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Mir-224 SS.png
Conserved secondary structure of miR-224 microRNA precursor
Symbol miR-224
Alt. Symbols MIR224
Rfam RF00680
miRBase MI0000301
miRBase family MIPF0000088
Entrez 407009
HUGO 31604
OMIM 300769
RefSeq NR_029638
Other data
RNA type miRNA
Domain(s) Mammalia
GO 0035195
SO 0001244
Locus Chr. X q28

miR-224 is a family of microRNA precursors found in mammals, including humans. The ~22 nucleotide mature miRNA sequence is excised from the precursor hairpin by the enzyme Dicer.[1]


miR-224, being located on the X-chromosome, is thought to be active in mammalian ovaries, and possibly responds to TGF beta 1.[2] A target of miR-224 has been predicted to be SMAD4. Experimental evidence has shown that while the SMAD4 mRNA level is unchanged, increased miR-224 expression decreases concentration of SMDA4 protein in murine granulosa cells.[3] This is consistent with post-transcriptional miRNA regulation.[2]

Role in cancer[edit]

miR-224 has been noted as the most upregulated microRNA in hepatocellular carcinoma.[4] The same study identified a target of mir-224 as apoptosis-inhibitor 5 (API-5).[4]

miR-224 has also been linked with pancreatic ductal carcinoma, where it is thought to repress CD40 expression in cancer cells.[5]


  1. ^ Ambros, V (2001-12-28). "microRNAs: tiny regulators with great potential.". Cell. 107 (7): 823–6. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(01)00616-X. PMID 11779458. 
  2. ^ a b Christenson, LK (2010-07-01). "MicroRNA control of ovarian function.". Animal reproduction / Colegio Brasileiro de Reproducao Animal. 7 (3): 129–133. PMC 3111027Freely accessible. PMID 21666774. 
  3. ^ Yao, G; Yin, M; Lian, J; Tian, H; Liu, L; Li, X; Sun, F (Mar 2010). "MicroRNA-224 is involved in transforming growth factor-beta-mediated mouse granulosa cell proliferation and granulosa cell function by targeting Smad4.". Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.). 24 (3): 540–51. doi:10.1210/me.2009-0432. PMID 20118412. 
  4. ^ a b Wang, Y; Lee, AT; Ma, JZ; Wang, J; Ren, J; Yang, Y; Tantoso, E; Li, KB; Ooi, LL; Tan, P; Lee, CG (2008-05-09). "Profiling microRNA expression in hepatocellular carcinoma reveals microRNA-224 up-regulation and apoptosis inhibitor-5 as a microRNA-224-specific target.". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 283 (19): 13205–15. doi:10.1074/jbc.M707629200. PMID 18319255. 
  5. ^ Mees, ST; Mardin, WA; Sielker, S; Willscher, E; Senninger, N; Schleicher, C; Colombo-Benkmann, M; Haier, J (Aug 2009). "Involvement of CD40 targeting miR-224 and miR-486 on the progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas.". Annals of Surgical Oncology. 16 (8): 2339–50. doi:10.1245/s10434-009-0531-4. PMID 19475450.