Miami International Airport

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Miami International Airport
Miami International Airport Logo.svg
Miami International Airport (KMIA-MIA) (8204606870).jpg
IATA: MIAICAO: KMIAFAA LID: MIA
WMO: 72202
Summary
Airport type Public
Owner Miami-Dade County
Operator Miami-Dade Aviation Department (MDAD)
Serves Greater Miami
Location Miami-Dade County, Florida
Hub for
Focus city for
Elevation AMSL 9 ft / 3 m
Coordinates 25°47′36″N 080°17′26″W / 25.79333°N 80.29056°W / 25.79333; -80.29056Coordinates: 25°47′36″N 080°17′26″W / 25.79333°N 80.29056°W / 25.79333; -80.29056
Website iflymia.com
Maps
FAA airport diagram
FAA airport diagram
MIA is located in Miami
MIA
MIA
MIA is located in Florida
MIA
MIA
MIA is located in USA
MIA
MIA
Location within Miami
Runways
Direction Length Surface
ft m
8L/26R 8,600 2,621 Asphalt
8R/26L 10,506 3,202 Asphalt
9/27 13,016 3,967 Asphalt
12/30 9,355 2,851 Asphalt
Statistics (2015)
Aircraft operations 412,915
Passengers 44,350,247

Miami International Airport (IATA: MIAICAO: KMIAFAA LID: MIA), ; also known as MIA and historically Wilcox Field, is the primary airport serving the Miami area, United States. The airport is in an unincorporated area in Miami-Dade County, Florida, eight miles (13 km) northwest of Downtown Miami, in metropolitan Miami,[3] between the cities of Miami, Hialeah, Doral, Miami Springs, the village of Virginia Gardens, and the unincorporated Fontainebleau neighborhood. It is South Florida's main airport for long-haul international flights. Miami International is also one of only eight U.S. airports to accommodate the Airbus A380 jumbo jet.

The airport is American Airlines' primary Latin American gateway, along with a domestic hub for its regional affiliate American Eagle, and Eastern Air Lines; cargo carriers UPS Airlines and FedEx Express; and charter airline Miami Air. It is a focus airport for Avianca, Frontier Airlines, and LATAM, both for passengers and cargo operations. Miami International Airport has passenger and cargo flights to cities throughout the Americas, Europe and Western Asia, as well as cargo flights to East Asia.

Miami International Airport is the largest gateway between the United States and Latin America, and is one of the largest airline hubs in the United States, owing to its proximity to tourist attractions, local economic growth, large local Latin American and European populations, and strategic location to handle connecting traffic between North America, Latin America, and Europe. In the past, it has been a hub for Braniff International Airways, Eastern Air Lines, Air Florida, the original National Airlines, the original Pan Am, United Airlines, Iberia and Fine Air.

In 2011 the airport ranked first in the United States by percentage of international flights and second by volume of international passengers, behind only New York–JFK.[4] In 2013, 40,563,071 passengers traveled through the airport,[5] making the airport the 23rd-busiest airport in the world by passenger traffic. The airport also ranks as the 10th busiest airport in the United States by annual passenger count and is the busiest airport in the state of Florida.[6] The airport also handled more international cargo than any other airport in the United States.[7]

History[edit]

For the World War II and United States Air Force Reserve use of the airport, see Miami Army Airfield
Pan Am's first terminal consisted of a single hangar. The airport was the base of Pan Am's flights to Cuba, but fell into disuse when the airline switched to seaplanes at International Pan American Airport in the mid-1930s.

The first airport on the site of MIA opened in the 1920s and was known as Miami City Airport. Pan American World Airways opened an expanded facility adjacent to City Airport, Pan American Field, in 1928. Pan American Field was built on 116 acres of land on 36th Street and was the only mainland airport in the eastern United States that had port of entry facilities. Its runways were located around the threshold of today's Runway 26R. Eastern Airlines began to serve Pan American Field in 1931, followed by National Airlines in 1936. National used a terminal on the opposite side of LeJeune Road from the airport, and would stop traffic on the road in order to taxi aircraft to and from its terminal. Miami Army Airfield opened in 1943 to the south of Pan American Field: the runways of the two were originally separated by railroad tracks, but the two airfields were listed in some directories as a single facility.[8]

In 1945 the City of Miami established a Port Authority and raised bond revenue to purchase Pan American Field, which had been renamed 36th Street Airport, from Pan Am. It merged with the Army airfield south of the railroad in 1949 and expanded further in 1951 when the railroad line was moved south to make room. The old terminal on 36th Street was closed in 1959 when the modern passenger terminal (since greatly expanded) opened. Air Force Reserve troop carrier and rescue squadrons also operated from the airport from 1949 through 1959, when the last unit relocated to nearby Homestead Air Force Base, now Homestead Air Reserve Base.

Nonstop flights to Chicago–O'Hare and Newark started in late 1946, but nonstops didn't reach west beyond St. Louis and New Orleans until January 1962. Nonstop transatlantic flights began in 1970. In the late 1970s and early 1980s Air Florida had a hub at MIA, with a nonstop flight to London which it acquired from National upon the latter's merger with Pan Am. Air Florida ceased operations in 1982 following the crash of Air Florida Flight 90.[9] British Airways flew a Concorde triweekly between Miami and London via Washington, D.C. from 1984 to 1991.[10]

After Frank Borman became president of Eastern in 1975 he moved Eastern's headquarters from Rockefeller Center in New York City to Building 16 in the northeast corner of MIA which was Eastern's maintenance base. Eastern remained one of the largest employers in the Miami metropolitan area until ongoing labor union unrest, coupled with the airline's acquisition by union antagonist Frank Lorenzo in 1986, ultimately forced the airline into bankruptcy in 1989.[9]

In the midst of Eastern's turmoil American Airlines CEO Bob Crandall sought a new hub in order to utilize new aircraft which AA had on order. AA studies indicated that Delta Air Lines would provide strong competition on most routes from Eastern's hub at Atlanta, but that MIA had many key routes only served by Eastern. American announced that it would establish a base at MIA in August 1988. Lorenzo considered selling Eastern's profitable Latin American routes to AA as part of a Chapter 11 reorganization of Eastern in early 1989, but backed out in a last-ditch effort to rebuild the MIA hub. The effort quickly proved futile, and American purchased the routes (including the route authority between Miami and London then held by Eastern sister company Continental Airlines) in a liquidation of Eastern which was completed in 1990.[9] Later in the 1990s, American transferred more employees and equipment to MIA from its failed domestic hubs at Nashville and Raleigh–Durham. Today Miami is American's largest air freight hub and is the main connecting point in the airline's north–south international route network.

