A Mexican standoff is a confrontation amongst two or more parties in which no strategy exists that allows any party to achieve victory. As a result, all participants need to maintain the strategic tension, which remains unresolved until some outside event makes it possible to resolve it.
The term Mexican standoff was originally used in the context of using firearms and today still commonly implies a situation where the parties face some form of threat from the other parties. The Mexican standoff is a recurring trope in cinema, where several armed characters hold each other at gunpoint.
The expression came into use during the last decade of the 19th century; the Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary makes an unattributed claim that the term is of Australian origin. Other sources[which?] claim the reference is to the Mexican–American War or post-war Mexican bandits in the 19th century.
"Go-!" said he sternly then. "We will call it a stand-off, a Mexican stand-off, you lose your money, but you save your life!"— F. Harvey Smith, Sunday Mercury, New York, 1876
In popular use, the term Mexican standoff is sometimes used in reference to confrontations in which neither opponent appears to have a measurable advantage. Historically, commentators have used the term to reference the Soviet Union – United States nuclear confrontation during the Cold War, specifically the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. The key element that makes such situations Mexican standoffs is the equality of power exercised among the involved parties. The inability of any particular party to advance its position safely is a condition common among all standoffs; in a "Mexican standoff," however, there is an additional disadvantage: no party has a safe way to withdraw from its position, thus making the standoff effectively permanent.
In financial circles, the Mexican standoff is typically used to denote a situation where one side wants something, a concession of some sort, and is offering nothing of value. When the other side sees no value in agreeing to any changes, they refuse to negotiate. Although both sides may benefit from the change, neither side can agree to adequate compensation for agreeing to the change, and nothing is accomplished.
A Mexican standoff where each party is pointing a gun at another is now considered a movie cliché, stemming from its frequent use as a plot device in cinema. A famous example of the trope is in Sergio Leone's 1966 Western The Good, The Bad and The Ugly, where three characters face each other at gunpoint. Director Quentin Tarantino has featured Mexican standoff scenes in his films, including the climactic scene of Reservoir Dogs, which depicts a standoff between four characters. A Mexican standoff also features prominently in the mission The Wrap Up in Grand Theft Auto V, in which a meeting between protagonist Michael De Santa and the FIB quickly devolves into an all out four-way battle between the FIB, IAA and Merryweather agents.
- Buytendijk, Frank (2010). Dealing with Dilemmas: Where Business Analytics Fall Short. Wiley. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-470-76848-8.
- V&S Editorial Board (2015). Concise Dictionary of English Combined (idioms, Phrases, Proverbs, Similes). V&S Publishers. p. 94.
- "Mexican standoff", The Word Detective, retrieved 2013-03-21[unreliable source?]
- Sunday Mercury (New York) (19 March 1876), p. 2, col. 5
- Sam Clements (2013-07-26). "antedating "Mexican standoff" (OED/HDAS 1891)". ads-l (Mailing list). Retrieved 2016-02-03.
- Jew, Anson (2013). Professional Storyboarding: Rules of Thumb. Taylor & Francis. p. 83. ISBN 1-136-12677-5.
- Bailey, Jason (2013). Pulp Fiction: The Complete Story of Quentin Tarantino's Masterpiece. Voyageur Press. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-7603-4479-8.
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