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A large plate of Jordanian mezze in Petra, Jordan.
A large meze platter in Petra, Jordan.

Meze, mezze, or mazza (/ˈmɛz/) is a selection of small dishes served as appetizers in parts of the Middle East, the Balkans, Greece, and North Africa. In some Middle Eastern and African regions where it is present, especially predominantly Muslim regions where alcohol is less common, meze is often served as a part of multi-course meals, while in Greece, Turkey, and the Balkans, they function more as snacks while drinking or talking.[1][2]


The word is found in all the cuisines of the former Ottoman Empire and comes from Persian مزه (Persian pronunciation: [mæ'ze]) "taste, snack" < مزیدن (Persian pronunciation: [mæzī'dæn]) "to taste".[3] The word "meze" is a reference to the meal platters as a whole. The individual dishes that make up the meze do not share the same name.

Common dishes[edit]

In Turkey, meze often consist of beyaz peynir (literally "white cheese"), kavun (sliced ripe melon),[2] acılı ezme (hot pepper paste often with walnuts), haydari (thick strained yogurt with herbs), patlıcan salatası (cold eggplant salad), beyin salatası (brain salad), kalamar tava (fried calamari or squid), midye dolma and midye tava (stuffed or fried mussels), enginar (artichokes), cacık (yogurt with cucumber and garlic), pilaki (foods cooked in a special sauce), dolma or sarma (rice-stuffed vine leaves or other stuffed vegetables, such as bell peppers), arnavut ciğeri (a liver dish, served cold), octopus salad, and çiğ köfte (raw meatballs with bulgur).

In Greece, Cyprus and the Balkans, mezé, mezés, or mezédhes (plural) are small dishes, hot or cold, spicy or savory. Seafood dishes such as grilled octopus may be included, along with salads, sliced hard-boiled eggs, garlic bread, kalamata olives, fava beans, fried vegetables, melitzanosalata (eggplant salad), taramosalata, fried or grilled cheeses called saganaki, and sheep, goat, or cow cheeses.

Simple Greek meze: cheese and olives (feta cheese drizzled with olive oil and sprinkled with oregano, served with kalamata olives and bread)
Meze plate in Albania
Tzatziki, a popular meze in Greece

Popular meze dishes include the following.

Arabic Greek Turkish Armenian Image Description
Arayes Lahmacun Lahmajo barbecued flatbread filled with lamb meat, onions, tomatoes and spices
Asbe sawda Arnavut ciğeri Albanian liver.jpg a liver dish
Baba ghanoush
Melitzanosalata Patlıcan ezmesi
Baba Ghanoush.jpg mashed eggplant (aubergine)
Ful (Mdammas) Fava Bakla ezmesi fava beans mashed and mixed with seasonings
Burek Boureki Börek Boureg Su Böreği.JPG phyllo/yufka-based filled pastries
Wara Enab Dolmathakia Sarma
(Yaprak sarma)
Sarma Yarpaq dolması.jpg Leaves (mostly grape leaves) rolled around rice-based filling
Falafel falafel Falafel.JPG a deep-fried ball or patty made from ground chickpeas, fava beans, or both
Fasuliya Fasulye pilaki Fasoulia Pilaki.jpg
Fattoush Fettuş Fattoush mixed-salad.jpg salad of vegetables and toasted or fried pieces of pita bread
Hummus Humus Homus Hummuswithpinenuts.jpg a dip or spread made from cooked, mashed chickpeas
Kalamarάkia thganhtά Kalamar tava fried squid (calamari)
Khyar Bi Laban Tzatziki Cacık (soupy, read:jah-juck), Haydari(dense) Jajik Cucumber, yogurt, herbs (mostly mint), seasonings(garlic optional), served thick as dipp in Greece and thin like a cold soup in Turkey and Arabic countries
Kibbeh İçli köfte Ishli Kyufta Kibbeh3.jpg meatballs made of bulghur, chopped meat, filled with meat, pine nuts and spices
Kafta(Kofta) Köfte Şiş köfte Kufteh meatballs made of chopped meat, onion, parsley, and spices
Kibbeh nayyeh Çiğ köfte Chi Kufte Kibbeh Nayyeh.jpg raw meat dish
Kısır Eech Kisir.jpg bulgur salad with finely ground parsley, and tomato paste
Kolokythάkia gemistά Kabak çiçeği dolması Kolokythoanthoi gemistoi me giaourti.jpg Stuffed squash blossom
Labaneh Labne Lebni Labneh01.jpg yoghurt that has been strained to remove most of its whey, resulting in a thicker consistency than unstrained yoghurt
(Seasoning such as garlic and herbs are sometimes added)
Ljit kousa Kolokythokeftédes Mücver Zucchini Fritters - Lunch at Yanyali Fehmi Lokantasi (6421047753).jpg zucchini fritters
Muhammara Cevizli Acılı Ezme
Tanoreen muhammara.jpg a hot pepper dip with ground walnuts, breadcrumbs, garlic, salt, lemon juice, and olive oil
Piyaz Piyaz 01.jpg salad made from any kind of dry beans with onion, parsley and sumac
Salatit Roka Róka Saláta Arugula rocket salad
Şakşuka Eggplant and green pepper şakşuka (shakshuka).jpg vegetables cooked in olive oil
Sikh lahme (for lamb or beef), Shish taouk (for chicken) Souvlaki Şiş tavuk