Pan Am, the other key carrier at MIA, was acquired by Delta Air Lines in 1991, but filed for bankruptcy shortly thereafter. Its remaining international routes from Miami to Europe and Latin America were sold to United Airlines for $135 million as part of Pan Am's emergency liquidation that December.[9] United maintained a Latin American hub at MIA through the 1990s but ended flights from Miami to South America, and shut down its Miami crew base, in May 2004, reallocating most Miami resources to its main hub in Chicago.[11]

MIA in 1999

Stricter visa requirements for aliens in transit (a result, in part, of the September 11, 2001 attacks) have lessened MIA's role as an intercontinental connecting hub, but it remains the most important hub between Europe and Latin America. In 2004 Iberia Airlines ended its hub in Miami, opting to run more direct flights from Spain to Central America.[12] Today, more European carriers serve Miami International Airport than any other airport in the United States, except John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York.

American Airlines, American Eagle, Delta Air Lines, Miami Air, Sky King Airlines, and United Airlines all operate regular flights between MIA and several airports in Cuba, one of a few airports with direct airlink between the two nations. However, these flights must be booked through agents with special authorization from the Office of Foreign Assets Control, and are only generally available to government officials, journalists, researchers, professionals attending conferences, or expatriates visiting Cuban family.

Operations[edit]

In the year ending April 30, 2009 the airport had 358,705 aircraft operations, average 982 per day: 82% scheduled commercial, 12% air taxi, 5% general aviation and <1% military.[3] The budget for operations was $600 million in 2009.[13]

Facilities and aircraft[edit]

Miami International Airport covers 1,335 hectares (3,300 acres) and has four runways:[3]

  • 8L/26R: 8,600 x 150 ft (2,621 x 46 m)
  • 8R/26L: 10,506 x 200 ft (3,202 x 61 m)
  • 9/27: 13,016 x 150 ft (3,967 x 46 m)
  • 12/30: 9,355 x 150 ft (2,851 x 46 m)

28 aircraft are based at this airport: 46% multi-engine and 54% jet.[3]

MIA has a number of air cargo facilities. The largest cargo complex is located on the west side of the airport, inside the triangle formed by Runways 12/30 and 9/27. Cargo carriers such as LAN Cargo, Atlas Air, Southern Air, Amerijet International and DHL operate from this area. The largest privately owned facility is the Centurion Cargo complex in the northeast corner of the airport, with over 51,000 m2 of warehouse space.[14] FedEx and UPS operate their own facilities in the northwest corner of the airport, off of 36th Street. In addition to its large passenger terminal in Concourse D, American Airlines operates a maintenance base to the east of Concourse D, centered around a semicircular hangar originally used by Pan Am which can accommodate three widebody aircraft.[15]

Fire protection at the airport is provided by Miami-Dade Fire Rescue Department[16] Station 12.[17]

Terminals and concourses[edit]

A satellite image of Miami International Airport superimposed over the old 36th Street airfield

The main terminal at MIA dates back to 1959, with several new additions. Semicircular in shape, the terminal has one linear concourse (Concourse D) and five pier-shaped concourses, lettered counter-clockwise from E to J (Concourse A is now part of Concourse D; Concourses B and C were demolished so that Concourse D gates could be added in their place; naming of Concourse I was skipped to avoid confusion with the number 1.). From the terminal's opening until the mid-1970s the concourses were numbered clockwise from 1 to 6.

Level 1 of the terminal contains baggage carousels and ground transportation access. Level 2 contains ticketing/check-in, shopping and dining, and access to the concourses. The airport currently has two immigration and customs facilities (FIS), located in Concourse D, Level 3 and in Concourse J, Level 3. The Concourse D FIS can be utilized by flights arriving at all gates in Concourse E and all gates in Concourses D and some gates in Concourse F. The Concourse J FIS can be utilized by flights arriving at all gates in Concourse J and most gates in Concourse H. However, all gates in Concourse G and some gates in Concourses F and H, do not have the facilities to route passengers to any FIS, and therefore can only be used for domestic arrivals. MIA is unique among American airports in that all of its facilities are common-use, meaning that they are assigned by the airport and no one airline holds ownership or leases on any terminal space or gates, thus giving the airport much more flexibility in terminal and gate assignments and allowing it to make full use of existing facilities. The entire airport became common-use by the 1990s.

The free MIA Mover connects the airport with the Miami Intermodal Center, where the car rental facility and bus terminal has relocated. The MIC also houses the airport Metrorail station and Tri-Rail terminal.

The airport has three parking facilities: a two-level short-term parking lot directly in front of Concourse E, and two seven-story parking garages (North and South) within the terminal's curvature and connected to the terminal via overhead walkways on Level 3.[18] In the late 1990s, the Dolphin Garage was expanded to better serve the then-new Concourse A; it is expected that the Flamingo Garage will be similarly expanded in the near future to serve the new Concourse J. The two parking garages are connected at their west ends; at the top of this connection are the airport's SIDA and ID Section offices. The single terminal facility is divided into three sections known as the North Terminal, Central Terminal, and South Terminal.

North Terminal (Blue)[edit]

The North Terminal was previously the site of Concourses A, B, C, and D, each a separate pier. Concourse D was one of the airport's original 1959 concourses, having opened as Concourse 5. After modifications similar to that of former Concourse C during the mid-1960s, it was extended in 1984, and the original portion was completely rebuilt from 1986 to 1989[19] and connected to the immigration and customs hall in Concourse E, allowing it to handle international arrivals. Concourse D FIS currently provides immigration and customs services instead of the now-closed Concourse E FIS.[20] Along with former Concourses B and C, the concourse once housed the Eastern Air Lines base of operations. Another Texas Air Corporation affiliate joined the eastern side during the 1980s; Continental Airlines used gates on the west side of the concourse during the 1980s.

The North Terminal construction merged the four piers into a single linear concourse designated Concourse D. This configuration was adopted in order to increase the number of aircraft that can simultaneously arrive and depart from the terminal, allowing each gate to handle approximately twice as many operations per day.[21] The construction process started with the extension of the original A and D concourses in the late 1990s. By the mid-2000s (decade), the gates on the east side of Concourse D were closed in order to make room for new gates being constructed as part of the North Terminal Development project. In 2004, a new extension to the west was opened, consisting of Gates D39 through D51. Concourse B was demolished in 2005; in the summer of 2009, Gates D21 to D25 entered service where Concourse B once stood. Concourse C was demolished in 2009.[22] Concourse A was closed in November 2007 and re-opened in July 2010 as a 14-gate eastern extension of Concourse D. In August 2010, a further extension for American Eagle flights was opened, designated as Gate D60.[23]

The Skytrain automated people mover, built by Parsons and Odebrecht with trains from Sumitomo Corporation and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, opened to the public on September 15, 2010.[23] Skytrain transports domestic passengers between four stations within Concourse D, located at gates D17, D24, D29 and D46; it also connects arriving international passengers who have not yet cleared border customs to the Concourse D FIS.[24]

The North Terminal construction began in 1998 and was slated for completion in 2005, but was delayed several times due to cost overruns. The project was managed by American Airlines until the Miami-Dade County Aviation Department took over in 2005.[25] With sections of the terminal opening in phases, a significant majority of the structure has already been completed and opened for airline use.[26] The project was designed by Corgan Associates, Anthony C Baker Architects and Planners, Perez & Perez, and Leo A Daly.[27] The project is currently progressing quickly with a brand new international arrivals facility which opened in August 2012. It reached substantial completion on January 31, 2013. Gates D-26, D-27 and D-28, which opened in August 2013. The Baggage Handling System's international-to-domestic transfer, which was the last component of the project, was completed on February 2014.[28]

Concourse D[edit]

American Airlines planes at Concourse D.
Interior view of concourse D.

