Mexborough shown within South Yorkshire
|OS grid reference|
|Metropolitan county||South Yorkshire|
|Region||Yorkshire and the Humber|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|EU Parliament||Yorkshire and the Humber|
|UK Parliament||Doncaster North|
Mexborough is located at the north eastern end of a dyke known as the Roman Ridge that is thought to have been constructed either by the Brigantian tribes in the 1st century AD, perhaps as a defence against the Roman invasion of Britain, or after the 5th century to defend the British kingdom of Elmet from the Angles.
The earliest known written reference to Mexborough is found in the Domesday Book of 1086 (Mechesburg), which states that before the Norman Conquest of England the area had been controlled by the Saxon lords Wulfheah and Ulfkil. Following the Conquest the area fell under the control of the Norman Baron Roger de Busli. The remains of an earthwork in Castle Park are thought to have been a motte and bailey castle constructed in the 11th century shortly after the Conquest.
St. John the Baptist C of E church includes elements that date from the 12th century. A few other pre-1800 buildings remain, including several public houses: the Ferryboat Inn, the George and Dragon, the Bull's Head and the Red Lion. Most of the buildings in the town are post-1800.
Throughout the 18th, 19th and much of the 20th century the town's economy was based around coal mining, quarrying, brickworks and the production of ceramics, and it soon became a busy railway junction. These industries led to an increase in industrial illness and an increase in the mortality rate. Although the town boasted a cottage hospital, the lack of suitable facilities led to Lord Montagu donating land for a new hospital to be built. Lord Montagu laid the first stone at the site in 1904. The site is still a working hospital, and now forms part of the Doncaster and Bassetlaw NHS trust.
The industries which led to the creation of Montagu Hospital not only brought problems to the town, but also led to an increase in population and, for some, an increase in wealth and opportunity. Many more public houses and other businesses were created, many of which are still trading today. It was in one of these public houses, the Montagu Arms, that Stan Laurel stayed overnight after performing at the town's Prince of Wales Theatre on 9 December 1907.
The history of the town is charted on the Mexborough & District Heritage Society's extensive website: 
Before 2010 Mexborough was in the Barnsley East and Mexborough constituency. Since then it has been in the Doncaster North constituency, whose current MP is Ed Miliband, former leader of the Labour Party.
Mexborough has one secondary school and many primary schools.
The last of the four was the most prominent and won the Yorkshire Football League in 1973.
- Keith Barron – actor
- Brian Blessed – actor
- Eric Brook - footballer
- Dan Clarke – motor racing driver formerly driving for Minardi Team USA in the Champ Car World Series
- Albert Fox – trade unionist
- William 'Iron' Hague – British heavyweight boxing champion 1908–11
- Kenneth Haigh – actor
- Mike Hawthorn – motor-racing driver and 1958 Formula 1 World Champion
- Ted Hughes – Poet Laureate, 1984–98
- Harold Massingham – poet
- Graham Oliver – guitarist and founder member of heavy metal band Saxon
- Ian Parks – poet
- Dennis Priestley – professional darts player, twice world darts champion 1991 and 1994
- John William Wall (pen name Sarban) – author whose works include the novel The Sound of His Horn and the collection Ringstones
- Donald Watson – founder of the Vegan Society
- Sapper William Hackett recipient of the Victoria Cross 1916.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mexborough.|
- Office for National Statistics : Census 2001 : Urban Areas : Table KS01 : Usual Resident Population Retrieved 26 August 2009
- Goodall, Armitage C. (1913). "Masborough, Mexborough". Place-Names of South-West Yorkshire; that is, of so much of the West Riding as lies south of the Aire from Keighley onwards. Cambridge: University Press. p. 209.
- "Mexborough". A Key to English Place-Names. Institute for Name-Studies. Retrieved 23 November 2008.
- Boldrini, Nicholas (1999). "Creating space: a re-examination of the Roman Ridge". Transactions of the Hunter Archaeological Society 20: 24–30. ISSN 09662251.
- Armitage, Ella Sophia (1905). "Chapter III: Camps and Earthworks". A key to English antiquities : with special reference to the Sheffield and Rotherham District. London: J.M. Dent.
- Williams, Ann; Martin, G.H. (eds) (1992). Domesday Book, a Complete Translation. London: Penguin Books Ltd. p. 828. ISBN 0-14-143994-7.
- Armitage, Ella Sophia (1905). "Chapter V: Moated Hillocks". A key to English antiquities : with special reference to the Sheffield and Rotherham District. London: J.M. Dent.
- Historic England. "Church of St. John the Baptist (334556 )". Images of England. Retrieved 23 November 2008.