Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary
Wildlife Sanctuary
Critically endangered Pseudophilautus amboli in Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary
Critically endangered Pseudophilautus amboli
in Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary
Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary is located in Goa
Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary
Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary
Location in Goa, India
Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary is located in India
Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary
Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary
Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary (India)
Coordinates: 15°34′18″N 74°10′15″E / 15.57167°N 74.17083°E / 15.57167; 74.17083Coordinates: 15°34′18″N 74°10′15″E / 15.57167°N 74.17083°E / 15.57167; 74.17083
Country India
DistrictNorth Goa
Declared date:May 18, 1999
 • Total208.48 km2 (80.49 sq mi)
800 m (2,600 ft)
 • OfficialKonkani
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Nearest cityValpoi
IUCN categoryIV
Official website:Goa Wildlife Sanctuaries
Governing bodyGoa Forest Department
Precipitation3,800 millimetres (150 in)
Avg. summer temperature28.2 °C (82.8 °F)
Avg. winter temperature23.3 °C (73.9 °F)
Tiger reserve proposal under review

The Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary is a 208.5-km2 (80.5-mi2) protected area in the Indian state of Goa in the Western Ghats of South India. It is located in the North Goa District, Sattari taluka near the town of Valpoi.[1] The sanctuary is an area of high biodiversity, and is being considered to become a Project Tiger tiger reserve because of the presence of resident Bengal tigers.[2]


The sanctuary is administered by the Goa State Forest Department.[1] The range forest officer of Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary is Vishwas Chodankar. The RFO office is near the Forest Department office in Valpoi. The sanctuary is protected by 11 forest guards under the supervision of three round foresters. The sanctuary is divided into 16 beats with the three round foresters stationed in Kodal, Charavane and Caranzol in Sattari taluka. The sanctuary office has a four-wheel-drive vehicle and a motorcycle for patrolling.[3]

There are no public tourist facilities in the sanctuary, but there are Forest Department rest houses at Valpoi and Keri.[4] There is an Irrigation Department rest house above the Anjunem Dam. The Anjunem Dam is located on the Sanquelim - Belgaum highway SH-31 in Chorla ghat at about 10 km (6.2 mi) from Sanquelim town.

There are three private ecoresorts in Chorla ghat,[5] the Wildernest Nature Conservation Facility the Adventure Resort and the Swapnagandha Resort.


Goa is the only state in India which has protected the complete Western Ghats section within the state. Goa’s four wildlife sanctuaries are located on the eastern side of the state in the Western Ghats covering an area of about 750 km2 (290 sq mi).[6] The Mahdei Wildlife Sanctuary and Bhagwan Mahaveer Sanctuary and Mollem National Park all fall within the Mhadei River basin. The Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary is located between 15° 48" 33' to 14° 53" 54' N and 74° 20" 13' to 73° 40" 33' E.[7]

Bhimgad Forests,

Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary, Goa, India

Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: [8]

Elevations among the hills of the sanctuary range from 560 m (1,840 ft) in the center to 200 m (660 ft) in the west. The sanctuary includes the Vagheri Hills, some of the highest peaks in North Goa. Vagheri peak at elevation560 m (1,840 ft), the highest in the sanctuary, is near the village of Keri () in [[Sanquelim]l].[9] Other peaks in Goa include Sonsogor, the highest in Goa at 1,166 m (3,825 ft), Catlanchimauli 1,107 m (3,632 ft), Vaguerim 1,100 m (3,600 ft) and Morlemchogar1,000 m (3,300 ft).[10]

A unique discovery of the Vagheri hills is the presence of a flowing lake or waterbody shaped in the exact map of India, midway to climbing the hill while looking down at the valley. Simply breathtaking.

The Mhadei River, known downstream as the Mandovi River, the lifeline of the state of Goa, originates in Karnataka, travels28.8 km (17.9 mi) in Karnataka, passes 9.4 km (5.8 mi) through the Mahdei Wildlife Sanctuary and meets the Arabian Sea at Panaji after traveling 81.2 km (50.5 mi) in Goa.[11] See map showing rivers in Mhadei Wildlife sanctuary.