Concourse D is the only concourse located within the North Terminal. The North Terminal is 3,600,000-square-foot (330,000 m2) linear concourse 1.2 miles (1.9 km) long with a capacity of 30 million passengers annually. Concourse D has one bus station and 45 gates: D1–D12, D14–D17, D19–D25, D29–D33 D37–D40, D42–D51, D53, D55, D60.[29] American operates two Admirals Clubs within the concourse; one located near Gate D30, and another near Gate D15. American Eagle uses Gates D53, D55, and D60.[30]

Central Terminal (Yellow)[edit]

The Central Terminal consists of three concourses, labeled E, F, and G, with a combined total of 52 gates.[29]

The Miami-Dade Aviation Department expects to rebuild the central terminal following the completion of the north terminal, and intends to seek bids by the first quarter of 2011.[31] Upon completion of the North Terminal project and the reopening, the Central Terminal will be used to house airlines not affiliated with any of the "big three" airline alliances as well as the low-cost carriers the airport hopes to attract.

Concourse E[edit]

Concourse E has two bus stations and 18 gates: E2, E4–E11, E20–E25, E30, E31, E33[29]

Concourse E also dates back to the terminal's 1959 opening, and was originally known as Concourse 4. From the start, it was the airport's only international concourse, containing its own immigration and customs facilities. In the mid-1960s it underwent renovations similar to the airport's other original concourses, but didn't receive its first major addition until the opening of the International Satellite Terminal in 1976. Featuring Gates E20–E35 (commonly known as "High E"), the satellite added 12 international gates capable of handling the largest jet aircraft as well as an international intransit lounge for arriving international passengers connecting to other international flights. The concourse and its satellite were briefly linked by buses until the airport's first automated people mover (Adtranz C-100) opened in 1980. At the same time Concourse E's immigration and customs facilities were radically overhauled and expanded. During the late 1980s the original portion of Concourse E ("Low E") was rebuilt to match the satellite.

Since then, both portions of the concourse have seen little change. Gate E3 was closed in the 1990s to accommodate a connector between Concourses D and E. In the mid-2000s (decade), the Low E and High E security checkpoints were expanded and merged into one, linking both portions of the concourse without requiring passengers to reclear security. At the same time Gates E32, E34, and E35 were closed to make way for a second parallel taxiway between the Concourse D extension and Concourse E. Concourse E also contains the (currently closed) Central Terminal's immigration and customs halls.

Concourse E serves oneworld member airlines Air Berlin, British Airways, Finnair, Iberia and Qatar, along with some American Airlines flights. The concourse contains a premium lounge for international passengers flying in first and business class as well as OneWorld Emerald and Sapphire elite members. On October 25, 2015, British Airways became the third carrier at MIA to operate the Airbus A380, after Lufthansa and Air France. The flight currently boards at gates E6/E8.

The seven-story Miami–International Airport hotel and many Miami-Dade Aviation Department executive offices are in the Concourse E portion of the terminal. Level 1 houses two domestic baggage carousels. Level 2 is used for check-in by several North American carriers. Concourse E, along with Concourse F, was once the base of operations for Pan Am and many of MIA's international carriers.

Concourse F[edit]

Concourse F has one bus station and 19 gates: F3–F12, F14–F23[29]

Concourse F dates back to 1959 and was originally known as Concourse 3. Like Concourses D and E, it received renovations in the mid-1960s and was largely rebuilt from 1986 to 1988.[32][33] The gates at the far end of the pier were demolished and replaced by new widebody Gates F10 to F23, all of which were capable of processing international arrivals. The departure lounges for Gates F3, F5, F7, and F9 were also rebuilt, and these also became international gates. Currently the concourse retains a distinctly 1980s feel, and is part of the Central Terminal area.

The south side of the concourse was used by Northeast Airlines until its 1972 merger with Delta Air Lines. Likewise, National Airlines flew out of the north side of Concourse F until its 1980 merger with Pan Am, which continued to use the concourse until its 1991 shutdown. When United Airlines acquired Pan Am's Latin American operations, the airline carried on operating a focus city out of Concourse F until completely dismantling it by 2004. From 1993 to 2004, Concourse F was also used by Iberia Airlines for its Miami focus city operation, which linked Central American capitals to Madrid using MIA as the connecting point.

Level 1 of the Concourse F portion of the terminal is used for domestic baggage claim and cruise line counters. Level 2 contains check-in facilities for European airlines. Concourse F is unusual in that the TSA security checkpoint is located on Level 3. Passengers must ascend to the checkpoint, pass through security and then descend back down to Level 2 to board their flights.

Concourse G[edit]

A Panoramic View of Concourses G and H, as well as the new Concourse J, from the south

Concourse G has one bus station and 15 gates: G2–G12, G14–G16, G19[29]

Concourse G is the only one of the original 1959 concourses that has largely remained in its original state, save for the modifications the rest of the airport received in the mid-1960s and an extension in the early 1970s. It is the only concourse at the airport not capable of handling international arrivals, though it is frequently used for departing international charters.

South Terminal (Red)[edit]

The South Terminal consists of two concourses, H and J, with a combined total of 28 gates.[29]

The South Terminal building and Concourse J opened on August 29, 2007(photo). The new addition is seven stories tall and has 15 international-capable gates, and a total floor area of 1.3 million square feet (120,000 m2), including two airline lounges and several offices. Concourse H serves Delta Air Lines and its partners in the SkyTeam alliance, while Concourse J serves United Airlines and its partners in the Star Alliance.

Concourse H[edit]

Concourse H has one bus station and 13 gates: H3–H12, H14, H15, H17[29]

Concourse H was the 20th Street Terminal's first extension, originally built in 1961 as Concourse 1 for Delta Air Lines, which remains in the concourse to this day. This concourse featured a third floor, the sole purpose of which was to expedite access to the "headhouse" gates at the far end. In the late 1970s, a commuter satellite terminal was built just to the east of the concourse. Known as "Gate H2", it featured seven parking spaces (numbered H2a through H2g) designed to handle smaller commuter aircraft. The concourse was dramatically renovated from 1994 to 1998, to match the style of the then-new Concourse A. Moving walkways were added to the third floor, the H1 Bus Station and Gates H3–H11 were completely rebuilt, and the H2 commuter satellite had jetways installed. Due to financial difficulties, headhouse gates H12–H20 were left in their original state.

