Mexican general election, 1988

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Mexican general election, 1988

← 1982 July 6, 1988 1994 →
  Carlos Salinas.jpg Cuauhtemoc Cardenas Solorzano.jpg
Nominee Carlos Salinas de Gortari Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas Manuel Clouthier
Party PRI FDN PAN
Home state Mexico City Mexico City Sinaloa
Popular vote 9,687,926 5,929,585 3,208,584
Percentage 50.7% 31.1% 16.8%

Captura de pantalla 2015-05-21 21.13.56.png
States won by the presidential candidates (green for Salinas and yellow for Cárdenas)

President before election

Miguel de la Madrid
PRI

Elected President

Carlos Salinas de Gortari
PRI

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This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
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Foreign relations

General elections were held in Mexico on July 6, 1988.[1]

Carlos Salinas de Gortari was declared the winner, with the Ministry of Interior saying he had received 50.7% of the vote. It was the lowest for a winning candidate since direct elections were introduced for the presidency in 1917.[2] In the Chamber of Deputies election, the Institutional Revolutionary Party won 260 of the 500 seats,[3] as well as winning 60 of the 64 seats in the Senate election.[4] Voter turnout was said to be 51.6% in the presidential election, 49.7% for the Senate elections and 49.4% for the Chamber election.[5] This was the first time that a parallel vote tabulation was implemented in Mexico, the results were informed by telephone from the electoral districts to the secretariat of the Interior. During the parallel vote tabulation, the secretary of the interior said that the telephone network was saturated, characterizing it as "a breakdown of the system."[6] Former president Miguel de la Madrid later admitted that this "breakdown" was a fabrication.[7] One observer said, "For the ordinary citizen, it was not the network but the Mexican political system that had crashed."[8] Although early results of the parallel vote tabulation had indicated Cuauhtemoc Cárdenas was winning, when the official results were announced, Salinas was said to have eked out a narrow victory.

Elections rigged[edit]

Years later, former president Miguel de la Madrid admitted in an autobiography that there was not yet any official vote count when the PRI declared Salinas as the winner. In 1991, the ruling PRI and the opposition PAN approved a motion to burn all the ballots, therefore removing all evidence of the fraud.[7]

Results[edit]

President[edit]

Candidate Party Votes %
Carlos Salinas de Gortari Institutional Revolutionary Party 9,641,329 50.36
Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas National Democratic Front 5,911,133 30.88
Manuel Clouthier National Action Party 3,267,159 17.07
Gumersindo Magaña Negrete Mexican Democratic Party 199,484 1.04
Rosario Ybarra Revolutionary Workers' Party 80,052 0.42
Unregistered 45,841 0.24
Invalid/blank votes
Total 19,145,012 100
Registered voters/turnout 38,074,926
Source: CEDE

By state[edit]

State Salinas Cárdenas Clouthier Magaña Ibarra Unregistered
Aguascalientes 84,800 31,452 47,997 4,073 488 89
Baja California 151,739 152,203 100,951 3,365 3,949 1,746
Baja California Sur 46,267 22,028 16,273 410 536 129
Campeche 82,293 18,920 14,364 367 163 0
Chiapas 591,786 42,326 22,319 889 719 156
Chihuahua 284,896 34,858 199,334 1,391 1,034 482
Coahuila 178,147 96,896 50,349 959 464 1,424
Colima 46,549 34,778 14,404 1,020 565 0
Distrito Federal 791,531 1,400,148 639,081 22,855 21,390 29,164
Durango 226,822 67,081 60,546 813 1,184 0
Guanajuato 319,798 159,751 217,420 27,603 1,660 80
Guerrero 309,202 182,766 12,450 4,384 1,887 108
Hidalgo 273,041 118,643 24,638 3,830 1,170 571
Jalisco 508,407 283,240 367,350 29,857 3,583 1,810
México 694,451 1,196,728 380,784 36,054 17,511 5,951
Michoacán 142,700 392,051 63,188 12,972 1,505 2,483
Morelos 93,869 160,379 20,699 1,854 1,407 0
Nayarit 116,079 75,199 11,731 1,466 409 330
Nuevo León 507,524 26,941 166,915 1,511 1,265 0
Oaxaca 400,833 189,919 29,111 2,977 5,205 110
Puebla 781,085 192,825 107,718 6,082 3,631 317
Querétaro 150,783 37,633 46,251 2,759 632 0
Quintana Roo 61,973 22,682 9,138 298 141 90
San Luis Potosí 259,625 33,497 80,473 6,120 672 31
Sinaloa 317,029 104,517 200,066 1,270 1,008 0
Sonora 281,464 40,937 85,579 1,117 1,289 0
Tabasco 199,166 53,406 14,078 1,126 252 46
Tamaulipas 279,041 141,547 46,589 2,050 836 246
Tlaxcala 110,780 57,034 10,818 4,653 715 0
Veracruz 948,971 470,534 78,982 13,355 4,191 224
Yucatán 206,375 4,964 95,950 176 192 0
Zacatecas 194,303 65,250 31,613 1,828 399 257
Total 9,641,329 5,911,133 3,267,159 199,484 80,052 45,841
Source: CEDE

Senate[edit]

Party Votes % Seats +/-
Institutional Revolutionary Party 9,263,810 50.8 60 -3
National Action Party 3,293,460 18.1 0 0
Party of the Cardenist Front of National Reconstruction 1,727,376 9.5 4 +3
Popular Socialist Party 1,702,203 9.3
Authentic Party of the Mexican Revolution 1,154,811 6.3
Mexican Socialist Party 770,659 4.2
Mexican Democratic Party 223,631 1.2
Revolutionary Workers' Party 76,135 0.4 0 0
Non-registered candidates 13,222 0.1 0 0
Invalid/blank votes 689,542
Total 18,915,722 100 64 0
Source: Nohlen

Chamber of Deputies[edit]

Party Votes % Seats +/-
Institutional Revolutionary Party 9,276,934 51.0 260 -32
National Action Party 3,276,824 18.0 101 +63
Party of the Cardenist Front of National Reconstruction¹ 1,704,532 9.4 38 New
Popular Socialist Party¹ 1,673,863 9.2 37 +26
Authentic Party of the Mexican Revolution¹ 1,124,575 6.2 30 +19
Mexican Socialist Party¹ 810,372 4.5 18 0
Mexican Democratic Party 244,458 1.3 0 -12
Revolutionary Workers' Party 88,637 0.5 0 -6
National Democratic Front 15 New
Invalid/blank votes 620,220
Total 18,820,415 100 500 +100
Source: Nohlen

¹ Several parties were part of the National Democratic Front alliance, with some candidates running separately under the name "Coalition".[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nohlen, D (2005) Elections in the Americas: A data handbook, Volume I, p453 ISBN 978-0-19-928357-6
  2. ^ Nohlen, pp471-474
  3. ^ a b Nohlen, p469
  4. ^ Nohlen, p470
  5. ^ Nohlen, p454
  6. ^ quoted in Enrique Krauze, Mexico: Biography of Power. New York: HarperCollins 1997, p. 770.
  7. ^ a b Ex-President in Mexico Casts New Light on Rigged 1988 Election New York Times, 9 March 2004
  8. ^ Krauze, Mexico: Biography of Power, p. 770.