Mexican presidential referendum, 1854

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A referendum on whether Antonio López de Santa Anna should remain President., and if not, who should replace him, was held in Mexico on 1 December 1854.[1] The proposal was approved by 99.07% of voters.[1] On 11 December Santa Anna ordered reprisal measures against those who had voted no.[1] On 2 January 1855 he declared that the country had confirmed his position in office.[1] He was subsequently overthrown on 8 December that year.[1]


Santa Anna took over as President for a year in 1853. On taking office on 20 April, he abolished the 1824 constitution and ruled as a dictator.[1] On 16 December he declared himself President for Life.[1] After the Plan of Ayutla was proclaimed in March 1854, aimed at reinstituting the 1824 constitution, a revolt started.[1] As it spread, the decision was made to hold a referendum.[1]

However, the press was only allowed to announce the referendum on the day it was held.[1] Voting was not secret and voters had to name and sign their ballots.[1]


Should the current President of the Republic continue in the supreme command with the same broad powers as currently exercised?[1]

Choice Votes %
For 435,530 99.07
Against 4,075 0.93
Invalid/blank votes
Total 439,605 100
Registered voters/turnout
Source: Direct Democracy

The second question was:

If he does not continue with the same broad powers as now vested, who shall immediately command?[1]