With the construction of the Concourse J extension in the 2000s (decade), the H2 commuter satellite was demolished. In 2007, with the opening of the South Terminal's immigration and customs facilities, the third floor of Concourse H was closed off and converted into a "sterile circulation" area for arriving international passengers. Gates H4, H6, H8, and H10 were made capable of handling international arrivals, and currently serve Copa Airlines, Aeromexico, Air France, and Alitalia. Simultaneously, headhouse gates H16, H17, H18, and H20 were closed to allow for the construction of a second parallel taxiway leading to the new Concourse J.

There are plans to convert Gates H11 and H15 into additional international-capable gates, but the concourse does not yet require their use. Instead, the airport is focusing on finishing up the final components of the North Terminal project.

Concourse H historically served as the base of operations for Piedmont's Miami focus city and US Airways Express's commuter operations. Concourse H continues to serve original tenant Delta Air Lines, which uses all but one of the gates on the west side of the pier.

Concourse J[edit]

Concourse J at Miami International Airport.

Concourse J has one bus station and 15 gates: J2–J5, J7–J12, J14–J18[29]

American Airlines Boeing 757-200 landing at MIA, in the background International Concourse J.

Concourse J is the newest concourse, which opened on August 29, 2007. Part of the airport's South Terminal project,[34] the concourse was designed by Carlos Zapata and M.G.E., one of the largest Hispanic-owned architecture firms in Florida. The concourse features 15 international-capable gates as well as the airport's only gate capable of handling the Airbus A380 that has 3 jet bridges. The concourse added a third international arrivals hall to the airport, supplementing the existing ones at Concourses B (now closed) and E while significantly relieving overcrowding at these two facilities.

In the initial stages of its development, the South Terminal (Concourses H and J) was planned to serve United Airlines and its partners in the Star Alliance. Concourse H would serve United's partner airlines, while Concourse J would be the new home of United's Latin American hub. When United dismantled its MIA hub in 2004, Concourse H became intended to serve Delta Air Lines and its partners in the SkyTeam alliance, while Concourse J would serve United's remaining operations as well as their partner carriers. Once the North Terminal is completed, oneworld member airlines will be housed in Concourse D (North Terminal), with SkyTeam and Star Alliance members in Concourses H and J (South Terminal)

Former concourses[edit]

Concourse A[edit]

At the time of its closure, Concourse A had one bus station and 16 gates: A3, A5, A7, A10, A12, A14, A16–A26

Concourse A is a recent addition to the airport, opening in two phases between 1995 and 1998. The concourse is now part of the North Terminal. Between 1995 and 2007, the concourse housed many of American Airlines' domestic and international flights, as well as those of many European and Latin American carriers.

On November 9, 2007, Concourse A was closed as part of the North Terminal Development Project. It had been closed in order to speed up completion of the North Terminal project, as well as facilitate the addition of the Automated People Mover (APM) system that now spans the length of the North Terminal. The infrastructure of Concourse A reopened on July 20, 2010 as an extension of Concourse D.

Concourse B[edit]

View of the airport

At its peak, Concourse B had one bus station and 12 gates: B1, B2–B12, B15

Concourse B was built in 1975 for Eastern Air Lines as part of the airport's ambitions "Program 70's" initiative, and first opened in 1983. During the 1980s, the existing concourse was rebuilt and expanded, and a new immigration and customs hall was built in the Concourse B section of the terminal, allowing the concourse to process international arrivals. Along with Concourse C and most of Concourse D, it served as Eastern Air Lines' historical base of operations.

After Eastern's shutdown in 1991 it was used by a variety of European and Latin American airlines; by the 2000s (decade), American Airlines was its sole tenant. The concourse was closed in 2004 and torn down the following year as part of the North Terminal Development project. The immigration and customs hall remained open until 2007, when it was closed along with Concourse A.

Concourse C[edit]

At the time of its closure, Concourse C had 3 gates: C5, C7, C9

Concourse C opened as Concourse 6 in 1959, serving Eastern Air Lines. During the mid-1960s, Concourse C received an extension of its second floor and was equipped with air conditioning. Since then, it did not receive any major interior modifications or renovations. Following the renumbering of gates and concourses in the 1970s, Concourse C had Gates C1 to C10. The opening of an international arrivals hall in Concourse B during the 1980s saw Gate C1 receive the ability to process international arrivals.

Following the demise of Eastern Air Lines in 1991 the concourse was used by a variety of African and Latin American carriers. Many of these airlines' flights would arrive at Concourse B and then be towed to Concourse C for departure. By the end of the decade, the construction of American's baggage sorting facility between Concourses C and D saw the closure of all gates on the west side of the concourse, with Gate C1 following soon afterward. From the 2000s (decade) on, the concourse consisted of just four domestic-only gates, each of which were capable of accommodating small-to-medium jet aircraft from the Boeing 737 up to the Airbus A300, and American was its sole tenant.

As part of the North Terminal Development project, Concourse C closed on September 1, 2009, and was demolished. The demolition of Concourse C allowed for the construction of new gates where the concourse stood.

Future development[edit]

"The airport has embarked on a three year, $651 million renovation, which they say is necessary to keep pace with unexpectedly high growth. That work could quickly be undone, however, as the airport has long-term plans to demolish and replace the Central Terminal, beginning in 2025."[35]

Airlines and destinations[edit]

Passenger[edit]

Note: All flights to Cuba are operated as scheduled Special Authority Charters.