Mhadei Sanctuary is noted for its many waterfalls, especially the twin 143 m (469 ft) Vazra Sakla waterfalls and the Virdi Falls in the Chorla Ghats region on the escarpment of the Goa-Maharashtra-Karnataka border in the Swapnagandha valley forest near Virdi village. The 143-m Vazra Sakla falls are one of the most distinguishing landmarks of the region. These water of these falls is fed by the Haltar nullah and joins the Valvanti River in Virdi village of Maharashtra. The Valvanti River then joins the Sakhali River and later meets the Mhadei River. The rock faces and cliffs that envelop the Vazra falls are home and nesting grounds of critically endangered long-billed vultures.[12] The 16 waterfalls at 1.5 km (0.93 mi) up from Hivre village are 15.5 km (9.6 mi) from the Valpoi.[13] The spectacular Ladkyacho Vozar plunge waterfall, 1.5 km (0.93 mi) northeast of Surla, Goa's highest village is at . Bhagwan Mahaveer Sanctuary and Mollem National Park and Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary are located just to the south of Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary in Goa.[6]


Nilgiri wood-pigeon
Saw-scaled viper
Malabar flying frog
Glassy tiger in Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary
Southern birdwing
the largest butterfly in South India
wingspan:140 mm (5.5 in) to 190 mm (7.5 in)
Chafara (red frangipani)

This region is part of the Western Ghats landscape, and is regarded as a Global Biodiversity Hotspot, as well as an area of high endemism by Conservation International.[14][15]

Other mammals seen in the sanctuary include: black panther (rare),[16] sloth bear (rare, occasional sightings near caves and grasslands), Indian gaur (commonly sighted near the grasslands, in forest clearings, and near water), barking deer (commonly sighted near forest clearings and waterholes), sambar deer (occasionally sighted on grasslands and main roads), leopard (extremely rare), ruddy mongoose (frequently sighted at daybreak and dusk on forest paths), Asian palm civet (commonly sighted on main roads and near village settlements), small Indian civet (commonly sighted on main roads, dhole (rarely sighted transient mammal in the forests), jungle cat (extremely rare, sighted by researchers and locals on a few occasions), mouse deer (rare, occasional sightings on trails), wild boar (frequently sighted at dawn and dusk), Indian hare (commonly sighted on the plateaux), giant squirrel (documented in the forests), flying squirrel (a nocturnal mammal, documented in dense evergreen forests), black-faced langur (commonly found in small groups in the tree canopy), Indian pangolin (rarely found in secondary forests), slender loris (rare and endangered), bonnet macaque (commonly found in troupes).[17]

Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary is an International Bird Area (IN177) which satisfies IBA criterion: A1. Globally threatened species, A2. Restricted-range species and A3. Biome-restricted species. IBA trigger species here are: Nilgiri wood-pigeon, Malabar parakeet, Malabar grey hornbill, grey-headed bulbul, rufous babbler, white-bellied blue-flycatcher and crimson-backed sunbird.[8] A total of 255 bird species have been recorded in the Sanctuary. Of these, 53 showed direct signs of breeding here.[18]

Snakes found in the Mhadei Valley, including the Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary, include: all of the "Big Four" venomous snakes in India: Indian krait, Russell’s viper, saw-scaled viper, spectacled cobra, plus: banded kukri snake, banded racer, Beddome’s keelback, black slender coral snake, brahminy blind snake, checkered keelback, collared cat snake, common bronzeback, common Indian cat snake, common sand boa, common wolf snake, common vine snake, copper-headed trinket snake, green pit viper, hump-nosed pit viper, Indian rat snake, Indian rock python, king cobra, Malabar pit viper, monocled cobra, ocellated shield tail, ornate flying snake, red sand boa, Sri Lankan cat snake, streaked Kukri snake, striped keelback, Travancore wolf snake, tree snake, Whitaker's sand boa and the yellow-spotted wolf snake.[17]

Endemic species of amphibians in the sanctuary include: the endangered marbled ramanella, the vulnerable Maharashtra bush frog, Beddome's leaping frog (Beddome’s Indian frog) and Malabar gliding frog.[19]

