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Mir-224 SS.png
Conserved secondary structure of miR-224 microRNA precursor
Alt. SymbolsMIR224
miRBase familyMIPF0000088
NCBI Gene407009
Other data
RNA typemiRNA
LocusChr. X q28
PDB structuresPDBe

miR-224 is a family of microRNA precursors found in mammals, including humans. The ~22 nucleotide mature miRNA sequence is excised from the precursor hairpin by the enzyme Dicer.[1]


miR-224, being located on the X-chromosome, is thought to be active in mammalian ovaries, and possibly responds to TGF beta 1.[2] A target of miR-224 has been predicted to be SMAD4. Experimental evidence has shown that while the SMAD4 mRNA level is unchanged, increased miR-224 expression decreases concentration of SMDA4 protein in murine granulosa cells.[3] This is consistent with post-transcriptional miRNA regulation.[2]

Role in cancer[edit]

miR-224 has been noted as the most upregulated microRNA in hepatocellular carcinoma.[4] The same study identified a target of mir-224 as apoptosis-inhibitor 5 (API-5).[4]

miR-224 has also been linked with pancreatic ductal carcinoma, where it is thought to repress CD40 expression in cancer cells.[5]


  1. ^ Ambros V (December 2001). "microRNAs: tiny regulators with great potential". Cell. 107 (7): 823–6. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(01)00616-X. PMID 11779458.
  2. ^ a b Christenson LK (July 2010). "MicroRNA control of ovarian function". Animal Reproduction. 7 (3): 129–133. PMC 3111027. PMID 21666774.
  3. ^ Yao G, Yin M, Lian J, Tian H, Liu L, Li X, Sun F (March 2010). "MicroRNA-224 is involved in transforming growth factor-beta-mediated mouse granulosa cell proliferation and granulosa cell function by targeting Smad4". Molecular Endocrinology. 24 (3): 540–51. doi:10.1210/me.2009-0432. PMC 5419098. PMID 20118412.
  4. ^ a b Wang Y, Lee AT, Ma JZ, Wang J, Ren J, Yang Y, Tantoso E, Li KB, Ooi LL, Tan P, Lee CG (May 2008). "Profiling microRNA expression in hepatocellular carcinoma reveals microRNA-224 up-regulation and apoptosis inhibitor-5 as a microRNA-224-specific target". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 283 (19): 13205–15. doi:10.1074/jbc.M707629200. PMID 18319255.
  5. ^ Mees ST, Mardin WA, Sielker S, Willscher E, Senninger N, Schleicher C, Colombo-Benkmann M, Haier J (August 2009). "Involvement of CD40 targeting miR-224 and miR-486 on the progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas". Annals of Surgical Oncology. 16 (8): 2339–50. doi:10.1245/s10434-009-0531-4. PMID 19475450.