Airlines Destinations Terminal/Concourse
Aeroflot Moscow–Sheremetyevo Central-F
Aerolíneas Argentinas Buenos Aires–Ezeiza South-J
Aeroméxico Cancún, Mexico City South-H
Aeroméxico Connect Mérida, Mexico City South-H
Air Berlin Berlin–Tegel, Düsseldorf Central-E
Air Canada Rouge Montréal–Trudeau, Toronto–Pearson South-J
Air Europa Madrid South-F
Air France Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Pointe-à-Pitre, Port-au-Prince South-H/J
Alitalia Rome–Fiumicino South-H
American Airlines Antigua, Aruba, Atlanta, Austin, Baltimore, Barbados, Barcelona, Barranquilla, Belize City, Belo Horizonte–Confins, Bermuda, Bogotá, Boston, Brasília, Buenos Aires–Ezeiza, Cali, Camagüey, Cancún, Cap–Haïtien, Caracas, Charlotte, Chicago–O'Hare, Cienfuegos, Cozumel, Curaçao, Dallas/Fort Worth, Denver, Detroit, Grand Cayman, Guatemala City, Guayaquil, Hartford, Havana (begins November 30, 2016),[36] Holguín, Houston–Intercontinental, Kansas City, Kingston–Norman Manley, La Paz, Las Vegas, Liberia (CR), Lima, London–Heathrow, Los Angeles, Madrid, Managua, Manaus, Maracaibo, Medellín–JMC, Mexico City, Milan–Malpensa, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Montego Bay, Montevideo, Montréal–Trudeau, New Orleans, New York–JFK, New York–LaGuardia, Newark, Orlando, Panama City, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Philadelphia, Phoenix–Sky Harbor, Pointe-à-Pitre, Port-au-Prince, Port of Spain, Providenciales, Puerto Plata, Punta Cana, Quito, Raleigh/Durham, Rio de Janeiro–Galeão, Roatán, Santa Clara, St. Croix, St. Kitts, St. Louis, St. Lucia, St. Maarten, St. Thomas, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, San José de Costa Rica, San Juan, San Pedro Sula, San Salvador, Santa Cruz de la Sierra–Viru Viru, Santiago de Chile, Santiago de los Caballeros, Santo Domingo–Las Américas, São Paulo–Guarulhos, Seattle/Tacoma, Tampa, Tegucigalpa, Toronto–Pearson, Tulsa, Varadero, Washington–Dulles, Washington–National
Seasonal: Eagle/Vail, Nassau, Nashville, Recife, San Salvador (Bahamas) (begins October 8, 2016)
Charter: Camagüey, Havana, Santa Clara, Santiago de Cuba
North-D, Central-E
American Eagle Atlanta, Belize City, Birmingham (AL), Charleston (SC), Cincinnati, Cleveland, Columbus (OH), Cozumel, Fort-de-France, Freeport, Gainesville, George Town, Greensboro, Indianapolis, Jacksonville, Key West, La Romana, Liberia (CR), Louisville, Marsh Harbour, Memphis, Mérida (begins November 4, 2016)[37] Monterrey, Nashville, Nassau, New Orleans, Norfolk, North Eleuthera, Panama City, Pensacola, Pittsburgh, Pointe-à-Pitre, Richmond, Roatán, Tallahassee, White Plains (begins December 15, 2016)[38]
Seasonal: Barranquilla, Kansas City, Providenciales, Raleigh/Durham, San Salvador (Bahamas)
Charter: Cienfuegos, Havana, Holguín
North-D
Aruba Airlines Aruba Central-G
Austrian Airlines Vienna South-J
Avianca Barranquilla, Bogotá, Cali, Cartagena de Indias, Medellín–JMC South-J
Avianca El Salvador Guatemala City, Managua, San Pedro Sula, San Salvador South-J
Avianca Peru Lima South-J
Avior Airlines Barcelona (Venezuela) Central-F
Bahamasair Nassau Central-G
Boliviana de Aviacion La Paz, Santa Cruz de la Sierra–Viru Viru Central-F
British Airways London–Heathrow Central-E
Canadian North Seasonal Charter: Halifax, Hamilton (ON), London (ON), Moncton, Ottawa, Québec City, Winnipeg Central-F
Caribbean Airlines Georgetown–Cheddi Jagan, Port of Spain South-J
Cayman Airways Cayman Brac, Grand Cayman Central-F
Choice Aire
operated by Swift Air
Charter: Havana Central-G
Choice Airways
operated by Swift Air
Charter: Atlantic City, Nashville
Seasonal Charter: Havana, Punta Cana, Santa Clara
Central-G
Copa Airlines Panama City South-J
Delta Air Lines Atlanta, Detroit, Havana (begins December 1, 2016),[39] Minneapolis–St. Paul, New York–JFK, New York–LaGuardia, Orlando, Salt Lake City (begins December 21, 2016)
Seasonal: Los Angeles
South-H
Delta Connection Seasonal: Columbus (OH), Indianapolis, Raleigh/Durham, New York–JFK, New York–LaGuardia South-H
Eastern Air Lines Charter: Georgetown–Cheddi Jagan, Havana, Holguín, Santa Clara Central-F
Eurowings
operated by SunExpress Deutschland
Cologne/Bonn Central-F
First Air Seasonal Charter: Ottawa Central-F
Finnair Helsinki Central-E
Frontier Airlines Atlanta, Chicago–O'Hare, Denver, Havana (begins December 1, 2016),[40][41] Las Vegas, New York–LaGuardia, Philadelphia Central-G
Iberia Madrid Central-E
Insel Air Curaçao, Port-au-Prince Central-F
Interjet Cancún, Mexico City Central-F
Jetairfly Brussels Central-F
KLM Seasonal: Amsterdam (resumes October 30, 2016)[42] South-H
LASER Airlines
operated by World Atlantic Airlines
Caracas (begins November 1, 2016)[43] Central-F
LATAM Argentina Buenos Aires–Ezeiza, Punta Cana South-J
LATAM Brasil Belém, Fortaleza, Recife, Rio de Janeiro–Galeão, São Paulo–Guarulhos South-J
LATAM Chile Caracas, Punta Cana, Santiago de Chile South-J
LATAM Colombia Bogotá South-J
LATAM Ecuador Quito South-J
LATAM Perú Lima South-J
LOT Polish Airlines Seasonal charter: Warsaw–Chopin (begins November 7, 2016) TBD
Lufthansa Frankfurt
Seasonal: Munich
South-J
Meridiana Milan–Malpensa (begins December 2, 2016)[44] TBD
PAWA Dominicana Santo Domingo–Las Américas (begins November 16, 2016)[45] Central-F
Qatar Airways Doha Central-E
SBA Airlines Caracas Central-F
Scandinavian Airlines Copenhagen (begins September 29, 2016), Oslo–Gardermoen (begins September 28, 2016)[46] South-J
Silver Airways Bimini Central-G
Sun Country Airlines Seasonal: Minneapolis–St. Paul
Charter: Havana
Central-F
Surinam Airways Aruba, Georgetown–Cheddi Jagan, Paramaribo Central-F
Swiss International Air Lines Zürich South-J
TAP Portugal Lisbon Central-F
Thomas Cook Airlines Seasonal: Manchester (UK) Central-F
Tiara Air Aruba Central-F
TUI Airlines Netherlands Amsterdam Central-F
Turkish Airlines Istanbul–Atatürk South-H/J
United Airlines Chicago–O'Hare, Houston–Intercontinental, Newark, San Francisco (resumes December 16, 2016)[47]
Seasonal: Denver
Charter: Havana
Central-G
United Express Chicago–O'Hare, Houston–Intercontinental
Seasonal: Newark
Central-G
Vacation Express
operated by Swift Air
Seasonal charter: Punta Cana Central-G
Virgin Atlantic London–Heathrow Central-F
VivaColombia Bogotá, Medellín–Córdova South-J
WestJet Seasonal: Toronto–Pearson Central-F
WOW air Reykjavík–Keflavík (begins April 5, 2017)[48] TBD
XL Airways France Seasonal: Paris–Charles de Gaulle Central-F

Cargo[edit]

The airport is one of the largest in terms of cargo in the United States, and is the primary connecting point for cargo between Latin America and the world.[49] Ninety-six different carriers are involved in shifting over two million tons of freight annually and ensuring the safe travel of over 40 million passengers, according to the Miami International Airport corporate brochure.[50] It was first in International freight and third in total freight for 2008. In 2000, LAN Cargo opened up a major operations base at the airport and currently operates a large cargo facility at the airport. Most major passenger airlines, such as American Airlines use the airport to carry hold cargo on passenger flights, though most cargo is transported by all-cargo airlines. UPS Airlines and FedEx Express both base their major Latin American operations at MIA.