Mhadei area is known for three rare species of caecilians (legless amphibians), Nadkarni's caecilian, the Mhadei caecilian and the Goa caecilian which was recently discovered and described from Keri village.[20]

At least 257 recorded species of butterflies are found in the sanctuary of the 330 recorded species in the Western Ghats.[7] The largest butterfly in South India, the southern birdwing plus the striped tiger, common jezebel, common Indian crow, blue Mormon and other species of butterflies can are found here. Prominent among these is the blue tiger butterfly, which can be found until the summer.[9][21]


Sacred groves[edit]

Sacred groves were once common at almost all villages in Sattari. They traditionally render protection to a variety of flora and fauna. Copardem, three kilometres from Valpoi, is a village famed for the sacred grove tradition known locally as Devachi rai, a tradition of community conservation carried out in the name of the local deity. Formerly spread across 37,620 m2 (0.03762 km2) of government land, much of the sacred grove is now encroached upon for cashew plantations and agriculture. The sacred grove is an excellent example of the old tradition of uneducated villagers protecting their environment.[22]

Among its variety of flora are towering trees such as shidam (Tetrameles nudiflora) which support various other life forms in the grove. Creepers like garkani (Entada scandens) with their sword-like pods are found on the shidam, while the tree also houses beehives. The grove also has an evergreen species of Ashoka, which bears unique saffron-coloured flowers. Pandanus furcatus, known locally known as kegadi, attracts village women when it bears flowers covered in yellow and soft thickets. During the monsoon, bioluminescent fungi growing on dead wood glitter at night. The grove is also conducive for the growth of a variety of edible mushrooms, such as roen alami, khutyali, sonyali and shringar.[22]

In addition to mammals, the tall trees attract birds, including the crested serpent eagle, Malabar grey hornbill and pied hornbill.[22]

Nanoda village, 11 km from Valpoi, has an ancient tradition of nature worship. It is etymologically related to the naked woman tree, locally known as the nano (Euphorbia tirucalli - pencil tree). Ancestors who lived in harmony with nature evolved the tradition of protecting the forest in honour of the local deity. Nanoda has two sacred groves named Nirankarachi Rai after the holy spirit Nirankar: one lies on the border of Maloli and Nanoda and the other in Nanoda.[23]

The latter is slowly being weathered away by changing values and encroachments. In the past, large areas of forest land were protected through sacred groves such as Nirankarachi Rai. One would find various species of indigenous trees in these groves and no one dared cut a tree. In this way, villagers ensured their protection. The densely forested groves were also used by villagers to keep sculptures of village deities. Today, because of encroachments, the size of the groves has decreased, while the sculptures lie exposed to the vagaries of nature. Nanoda's Nirankarachi Rai, formerly spread across a large area, is now confined to a small patch where the vulnerable species hedu (satinwood), khait (Mimosa catechu), and chafara (red frangipani) trees are found. Majestic trees such as bhillo maad (coconut) have already been felled.[23]

Inside the sacred grove are 15 stone sculptures-of Gajlaxmi, Mahishasurmardini, Ravalnath, Brahmani, a horse rider and warriors-which are a part of Goa's archaeological heritage, weathering away. Animals such as sheryo (pangolin) and shekaro (Malabar giant squirrel) are found in sacred groves.[23]


Multiple threats to the unique ecology and biodiversity of the Mhedai Wildlife Sanctuary include: illegal heavy vehicular traffic[24][25] mismanagement of private lands, illegal mining[26] and tree felling, monoculture plantations, industrial activities, poaching, and dams and river diversions,[27] notably the Malaprabha Reservoir Project and The Kalasa-Banduri Nala project.[28]

Mhadei tiger reserve[edit]

Tiger in neighbouring Karnataka


On June 20, 2011, Jairam Ramesh, Minister of State, Ministry of Environment and Forests, advised Digambar Kamat, Chief Minister of Goa, to propose the Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary as a tiger reserve because of the presence of resident Bengal tigers. The MOEF urged Goa to seriously consider the proposal because Mhadei is a 'contiguous tiger landscape' to Bhimgad Wildlife Sanctuary in Karnataka to its southeast and to Anshi Dandeli Tiger Reserve which has around 35 tigers to its southeast in Karnataka. Ramesh noted that the protected areas of Goa and their contiguous forests in Karnataka and Maharashtra are possibly some of the best tiger habitats in the Western Ghats and are in need of protection. Tigers are a conservation dependent species.[2] He suggested expanding the tiger reserve beyond the existing Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary.[29][30]