Çöp şiş
Shish taouk.jpg bite sized meat cubes (lamb is very common), grilled on a skewer over charcoal.
Sujuk Soutzoúki Sucuk Sojoukh Sucuk (1).jpg dry, spicy sausage
Tabbouleh Maintanosalata Tabbule or Arap salatası Tabuleh Flickr - cyclonebill - Tabbouleh.jpg bulgur, finely chopped parsley, mint, tomato, spring onion, with lemon juice, olive oil and seasonings
Taramosalata Tarama Taramosalata01.jpg dip made from tarama, the salted and cured roe of the cod, carp, or grey mullet (bottarga) mixed with olive oil, lemon juice, and a starchy base of bread or potatoes, or sometimes almonds
Tajin Dip made of fish and Tarator (Tahini and lemon)
Gemistά Dolma Dolma Gemista.jpg peppers, eggplants, or courgettes stuffed with rice and meat

Other meze dishes include cheeses (like the Halloumi, Labneh, Tulum cheese or Shanklish) or meat dishes (like Stifado, Afelia, Lountza, or Pastrami), fish (like Whitebait, Calamari or Dag Meoushan), ofter served with Flatbread.

In Syria, Lebanon and Cyprus, meze is often a meal in its own right. There are vegetarian, meat or fish mezes. Groups of dishes arrive at the table about 4 or 5 at a time (usually between five and ten groups). There is a set pattern to the dishes: typically olives, tahini, salad and yogurt will be followed by dishes with vegetables and eggs, then small meat or fish dishes alongside special accompaniments, and finally more substantial dishes such as whole fish or meat stews and grills. Establishments will offer their own specialities, but the pattern remains the same. Naturally the dishes served will reflect the seasons. For example, in late autumn, snails will be prominent. As so much food is offered, it is not expected that every dish be finished, but rather shared at will and served at ease. Eating a Cypriot meze is a social event.

In the Balkans, meze is very similar to Mediterranean antipasti in the sense that cured cold-cuts, cheese and salads are dominant ingredients and that it typically doesn't include cooked meals. In Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Montenegro it includes hard or creamy cheeses, kajmak (clotted cream) or smetana cream, salami, ham and other forms of "suho/suvo meso" (cured pork or beef), kulen (paprika flavoured, cured sausage), cured bacon, ajvar, and various pastry; In Bosnia and Herzegovina, depending on religious food restrictions one obeys, meze excludes pork products and replaces them with sudžuk (dry, spicy sausage) and pastirma-like cured beef Suho meso. In southern Croatia, Herzegovina and Montenegro more Mediterranean forms of cured meat such as pršut and panceta and regional products like olives are common. Albanian-style meze platters typically include prosciutto ham, salami and brined cheese, accompanied with roasted bell peppers (capsicum) or green olives marinated in olive oil with garlic. In Bulgaria, popular mezes are lukanka (a spicy sausage), soujouk (a dry and spicy sausage), sirene (a white brine cheese). In Macedonia most popular mezes are Shopska salad made with tomatoes, cucumbers, onion, peppers and feta cheese, Also Ajvar and Pindjur are the most popular mezes made in Macedonia for over 100 years ago. In Romania, mezelic means quick appetizer and includes Zacuscă, cheeses and salamis, often accompanied by Țuică.

Alcoholic accompaniment[edit]

Meze is generally accompanied by the distilled drinks rakı, arak, ouzo, Aragh Sagi, rakia, mastika, or tsipouro. It may also be consumed with beer, wine and other alcoholic drinks. Cyprus Brandy (served neat) is a favourite drink to accompany meze in Cyprus, although lager or wine are popular with some.

The same dishes, served without alcoholic drinks, are termed "muqabbilat" (starters) in Arabic.

Serving traditions[edit]

In Bulgaria, meze is served primarily at the consumption of wine, rakia and mastika, but also accompanying other alcoholic drinks that are not local to the region. In addition to traditional local foods, meze can include nuts, sweets or pre-packaged snacks. The term meze is generally applied to any foods and snacks consumed alongside an alcoholic beverage. In Greece, meze is served in restaurants called mezedopoleíon and tsipourádiko or ouzerí, a type of café that serves ouzo or tsipouro. A tavérna (tavern) or estiatório (restaurant) offer a mezé as an orektikó (appetiser). Many restaurants offer their house poikilía ("variety")—a platter with a smorgasbord of mezédhes that can be served immediately to customers looking for a quick or light meal. Hosts commonly serve mezédhes to their guests at informal or impromptu get-togethers, as they are easy to prepare on short notice. Krasomezédhes (literally "wine-meze") is a meze that goes well with wine; ouzomezédhes are meze that goes with ouzo.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Davidson, Alan (21 August 2014). The Oxford Companion to Food. Oxford University Press. pp. 517–518. ISBN 9780191040726 – via Google Books.
  2. ^ a b Arditi, Talya (29 December 2015). "How to drink raki: A crash course in Turkey's signature drink". CNN Travel. CNN. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  3. ^ from Oxford English Dictionary, online version, June 2011


External links[edit]