Airlines Destinations
Amerijet International Antigua, Aruba, Barbados, Barcelona (Venezuela), Belize City, Cancún, Curaçao, Dominica–Douglas/Charles, Fort-de-France, Georgetown–Cheddi Jagan, Grenada, Kingston, Las Piedras, Managua, Maracaibo, Mexico City, Mérida, Panama City, Paramaribo, Pointe-à-Pitre, Porlamar, Port-au-Prince, Port of Spain, San Juan, San Pedro Sula, San Salvador, Santiago de los Caballeros, Santo Domingo–Las Américas, St. Kitts, St. Lucia–Hewanorra, St. Maarten, St. Vincent
Asiana Cargo New York–JFK, Seoul–Incheon
Avianca Cargo Asunción, Barranquilla, Bogotá, Cali, Campinas–Viracopos, Curitiba–Afonso Pena, Guatemala City, Guayaquil, Lima, Manaus, Medellín–Córdova, Montevideo, Panama City, Quito, San José de Costa Rica
Cargolux Los Angeles, Luxembourg City
Cathay Pacific Cargo Anchorage, Hong Kong, Houston–Intercontinental
Centurion Air Cargo Amsterdam, Bogotá, Buenos Aires–Ezeiza, Campinas–Viracopos, Caracas, Ciudad del Este, Houston–Intercontinental, Latacunga, Lima, Los Angeles, Manaus, Medellín–Córdova, Mexico City, Montevideo, Panama City, Rio de Janeiro–Galeão, Santiago de Chile
China Airlines Cargo Anchorage, New York–JFK, Houston–Intercontinental, San Francisco, Seattle/Tacoma, Taipei–Taoyuan
DHL Aviation
operated by ABX Air
Atlanta, Barbados, Caracas, Cincinnati, Lima, Nashville, Orlando–International, Panama City, Paramaribo, Port-au-Prince, Port of Spain, San José de Costa Rica, San Juan, Santo Domingo–Las Américas
DHL Aviation
operated by Atlas Air
Los Angeles
DHL Aviation
operated by DHL Aero Expreso
Bogotá, Panama City, San José de Costa Rica, San Pedro Sula
DHL Aviation
operated by Polar Air Cargo
Cincinnati
Etihad Cargo Abu Dhabi, Amsterdam, Anchorage, Campinas–Viracopos, Chicago–O'Hare, Hong Kong, Lima, Quito
FedEx Express Atlanta, Indianapolis, Memphis, Newark
Florida West International Airways Guatemala City, Guayaquil, Manaus, Quito, San José de Costa Rica, Santa Cruz de la Sierra–Viru Viru
IBC Airways Cap–Haïtien, Fort Lauderdale, Freeport, Grand Cayman, Havana, Marsh Harbour, Nassau, Kingston, Montego Bay, Port-au-Prince, Providenciales, Santiago de los Caballeros
KF Cargo[51] Caracas, Lima, Bogotá, Valencia
Korean Air Cargo Campinas–Viracopos, Lima, Los Angeles, Seoul–Incheon
LANCO Amsterdam, Bogotá, Campinas–Viracopos, Madrid, Medellín–Córdova, Panama City, Quito, Rio de Janeiro–Galeão
LATAM Cargo Brasil Asunción, Belo Horizonte–Confins, Cabo Frio, Campinas–Viracopos, Curitiba–Afonso Pena, Guatemala City, Guayaquil, Manaus, Panama City, Porto Alegre, Quito, Rio de Janeiro–Galeão, Salvador da Bahia, San José de Costa Rica, São Paulo–Guarulhos, Vitória
LATAM Cargo Chile Amsterdam, Asunción, Buenos Aires–Ezeiza, Campinas–Viracopos, Guatemala City, Lima, Medellín–Córdova, Montevideo, Quito, San José de Costa Rica, Santiago de Chile
LATAM Cargo Mexico Guadalajara, Los Angeles, Mexico City
Martinair Amsterdam, Bogotá, Buenos Aires–Ezeiza, Campinas–Viracopos, Guatemala City, Lima, Mexico City, Quito, San José de Costa Rica, Santiago de Chile
Transportes Aéreos Bolivianos Santa Cruz de la Sierra–El Trompillo
UPS Airlines Austin, Bogotá, Campinas–Viracopos, Guatemala City, Guayaquil, Louisville, Managua, Orlando–International, Panama City, Quito, San Antonio, San José de Costa Rica, San Pedro Sula, San Salvador, Santo Domingo–Las Américas

Additional cargo carriers serving Miami[52]

Statistics[edit]

Top destinations[edit]

An American Airlines Airbus A321 landing at MIA.
An Air Berlin Airbus A330-200 landing at MIA.
An Avianca Airbus A330-200 landing at MIA.
A Copa Airlines Boeing 737-800 landing at MIA.
Sun Country Boeing 737-800 N809SY
Busiest domestic routes from MIA (May 2015 – Apr 2016)[53]
Rank City Passengers Top carriers
1 New York–LaGuardia, New York 903,000 American, Delta, Frontier
2 Atlanta, Georgia 880,000 American, Delta, Frontier
3 Chicago–O'Hare, Illinois 652,000 American, Frontier, United
4 Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas 642,000 American
5 New York–JFK, New York 564,000 American, Delta
6 Los Angeles, California 560,000 American, Delta
7 Orlando, Florida 470,000 American, Delta
8 Washington–National, D.C. 448,000 American
9 Charlotte, North Carolina 431,000 American
10 Newark, New Jersey 424,000 American, United
Busiest international routes from MIA (2014)[54]
Rank City Passengers Top carriers
1 São Paulo (Guarulhos), Brazil 1,039,120 American Airlines, LATAM
2 London (Heathrow), United Kingdom 966,134 American Airlines, British Airways, Virgin Atlantic Airways
3 Buenos Aires (Ezeiza), Argentina 739,525 Aerolíneas Argentinas, American Airlines, LATAM
4 Bogotá, Colombia 734,872 American Airlines, Avianca, LATAM
5 Panama City, Panama 709,854 American Airlines, Copa Airlines
6 Lima, Peru 706,568 American Airlines, Avianca, LATAM
7 Caracas, Venezuela 642,187 American Airlines, LATAM, SBA Airlines
8 Mexico City, Mexico 622,234 Aeroméxico, Aeroméxico Connect, American Airlines, Interjet
9 Cancún, Mexico 511,433 American Airlines, LATAM
10 Toronto (Pearson), Canada 491,123 Air Canada, American Airlines, WestJet