On July 22, 2011, National Board for Wildlife (NBW) member and conservationist, Prerna Singh Bindra, publicly supported the proposal to declare Mhadei wildlife sanctuary as a tiger reserve, stating that it will help secure the entire regions water resources. In a letter to chief minister Digambar Kamat, Bindra urged him to consider the merit of the proposal as suggested by Jairam Ramesh. "Mhadei is the catchment area of important rivers like Mhadei, Malaprabha, Pandhari, Bailnadi, Tillari, and making it a tiger reserve will help consolidate the habitat and address the water security issues of Goa for posterity,"[31]

On Aug 8, 2011, Goa Forests Minister Filipe Neri Rodrigues questioned the existence of tigers in the state. "It is not my job to know whether there are any tigers here." Rodrigues also said, "the state government would not reply to a directive from former union environment and forests minister minister Jairam Ramesh asking the Goa government to submit a proposal for setting up a tiger reserve, unless specifically asked for. Why should we reply?" It is alleged that the Goa government's sluggishness to acknowledge the presence of tigers in Goa is linked to the state's Rs. 6,500 crore (US$ ~13,000,000.) mining industry, which rings the Western Ghats and most of the tiger terrain near the Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary.[32]

On August 9, 2011, there was public announcement that "in principle" approval was accorded by the National Tiger Conservation Authority for creation of a new tiger reserve at Mhadei Sanctuary. Under section 38V of the Wildlife Protection Act of 1972 the Goa state government was then authorised to notify Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary as a tiger reserve.[33]

There is considerable local community support for creation of the tiger reserve which would ensure long term protection of biodiversity-rich areas.[2] In September, 2011, the Save Goa Campaign - UK initiated a petition addressed to The Goa Principal Chief Conservator of Forests, Dr. Shashi Kumar, IFS, in support of Goa's first tiger reserve.[34]

Tiger presence[edit]

The contiguous forests of Goa, Karnataka and Maharashtra including the wildlife sanctuaries of Goa in the Mhadei river valley, the Anshi Tiger Reserve and the reserve forests and wildlife sanctuary of Radhanagari in Karnataka, Chandoli National Park and the reserve forests of Purna and Dodamarg in Maharashtra have been named as Tiger Conservation Units (TCU) numbers 68 to 72, class: II (minimum habitat area to support 50 tigers or documented evidence of 50 tigers) and III (some information on threats and conservation measures is available, but not classified as Class I or II) by WWFInternational.[35]

The Mhadei region lies along the Vagheri hills which means "abode of tiger".[36] In 2011, a map showing the locations of several tiger sightings in and near Mhedai Wildlife sanctuary was prepared by the Vivekanand Environment Awareness Brigade (VEAB) at Keri.

On January 24, 2011 government officials and a senior environmentalist found pugmarks of a tiger adult and a cub near the Anjunem dam, confirming the presence of tiger in the area. Parshuram Kambli, working on the dam first reported the pugmarks. Residents living near the dam supported the claim, stating they have been hearing the tiger roar in the past fortnight.

In December 2010, local resident Pandurang Gawas and his son saw a tiger and cub crossing the road that passes alongside the dam.

Also in 2011, the Goa Forest Department recorded tiger pug marks in this area during the Goa Wildlife Census conducted with the help of Dehradun-based Wildlife Institute of India (WII).

