Międzyrzecze Górne

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Międzyrzecze Górne
Village
View of Międzyrzecze Górne
View of Międzyrzecze Górne
Coat of arms of Międzyrzecze Górne
Coat of arms
Międzyrzecze Górne is located in Poland
Międzyrzecze Górne
Międzyrzecze Górne
Coordinates: 49°50′30″N 18°56′24″E / 49.84167°N 18.94000°E / 49.84167; 18.94000
Country Poland
Voivodeship Silesian
County Bielsko
Gmina Jasienica
First mentioned ca. 1305
Government
 • Mayor Maria Głuc-Mrzyk
Area 12.513 km2 (4.831 sq mi)
Population (2009) 2,279
 • Density 180/km2 (470/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 43-392
Car plates SBI
Website http://www.miedzyrzecze.org.pl/

Międzyrzecze Górne [mjɛnd͡zɨˈʐɛt͡ʂɛ ˈɡurnɛ] (German: Ober Kurzwald) is a village in Gmina Jasienica, Bielsko County, Silesian Voivodeship, southern Poland. It has a population of 2,279 (2009).

Etymology[edit]

The name Międzyrzecze is of topographic origin and literally means [a place] between rivers (Polish: między rzekami).[1] There are two rivers flowing through the village: Jasienica and Wapienica. The adjective Górne (German: Ober) means upper. The German name evolved from its original name from the 15th century which was a composition of a personal name Konrad and word Wald (German: wood, forest).

History[edit]

The village lies in the historical region of Cieszyn Silesia. The settlement called Międzyrzecze was first mentioned in a Latin document of Diocese of Wrocław called Liber fundationis episcopatus Vratislaviensis from around 1305 as item in Mesisrozha debent esse XL mansi solubiles.[2][3][4] It meant that the village was supposed to pay a tithe from 40 greater lans. The creation of the village was a part of a larger settlement campaign taking place in the late 13th century on the territory of what would later be known as Upper Silesia.

Politically the village belonged initially to the Duchy of Teschen, formed in 1290 in the process of feudal fragmentation of Poland and was ruled by a local branch of Silesian Piast dynasty. In 1327 the duchy became a fee of Kingdom of Bohemia, which after 1526 became part of the Habsburg Monarchy.

In the second quarter of the 15th century a number of Germans settled here and formed a settlement called Konradiswalde (Konrad's wood), which later was known as Kurzwald, and eventually as Międzyrzecze Górne.[5]

The village became a seat of a Catholic parish first mentioned in the register of Peter's Pence payment from 1447 among the 50 parishes of Teschen deanery as Conradsvalde.[6] After 1540s Protestant Reformation prevailed in the Duchy of Teschen and a local Catholic church was taken over by Lutherans. It was taken from them (as one from around fifty buildings) in the region by a special commission and given back to the Roman Catholic Church on 16 April 1654.[7] In spite of being bereft of place of worship many of the local inhabitants remained to be Lutherans. A Lutheran church was built in 1866.[8] A wooden Catholic Saint Martin church built in 16th century accidentally burnt down in 1993; a modern church was built in its place in 1996.

After the Revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire a modern municipal division was introduced in the re-established Austrian Silesia. The village as a municipality was subscribed to the political and legal district of Bielsko. According to the censuses conducted in 1880, 1890, 1900 and 1910 the population of the municipality grew from 1466 in 1880 to 1642 in 1910 with the majority being native German-speakers (at least 909 or 62% in 1880, at most 1092 or 66.5% in 1910) accompanied by a Polish-speaking minority (at most 555 or 37.9% in 1880, at least 550 or 33.5% in 1910). In terms of religion in 1910 majority were Protestants (68.6%), followed by Roman Catholics (30%) and Jews (23 or 1.4%).[9] It was then considered to be a part of a German language island around Bielsko (German: Bielitz-Bialaer Sprachinsel).[10]

After World War I, the fall of Austria-Hungary, the Polish–Czechoslovak War and the division of Cieszyn Silesia in 1920, it became a part of Poland. It was then annexed by Nazi Germany at the beginning of World War II. After the war it was restored to Poland.

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Mrózek, Robert (1984). Nazwy miejscowe dawnego Śląska Cieszyńskiego [Local names of former Cieszyn Silesia] (in Polish). Katowice: Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach. p. 116. ISSN 0208-6336. 
  2. ^ Panic, Idzi (2010). Śląsk Cieszyński w średniowieczu (do 1528) [Cieszyn Silesia in the Middle Ages (until 1528)] (in Polish). Cieszyn: Starostwo Powiatowe w Cieszynie. pp. 297–299. ISBN 978-83-926929-3-5. 
  3. ^ Schulte, Wilhelm (1889). Codex Diplomaticus Silesiae T.14 Liber Fundationis Episcopatus Vratislaviensis (in German). Breslau. 
  4. ^ "Liber fundationis episcopatus Vratislaviensis" (in Latin). Retrieved 13 July 2014. 
  5. ^ J. Polak, 2011, p. 8
  6. ^ "Registrum denarii sancti Petri in archidiaconatu Opoliensi sub anno domini MCCCCXLVII per dominum Nicolaum Wolff decretorum doctorem, archidiaconum Opoliensem, ex commissione reverendi in Christo patris ac domini Conradi episcopi Wratislaviensis, sedis apostolice collectoris, collecti". Zeitschrift des Vereins für Geschichte und Alterthum Schlesiens (in German). Breslau: H. Markgraf. 27: 361–372. 1893. Retrieved 21 July 2014. 
  7. ^ Broda, Jan (1992). "Materiały do dziejów Kościoła ewangelickiego w Księstwie Cieszyńskim i Państwie Pszczyńskim w XVI i XVII wieku". Z historii Kościoła ewangelickiego na Śląsku Cieszyńskim (in Polish). Katowice: Dom Wydawniczy i Księgarski „Didache“. pp. 259–260. ISBN 83-85572-00-7. 
  8. ^ Michejda, Karol (1992). "Dzieje Kościoła ewangelickiego w Księstwie Cieszyńskim (od Reformacji do roku 1909)". Z historii Kościoła ewangelickiego na Śląsku Cieszyńskim (in Polish). Katowice: Dom Wydawniczy i Księgarski „Didache“. p. 169. ISBN 83-85572-00-7. 
  9. ^ Piątkowski, Kazimierz (1918). Stosunki narodowościowe w Księstwie Cieszyńskiem (in Polish). Cieszyn: Macierz Szkolna Księstwa Cieszyńskiego. pp. 258, 277. 
  10. ^ "hałcnowski i bielsko-bialska wyspa językowa". inne-jezyki.amu.edu.p (in Polish). Dziedzictwo językowe Rzeczypospolitej. 2014. Retrieved 12 September 2014. 

References[edit]

External links[edit]