palwal expressway has been constructed by NHAI through Mewat that bypasses Delhi while coming from just north of Delhi by NH 1 and emeerges at Palwal on NH 2.
Haryana Wakf Board has decided to set up its first engineering college in Mewat. The construction of the college has already started in Palla village near Nuh on 16 acres (6.5 ha) of land.
- Mewat Development Agency
- Against History, Against State: Counterperspectives from the Margins by Shail Mayaram