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Mewat is a historical region of Haryana and Rajasthan states in northwestern India. The loose boundaries of Mewat are not precisely determined but generally include Mewat District of Haryana and parts of Alwar, Bharatpur, and Dholpur districts of Rajasthan. The region roughly corresponds to the ancient kingdom of Matsya, founded in the 5th century BCE.Mewati language is spoken by the people of Mewat.The word Mewati means a resident of the land of Mewat.This name has been derived from Sanskrit word 'Mina vati',that is,land abounding in fish
Mewat district is a district of Haryana state in India. It is located at southern edge of Haryana. Its area is 1,912 square km and the population is one million. It is semi-arid and its economy is mainly rain-fed agriculture. Nuh is the district headquarters of Mewat.
The Muslim inhabitants of Mewat are called Meos (मेव). The areas of the three districts where Meos live are collectively called Mewat. Mewat has 1200 villages: 550 in Haryana, 600 in Rajasthan and 50 in Uttar Pradesh.
Khanzada Hasan Khan Mewati was a well-known chieftain from Mewat. He fought against Babur in the Battle of Khanwa in 1527. The Delhi–Gurgaon–Alwar–Jaipur highway used to pass through Mewat until the late 1960s when the new national highway NH 8 was constructed bypassing Mewat. Now NH 248 A passes from Mewat.
' Khanzada Hazi Khan Mewati', a great warrior and one of the commanders of Hindu King, Raja Hem Chandra Vikramaditya popular as Hemu, had helped Hemu at a critical juncture to defeat Akbar's army at Battle for Delhi in October 1556 and establish native rule at Delhi and in North India. Hazi Khan, had escaped to Gujarat after Raja Hemu's defeat at Second Battle of Panipat and was credited with killing Bairam Khan, the commander of Akbar, at Patan, Gujarat where he was staying after removal from job by Akbar and before going to Hajj on 16 January 1561.
Meos were always against invading Mughals and supported the native Afghan or Hindu kings. From Sher Shah Suri's regime in 1540 up to Raja Hem Chandra's rule in 1556, Meos held many important positions in the army. Mewat has highest percentage of child growth in Haryana at 22.78% and highest sex ratio of 907. In 2011, Mewat had population of 1,089,263 of which male and female were 571,162 and 518,101 respectively.
Meo and Mewati
The Muslim inhabitants of Mewat are called Meo (मेव) and Jat hindu in Rajasthan. Most of the population of Mewat is of Meo Muslims. They converted from Jat under Sufi influence in the 13th century. Meos follow the clan culture of Pals and Gotra like Hindus Kshatriyas. Meos are divided into 13 pals and 52 gotras. Even Meo and Jat used to be counted in single column in the census registers during British period. (ref Imperial tables-1933).
Even after conversion to Islam they retained their Mahabharata culture by creating Gotras and Pals for marriages and social interaction. They can still trace back their brotherhood and links with, Rajputs, Ahirs and Jats in the nearby villages in the region.
Meos speak Mewati dialect, a slight variant of the Haryanvi and Rajasthani dialects, of Hindi and live in a tribal culture. The culture and gotra of meos is same as Meena tribe in Rajasthan. The majority is uneducated and is currently classed under Other Backward Class (OBC). Mewati Gharana is well known Gharana of Indian classical music. Mirasi singers keep a wonderful tradition of oral history of their Meo patrons.
The district is in the National Capital Region (NCR) and just 45 km from Delhi airport. It was carved out from Gurgaon in year 2004. In recent few years The Delhi-Alwar Road passing through Sohna, Nuh and Ferozepur Jhirka has been upgraded to National Highway. An express way connecting Kundli-Manesar-Palwal Express way is under construction which pass through the northern fringe of Mewat. It bypasses Delhi while coming from just north of Delhi by National Highway 1 (NH 1) and connects to NH 10, NH 248-1, National Highway 2 (NH 2) near Palwal. The Delhi Alwar Road and District Headquarters Nuh has witnessed fast paced development inculding setups like Govt. Medical and Engineering Colleges, ITIs,Polytechnic Institute, Model Schools, Mini Secretariat, Police Lines and District Court and Community Radio Station.On industrial front, Industrial Model Township (IMT) is being developed by Haryana State Industrial & Infrastructure Development Corporation (HSIIDC) in Rojaka Meo. All Major District Roads connecting towns of Nagina, Pinangwan, Punahana to National Highways have been widened upto four lanes.
Haryana Urban Development Authority (HUDA) has proposed to develop residential neighbourhoods in Nuh, Tauru, Rangala and Pinangwan.
A new railway line connecting Delhi-Sohna-Nuh-Alwar has been proposed in Union Rail Budget 2013-14.
The Haryana government plans to create two artificial lakes in the state to recharge ground water. The first of these lakes —Kotla Lake — would be created over 178 acres in Mewat by reviving a dried lake bed spread across Haryana and Rajasthan.
- "Mewat" The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 17, p. 313.
- MINA:THE RULING TRIBE OF RAJASTHAN. B.R. Publishing corp. 1987. p. 11.
- R. S. Tripathi, Rise and Fall of Mughal Empire, Second Edition, Allahabad, 1960, p.174
- Bose Mandakranta, Faces of the Feminine in Ancient, Medieval, and Modern India, 2000
- Nirodh Bhushan Roy, The Successors of Sher Shah, Dacca (1934), page 81
- "Haryana Population Sex Ratio in Haryana Literacy rate data". census2011.co.in. Retrieved 2014-03-24.
- "Mewat District Population Census 2011, Haryana literacy sex ratio and density". census2011.co.in. Retrieved 2014-03-24.
- Mayaram, Shail (2004). Against History, Against State: Counterperspectives from the Margins. Permanent Black.
- Powlett, P. W. (1838). Gazetteer of Ulwur (Alwar). London : Trübner & co.