The 2010 National Tiger Conservation Authority tiger estimation described the Goa stretch of the Western Ghats as an important tiger corridor between Anshi-Dandeli Tiger Reserve in Karnataka and the Sahyadris in Maharashtra, and confirmed occupancy of tigers in the state’s forests.[37] In October, 2009 poachers were arrested near Mhadei with a tiger carcass and in recent years a live adult female tiger with a cub was sighted in the area.[38] [39]

The staff of the Wildernest Resort at Chorla Ghat also sighted a tiger in the region in 2009. Also in the Chorla Ghat area, a part of the Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary, there was a confirmed kill of a female domestic buffalo by an adult male tiger. Confirmation of the presence of a male tiger came to light after villagers from Chorla and surrounding areas reported sightings and viewed pugmarks in several locations in the Chorla Ghats.[40]


  1. ^ a b "WILDLIFE SANCTUARIES", Official website, Panaji: Forest Department, Goa State, 2010, retrieved 14 August 2011
  2. ^ a b c Sanderson, E., J. Forrest, C. Loucks, J. Ginsberg, E. Dinerstein, J. Seidensticker, P. Leimgruber, M. Songer, A. Heydlauff, T. O’Brien, G. Bryja, S. Klenzendorf and E. Wikramanayake. (2006), Setting Priorities for the Conservation and Recovery of Wild Tigers: 2005-2015. The Technical Assessment. (PDF), New York, Washington, D.C.: WCS, WWF, Smithsonian, and NFWF-STF, p. iii, archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-01-18, retrieved 11 September 2011
  3. ^ Rajendra P Kerkar (4-22-2011), "12 yrs later, sanctuary gets protectors", Times of India, Keri, Goa: Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd., retrieved 9 March 2011 Check date values in: |date= (help)
  4. ^ Forest Department - Contact Nos., Forest Department, Government of Goa, retrieved 9 March 2011
  5. ^ "Anjunem Dam", Places to visit in Goa, Goa Holiday Homes, retrieved 20 August 2011
  6. ^ a b "MAP SHOWING NATIONAL PARKS & SANCTUARIES", Official website, Panaji: Forest Department, Goa State, 2010, retrieved 14 August 2011
  7. ^ a b Devidas V. Kotkar (21 April 2011), Butterfly Diversity: A Case-study of Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary in Goa, retrieved 17 August 2011
  8. ^ a b "Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary", Important Bird Areas factsheet:, BirdLife International, 2011, retrieved 20 August 2011
  9. ^ a b Rajendra P Kerkar (8 December 2007), "Maulichi Rai of Vagheri", The Navhind Times, Panorama, retrieved 16 August 2011
  11. ^ Press Trust Of India (8 August 2011), "Goa collecting visual proof of construction on Mhadei river", Hindustan Times, Panjim: HT Media Limited., retrieved 15 August 2011
  12. ^ Nirmal Kulkarni (22 July 2008), "The Vazra Sakla Falls", Goa Wildwatch, Mapusa, Goa, retrieved 9 June 2011
  13. ^ The Hivre Waterfalls, Valpoi, Goa, retrieved 9 March 2011
  14. ^ Conservation International (2007) BIODIVERSITY HOTSPOTS Resources Archived 2012-03-24 at the Wayback Machine.
  15. ^ Armstrong Vaz (29 March 2010), "Tiger killing in Goa haunts green journalist from Goa", Digital Journal, Panjim, Goa, retrieved 9 February 2011
  16. ^ Rajendra Kerkar (3 July 2011), "Black panther spotted in Mhadei wildlife sanctuary", Times of India, Keri: Bennett, Coleman & Co., retrieved 16 August 2011
  17. ^ a b Wildernest "Wildlife in the Valley",, retrieved 17 August 2011
  18. ^ "53 bird species found breeding in Mhadei", The times of India, Goa: Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd., 8 August 2010, retrieved 20 August 2011
  19. ^ Nirmal Kulkarni (8 May 2010), "MHADEI HERPETOLOGY CAMP 2010", Goa Wildwatch, Mapusa, Goa, retrieved 9 June 2011
  20. ^ Times News Network (22 August 2010), "Mhadei region, a treasure trove of caecilians", The Times of India, Panaji, Goa: Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd., retrieved 9 April 2011