Annual traffic[edit]

Annual passenger traffic (enplaned + deplaned) at MIA, 2000 through 2015[55]
Year Passengers Year Passengers Year Passengers
2010 35,698,025 2000 33,621,273
2009 33,886,025
2008 34,063,531
2007 33,740,416
2006 32,533,974
2015 44,350,247 2005 31,008,453
2014 40,941,879 2004 30,165,197
2013 40,562,948 2003 29,595,618
2012 39,467,444 2002 30,060,241
2011 38,314,389 2001 31,668,450

Ground transportation[edit]

The MIA Mover provides free transportation between the MIA terminals and the Rental Car Center and Miami Central Station
The Miami Central Station serves as a hub for intercity transportation like Tri-Rail, Amtrak, Greyhound and Miami-Dade Transit
Main article: Miami Central Station

Miami International Airport has direct public transit service to Miami-Dade Transit's Metrorail, Metrobus network; Greyhound Bus Lines and to the Tri-Rail commuter rail system.

Miami International Airport now gets passengers from the runway to transit faster than ever before with the MIA Mover, a free people mover system between MIA terminals and the Miami Central Station that opened to the public on September 9, 2011. By 2015, Miami Central Station also provided direct service to Tri-Rail and Amtrak.

On July 28, 2012, the Miami Central Station and the Metrorail Orange Line opened the over two mile segment between Earlington Heights and the MIC, providing rapid passenger rail service from Miami International Airport to Downtown and points south.

To/from Metrorail, Downtown and South Beach[edit]

Metrorail and Metrobus service are popular and the cheapest way to reach popular destinations in the city from MIA.

Metrorail operates the Orange Line train from Miami International Airport to destinations such as Downtown, Brickell, Civic Center, Coconut Grove, Coral Gables, Dadeland, Hialeah, South Miami and Wynwood. It only takes about 15 minutes to get from the airport to Downtown via Metrorail. Fares are $2, which also allows for a free transfer to Metrobus if needed.

Miami-Dade Transit operates the popular Airport Flyer bus which connects MIA directly to South Beach on Lincoln Road. The bus operates seven days a week from 6am to 11pm with buses running every 30 minutes between South Beach and MIA. The fare costs $2.35 and takes about 30 minutes to get from MIA to South Beach.[56] The Airport Flyer, along with all other Metrobus routes depart from the Ground Level of Metrorail's Miami Central Station.

To ride Metrorail, the Airport Flyer or other Metrobus routes, take the free MIA Mover from the airport terminals to Miami Central Station. At Miami Central Station, you may access Metrorail, Metrobus, taxis and shuttles to all points of the city.

To/from Tri-Rail, Fort Lauderdale and West Palm Beach[edit]

MIA is served directly by Tri-Rail, Miami's commuter rail system, which began service on April 5, 2015, at the Rental Car Center that also provides Metrobus and Metrorail service. Tri-Rail connects MIA to northern Miami-Dade, Broward and Palm Beach counties. Tri-Rail directly serves points north such as: Boca Raton, Deerfield Beach, Delray Beach, Fort Lauderdale, Hollywood, Pompano Beach and West Palm Beach. One-way tickets to as far north as West Palm Beach range from $2.50 to $6.90.[57]

To ride Tri-Rail, passengers take the free MIA Mover from the airport terminals to Miami Central Station/Rental Car Center, which is now also the Tri-Rail train station.

Inter-city travel[edit]

To access points north such as Orlando, Tampa, Washington, DC, Philadelphia or New York City, Greyhound Bus Lines service is also available at Miami Central Station.

In mid-2016, Amtrak will also serve Miami Central Station with the Silver Star and the Silver Meteor trains. These will provide daily rail service to Orlando, Jacksonville, Washington, DC, Philadelphia and New York City.

Taxis and shuttles[edit]

Taxis and shuttle buses at Miami International Airport

The most expensive transportation options (aside from renting a car) are taxis, shuttle services and limousines. Taxis and shuttles provide flat rates to popular destinations within Miami, such as Brickell, Downtown and South Beach. Taxis and shuttles can be hailed at the ground floor arrivals or at the Miami Central Station by taking the MIA Mover to the train station.

Rental cars[edit]