  21. ^ Manchit (20 November 2008), Trek to Vagheri Hills, Goa - Day 1, Margao: Mike Horn Expedition Center., retrieved 16 August 2011
  22. ^ a b c Rajendra P Kerkar, (4 June 2011), "In Copardem, a sacred grove seeks its village's protection", The Times of India, Panaji: Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd., retrieved 29 September 2011
  23. ^ a b c TNN, Rajendra P Kerkar, (1 May 2011), "Nanoda's protective tradition in need of protection", The Times of India, Nanoda, Goa: Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd, retrieved 29 September 2011
  24. ^ Nirmal Kulkarni (21 July 2008), "Chorla Ghats in imminent danger.", Goa Wildwatch, Mapusa, Goa, retrieved 9 June 2011
  25. ^ Nirmal Kulkarni (21 July 2008), "Chorla Ghats- a tragedy in the making", Goa Wildwatch, Mapusa, Goa, retrieved 9 June 2011
  26. ^ Rajendra P Kerkar (16 September 2011), "Illegal mining thrives in Sattari, Bicholim", The Times of India, Nanoda, Goa: Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd, retrieved 29 September 2011
  27. ^ Nirmal Kulkarni (26 February 2011), "The Mhadei Bio region", Goa Wildwatch, Mapusa, Goa, retrieved 9 June 2011
  28. ^ Mohan Pai (2008), Mahadayi/Mandovi River Valley (PDF), Bangalore, pp. 6–9, archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-04-02, retrieved 17 August 2011
  29. ^ "Letter to Digambar Kamat from Jairam Ramesh" (PDF), Official MOEF document, New Delhi: Ministry of Environment and Forests], 20 June 2011, retrieved 9 July 2011
  30. ^ Paul Fernandes, TNN (17 July 2011), "'Propose Mhadei wildlife sanctuary as tiger reserve'", The Times of India, Panaji, Goa: Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd., retrieved 14 August 2011
  31. ^ "Mhadei tiger reserve pro-people: NBW member", The Times of India, Panaji: Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd., 23 July 2011, retrieved 11 November 2011
  32. ^ Indo-Asian News Service (8 August 2011). "Tigers in Goa? Forest minister dodges queries". Yahoo News India. Panaji, Goa: Yahoo India Pvt. Ltd. Retrieved 29 September 2011.
  33. ^ Ministry of Environment & Forests, KP (8 September 2011). "New Tiger Reserves". (Release ID :74171). New Delhi: Press Information Bureau, Government of India. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
  34. ^ Carmen Miranda; Durgesh Kasbekar; Eddie Fernandes (25 September 2011). "Petition from the Goan diaporsa and all supporters for: 1 – The inclusion of Goa in the nomination of Western Ghats as a UNESCO World Heritage Site 2 – Support of Goa's first Tiger Reserve". Goan Voice Daily Newsletter, UNESCO petition. The Goan Voice UK. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
  35. ^ Anderson, E., J. Forrest, C. Loucks, J. Ginsberg, E. Dinerstein, J. Seidensticker, P. Leimgruber, M. Songer, A. Heydlauff, T. O’Brien, G. Bryja, S. Klenzendorf and E. Wikramanayake (2006), "Setting Priorities for the Conservation and Recovery of Wild Tigers: 2005-2015. The Technical Assessment." (PDF), Table 4.7, Characteristics of individual TCLs, Box 6.1 Data Requirements for TCL Classes, New York – Washington, D.C.: WCS, WWF, Smithsonian, and NFWF-STF, pp. 57, 90, archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-01-18, retrieved 9 February 2011
  36. ^ Pradnya Goankar (20 February 2010), "Do we really want to save the tiger?", Goan ObserverObserver, retrieved 16 August 2011
  37. ^ Status of Tigers, Co-predators and Prey in India, 2010 (PDF), New Delhi: National Tiger Conservation Authority, Ministry of Environment and Forests, GOVERNMENT OF INDIA, 28 March 2011, p. 137, retrieved 8 December 2011
  38. ^ David Abram (2010), The Rough Guide to Goa, London: Rough Guides, p. 204, retrieved 8 December 2011
  39. ^ Frederick Gooch (2011), Shoot on Sight, Xlibris Corporation., pp. 88, 89, retrieved 8 December 2011
  40. ^ Nirmal Kulkarni (21 July 2008), "In search of the Tiger…", Goa Wildwatch, Mapusa, Goa, retrieved 9 June 2011

External sources[edit]