MIA's newly completed Rental Car Center at the new Miami Central Station has all of MIA's rental car companies (17 companies in total) under the same roof. To rent a car, take the MIA Mover train from the airport terminals to Miami Central Station.[58]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Miami-Dade County Online Services. "Miami International Airport :: Traffic Report Twelve Month Ended: December 31, 2015 :: Miami-Dade County". 
  2. ^ "Airport Statistics". Miami-Dade Aviation Department. January 2016. Retrieved July 13, 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c d FAA Airport Master Record for MIA (Form 5010 PDF), effective October 25, 2007
  4. ^ "Miami Airport's Rising International Status". Centre for Asia Pacific Aviation – CAPA. February 12, 2010. Retrieved July 7, 2012. 
  5. ^ "Passenger Traffic 2008 FINAL". Airports Council International. Retrieved July 7, 2012. 
  6. ^ "Miami Dominates US to Latin America and Caribbean". anna.aero Airline News & Analysis. April 27, 2010. Retrieved April 27, 2010. 
  7. ^ "Facts at a Glance" (PDF). Miami-Dade Aviation Department. Retrieved July 7, 2012. 
  8. ^ Freeman, Paul. "Abandoned & Little-Known Airfields: Florida: Central Miami Area". Retrieved 5 February 2016. 
  9. ^ a b c d Petzinger, Thomas (1996). Hard Landing: The Epic Contest For Power and Profits That Plunged the Airlines into Chaos. Random House. ISBN 978-0-307-77449-1. 
  10. ^ Stieghorst, Tom (January 12, 1991). "Concorde Flights Cut To Miami". Sun Sentinel. Retrieved November 29, 2013. 
  11. ^ "United Plans Flight, Staff Cuts in Miami". South Florida Business Journal. January 23, 2004. Retrieved July 7, 2012. 
  12. ^ Miami International Airport reports record year with 41 million passengers www.bizjournals.com/
  13. ^ Vasquez, Michael (January 19, 2010). "Slot Machines at Miami Airport Aren't Dead Yet". The Miami Herald. Miami, Florida. pp. 37–39. Retrieved January 19, 2010. 
  14. ^ "Centurion Cargo". Retrieved 12 February 2016. 
  15. ^ "American's Miami Hub". American Airlines. Retrieved 12 February 2016. 
  16. ^ "Airport Fire Rescue Division". Miami-Dade Fire Rescue Department. Miami-Dade County. Archived from the original on March 8, 2005. Retrieved August 30, 2006. 
  17. ^ "Miami-Dade Fire Rescue Stations". Miami-Dade Fire Rescue Department. Miami-Dade County. Archived from the original on June 20, 2006. Retrieved August 30, 2006. 
  18. ^ "Where to Park". Miami-Dade Aviation Department. Retrieved July 7, 2012. 
  19. ^ Long, Kim (1989). The American Forecaster Almanac [Airport Changes] (Sixth ed.). Philadelphia: Running Press. p. 170. ISBN 0-89471-627-1. 
  20. ^ "North Terminal International Arrivals Facility". Retrieved July 11, 2013. 
  21. ^ McCormick, Carroll (January–February 2011). "The New MIA: Countdown to Completion" (PDF). Airports International. 44 (1). Retrieved July 7, 2012. 
  22. ^ "North Terminal Development Miami International Airport". Anthony C. Baker, Architects & Planners, P.C. Retrieved July 7, 2012. 
  23. ^ a b "Miami International Airport North Terminal". Miami-Dade Aviation Department. Retrieved July 29, 2011. 
  24. ^ "Miami International Airport Skytrain". Miami-Dade Aviation Department. Retrieved July 7, 2012. 
  25. ^ Richard, Militza (February 1, 2010). "MIA: An Entirely New Facility" (PDF). Miami-Dade Aviation Department. Retrieved July 7, 2012. 
  26. ^ "North Terminal Development Program Gantt Chart" (PDF). Miami-Dade Aviation Department. January 31, 2011. Retrieved July 7, 2012. 
  27. ^ "Miami International Airport North Terminal Renovation, United States of America". Airport Technology. Retrieved June 6, 2012. 
  28. ^ "North Terminal Development (NTD) Program Fact Sheet" (PDF). Miami-Dade Aviation Department. Retrieved January 5, 2014. 
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h "Airport Terminal Gates". Miami-Dade Aviation Department. Retrieved July 7, 2012. 
  30. ^ "American Eagle Celebrates New Location in Miami Hub, Offering Increased Service and Convenience" (PDF) (Press release). Miami-Dade Aviation Department. August 19, 2010. Retrieved July 7, 2012. 
  31. ^ Polansky, Risa (August 6, 2009). "Developers Get Wide Range to Roam for Air Terminal Revamp". Miami Today. Retrieved July 7, 2012. 
  32. ^ "Project List Page". MFA Architects. Retrieved July 9, 2012. 
  33. ^ Achenbach, Joel (December 14, 1986). "The Kingdom and the Power". The Miami Herald. Retrieved July 8, 2012. 
  34. ^ Greene, Ronnie; Barry, Rob (September 7, 2007). "Costs, Changes Stalled Terminal at MIA". The Miami Herald. p. A1. Retrieved July 7, 2012. 
  35. ^ "MIA Spending $651 Million To Refurbish Central Terminal, Which Will Be Demolished A Few Years Later". The Next Miami. 
  36. ^ "American plans late-Nov 2016 Havana launch". routesonline. Retrieved 11 September 2016. 
  37. ^ "American Adds Miami – Merida Link from Nov 2016". routesonline. Retrieved 1 August 2016. 
  38. ^ http://www.routesonline.com/news/38/airlineroute/268519/american-adds-miami-westchester-county-service-in-w16/
  39. ^ http://www.ajc.com/news/business/delta-to-launch-flights-to-havana-on-dec-1/nsPm4/
  40. ^ http://www.denverpost.com/2016/09/07/frontier-airlines-havana-cuba-miami-flight/
  41. ^ http://www.routesonline.com/news/38/airlineroute/268750/frontier-adds-miami-havana-service-from-dec-2016/
  42. ^ "KLM W16 Long-Haul Service Changes as of 03MAY16". airlineroute. 3 May 2016. Retrieved 3 May 2016. 
  43. ^ http://www.elmundo.com.ve/noticias/economia/empresas/laser-airlines-volara-a-miami-a-partir-de-noviembr.aspx
  44. ^ http://www.miamiherald.com/news/business/tourism-cruises/article93132882.html
  45. ^ http://www.caribjournal.com/2016/09/18/miami-santo-domingo-flights/#
  46. ^ "SAS Adds Miami Service from late-Sep 2016". airlineroute. 11 November 2015. Retrieved 11 November 2015. 
  47. ^ http://www.routesonline.com/news/38/airlineroute/268055/united-expands-san-francisco-florida-service-in-w16/
  48. ^ http://www.routesonline.com/news/38/airlineroute/268785/wow-air-plans-miami-launch-in-april-2017/
  49. ^ "Cargo Traffic 2010 Final". Airports Council International. August 1, 2011. Retrieved July 7, 2012. 
  50. ^ "Gateway to the Americas" (PDF). Miami–Dade Aviation Department. June 27, 2012. Retrieved July 7, 2012. 
  51. ^ "KF Cargo launches Miami freighter services to South America 19 / 04 / 2016". 
  52. ^ Miami-Dade County Online Services. "Miami International Airport :: Cargo Airlines :: Miami-Dade County". Miami International Airport. 
  53. ^ "Miami, FL: Miami International (MIA)". Bureau of Transportation Statistics. November 17, 2013. Retrieved Apr 2016.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  54. ^ United States Department of Transportation. December 2014 https://www.transportation.gov/office-policy/aviation-policy/us-international-passenger-raw-data-calendar-year-2014. Retrieved February 13, 2016.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  55. ^ Miami-Dade County Online Services. "Miami International Airport :: Airport Statistics :: Miami-Dade County". Retrieved June 4, 2015. 
  56. ^ "Airport Flyer". Miami-Dade Transit. Retrieved September 16, 2012. 
  57. ^ "Tri-Rail Tickets & Fares". Retrieved June 27, 2013. 
  58. ^ Miami-Dade County Online Services. "Miami International Airport :: MIA Rental Car Center (RCC) :: Miami-Dade County". Retrieved June 4, 2015. 
  59. ^ "Hijacking description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 1 September 2009. 
  60. ^ Beitler, Stu (March 13, 2009). "Miami, FL Plane Crashes on Street, June 1969". GenDisasters. Retrieved July 7, 2012. 
  61. ^ "N73KW Accident Description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved August 4, 2010. 
  62. ^ "SkyWay Enterprises". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved November 26, 2006. 

External links[edit]